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Full text of "The General biographical dictionary: containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts to the present time. New ed., rev. and enl. by Alexander Chalmers"

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I J.AAK (THEODORE), who is said to have first suggested 
the weekly meetings of the royal society, and was one of 
its first fellows when established after the restoration, was 
born in 1605, at Newhausen, near Worms in the Palati- 
nate, and educated at home. In 1625 he came to Oxford, 
and studied there about half a year, whence he went for 
the same time to Cambridge. He then visited some of the 
universities abroad, but returned to Oxford in 1629, and 
became a commoner of Gloucester-hall (now Worcester 
college). Here he remained three years, but without 
taking a degree, and, as Wood says, was made a deacon 
by Dr. Joseph Hall, the celebrated bishop of Exeter. He 
does not, however, appear to have proceeded farther in 
ecclesiastical ordination, and both in his translation of the* 
" Dutch Annotations," and in the lists of the royal society, 
we find him afterwards styled "Theodore Haak, Esq." In 
the time of the German wars he was appointed one of the 
procurators to receive the benevolence money, which was 
raised in several dioceses in England to be transmitted to 
Germany, which he used to say " was a deacon's work." 
When the rebellion broke out in this country, he appears 
to have favoured the interests of parliament. In 1657 he 
published in 2 vols. folio, what is called the " Dutch Anno- 
tations upon the whole Bible," which is a translation of the 
Dutch Bible, ordered by the synod of Dort, and first pub- 
lished in 1637. Wood says that the Dutch translators 
were assisted in this undertaking by bishops Carleton, 
Davenant, Hall, and other English divines, who wer 

9 HAAK. 

members of the synod of Dort ; but, according to the pre- 
face, the only assistance they gave was in laying before 
the synod an account of the manner in which king James's- 
translation had been performed by the co-operation of a 
number of the most eminent divines in England. The 
synod accordingly adopted the same plan ; and their anno- 
tations being considered of great value to biblical students, 
the Westminster assembly of divines employed Haak in 
making this English translation, and the parliament granted 
him a sole right in it for fourteen years from the time of 
publication. Haak also translated into Dutch several Eng- 
lish books of practical divinity, and one half of Milton's 
" Paradise Lost." He left nearly ready for the press, a 
translation of German proverbs, but it does not appear 
that this was published. He was in 1645 one of several 
ingenious men (Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Goddard, &c.) 
who agreed to meet once a week to discourse upon subjects 
connected with mathematics and natural philosophy, and 
it was he who first suggested this humble plan on which, 
the royal society was afterwards formed. Mr. Haak died 
at the house of his kinsman Dr. Slare, a physician near 
Fetter-lane, London, May 9, 1690, and was buried in St. 
Andrew's church, Holborn. Dr. Horneck preached his 
funeral sermon. He appears to have been the friend and 
correspondent of the most learned men of his time, and 
has some observations and letters in the " Philosophical 
Collections," published in May 1682. There is a portrait 
of him in the picture gallery at Oxford, which has never 
been engraved. 1 

HABERKORN (PETER), a learned Lutheran divine, 
was born May 9, 1604, at Butzbach in Wetteraw, and de- 
scended from a noble and ancient family of Franconia. He, 
became pastor, superintendant, and professor of divinity, 
at Geissen, where he died, April 1676, having had 14 
children and 46 grandchildren. He became eminent by 
his writings, and appeared with great distinction at several 
conferences on religious subjects. His principal works 
are, " Heptas disputationum Anti-Wallemburgicarum," 
in which he takes great pains to overthrow the principles 
of Mess, de Walemburg, and in which he is esteemed very- 
successful by the Lutherans ; " Vindicatio Lutherans?, fidei 
contra H. Ulricum Hunmum," 4to ; " Syntagma Disserts- 

1 Atb. Ox. YoJ. Il^-Prefaces to his Dutch Annotations." 


tionum Theologicarum," 1650 and 1652, 2 vols. 8vo; 
" Anti-Valerianus^" 1652, 4to; " Relatio Actorum Collo- 
quii Rheinfelsani," &c. All this author's works are much 
valued by those of his communion. 1 

HABERT (GERMAIN), a French poet of the seventeenth 
century, was abbot of Notre Dame de Cerisy, one of the 
first members of the French academy, and the most dis- 
tinguished among the beaux esprits of his time. He died 
in 1655, and left several poems; that entitled "Meta- 
morphose des Yeux d'Iris changes en Astres," 1639, 8vo, 
is particularly admired, and is certainly not without con- 
siderable merit. Habert also wrote the " Life, or Pane- 
gyric of Cardinal de Berulle," 1646, 4to, and a Paraphrase 
on some of the Psalms. His brother, Philip Habert, was 
among the first members of the French academy, and ap- 
pointed commissioner of artillery, through the interest of 
M. de la Meilleraye, who had a great regard for him. He 
unfortunately perished at the siege of Emmerick, in 1637, 
aged thirty-two, under the ruins of a wall, which was 
blown up by a cask of gun-powder, through the negligence 
of an unskilful soldier. There is a poem of his in Barbin's 
Collection, entitled " Le Temple de la Mort," written 
on the death of M. de la "Meilleraye's first wife, which 
was once much admired. 2 

HABERT (ISAAC), was a learned and celebrated doctor 
of the society of the Sorbonne, canon and theologal of 
Paris, and made bishop of Vabres, in 1645. He died Ja- 
nuary 11, 1668. He distinguished himself by his preach- 
ing, and by several works on Grace, in which he forcibly 
refutes Jansenius, though he defends the doctrine of effi- 
cacious Grace, but in another sense. He also left a Latin 
translation of the " Pontifical of the Greek Church," with 
learned notes, 1643, fol. ; some Latin Poems, Paris, 1623, 
4to ; " Hymns for the Feast of St. Louis," in the Paris 
Breviary; " De Consensu Hierarchies et Monarchies," 
Paris, 1640, 4to ; and many other works. SUSANNAH Ha- 
bert, his aunt, married Charles du Jardin, an officer under 
Henry III. and became a widow at twenty-four. This 
lady was considered as a prodigy of genius ; she under- 
stood Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, philosophy, 
and even divinity, which gained her a great reputation 
among the learned. She died 1633, in the convent of 

1 Morri. Diet. Hist. Ibid. 

1 2 

4 H A B E R T. 

Notre Dame de Grace, at Paris, where she had lived rffear 
twenty years, leaving several works in MS. in the hands of 
her nephew. 1 

HABERT (Lewis), a pious and learned doctor of the 
society of the Sorbonne, was born at Blois, in 1636. He 
was successively grand vicar of Lu^on, Auxerre, Verdun, 
and Chalons-sur-Marne ; in all which dioceses he was uni- 
versally esteemed for his virtue, learning, and zealous 
support of ecclesiastical discipline. He afterwards retired 
to the Sorbonne, and employed the rest of his life in de- 
ciding cases of conscience, and died there April 7, 1718. 
M. Habert left a complete System of Divinity, 7 vols. 
12mo, much valued for accuracy and solidity ; but the 
additions made to it since his death were not acceptable to 
his church, and were complained of by Feneion, as in- 
clining to Jansenianism. He published in his life-time a 
defence of this system, and " La Pratique de la Peni- 
tence," 12mo, best known by the title of " Pratique de 
Verdun," of which there have been many additions. 2 

HABINGTON (WILLIAM), an excellent English poet, 
was descended from a Roman catholic family. His great- 
grandfather was Richard Habington or Abington of Brock- 
hampton, in Herefordshire. His grandfather, John, se- 
cond son of this Richard Habington, and cofferer to queen 
Elizabeth, was born in 1515, and died in 1581. He 
bought the manor of Hindlip, in Worcestershire, and re* 
built the mansion about 1572. His father, Thomas Ha- 
bington, was born at Thorpe, in Surrey, 1560, studied at 
Oxford, and afterwards travelled to Rheims and Paris. 
On his return he involved himself with the party who la- 
boured to release Mary queen of Scots, and was afterwards 
imprisoned on a suspicion of being concerned in Babing- 
ton's conspiracy. During this imprisonment, which lasted 
six years, he employed his time in study. Having been 
at length released, and his life saved, as is supposed on 
account of his being queen Elizabeth's godson, he retired 
to Hindlip, and married Mary, eldest daughter of Edward 
Parker lord Morley, by Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir 
of sir William Stanley, lord Monteagle. 

On the detection of the gunpowder plot, he again fell 
under the displeasure of government, by concealing some 
of the agents in that affair in his house, and was con- 

i. Diet. JIU k. * Ibid, 


demned to die, but pardoned by the intercession of his 
brother-in-law, lord Morley, who discovered the plot by 
the famous letter of warning, which Mrs. Habington is re- 
ported to have written. The condition of his pardon was, 
that he should never stir out of Worcestershire. With 
this he appears to have complied, and devoted his time, 
among other pursuits, to the history and antiquities of 
that county, of which he left three folio volumes of paro- 
chial antiquities, two of miscellaneous collections, and one 
relating to the cathedral. These received additions from 
his son and from Dr. Thomas, of whom bishop Lyttelton 
purchased them, and presented them to the society of 
antiquaries. They have since formed the foundation of 
Dr. Nash's elaborate history. Wood says he had a hand 
in the " History of Edward IV." published afterwards 
under the name of his son, the poet, whom he survived^ 
dying in 1647, at the advanced age of eighty -seven. 

William Habington, his eldest son, was born at Hindlip, 
Nov. 5, 1605, and was educated in the Jesuits' college at 
St. Omer's, and afterwards at Paris, with a view to induce 
him to take the habit of the order, which he declined. On 
his return from the continent he resided principally with, 
his father, who became his preceptor, and evidently sent him 
into the world a man of elegant accomplishments and virtues. 
Although allied to some noble families, and occasionally 
mixing in the gaieties of high life, his natural disposition 
inclined him to the purer pleasures of rural life. He wa 
probably very early a poet and' a lover, and in both suc- 
cessful. He married Lucy, daughter of William Herbert, 
first lord Powis, by Eleanor, daughter of Henry Percy, 
eighth earl of Northumberland, by Katharine, daughter 
and coheir of John Neville, lord Latimer. It is to this 
lady that we are indebted for his poems, most of which were 
written in allusion to his courtship and marriage. Sha> 
was the CASTARA who animated his imagination with ten- 
derness and elegance, and purified it from the grosser 
opprobria of the amatory poets. His poems, as was not 
unusual in that age, were written occasionally, and dis- 
persed confidentially. In 1635 they appear to have been 
first collected into a volume, which Oidys calls the second 
edition, under the title of " Castara." Another edition 
was published in 1640, which is by far the most perfect 
and correct. The reader to whom an analysis may be ne- 
cessary, will find a vsry judicious one in the last voluai 


of the " Censura Literaria." His other works are, the 
" Queen of Arragon," a tragi- comedy, which was acted 
at court, and at Black-friars, and printed in 1640. It has 
since been reprinted among Dodsley's Old Plays. The 
author having communicated the manuscript to Philip earl 
of Pembroke, lord chamberlain of the household to king 
Charles I. he caused it to be acted, and afterwards pub- 
lished against the author's consent. It was revived, with 
the revival of the stage, at the restoration, about 1666, 
when a new prologue and epilogue were furnished by the 
author of Hudibras. 

Our author wrote also " Observations upon History," 
Loud. 1641, 8vo, consisting of some particular pieces of 
history in the reigns of Henry II. Richard I. &c. inter- 
spersed with political and moral reflections, similar to what 
he had introduced in his larger history, or " History of 
Edward IV." 1640, fol. which, as Wood asserts, was both 
written and published at the desire of Charles I. He also 
insinuates that Habington <c did run with the times, and 
was not unknown to Oliver the Usurper," but we have no 
evidence of any compliance with a system of political 
measures so diametrically opposite to those which we may 
suppose belonged to the education and principles of a 
Roman catholic family. It is, indeed^ grossly improbable 
that he should have complied with Cromwell, who was as 
yet no usurper, and during the life of his royal master, 
whose cause was not yet desperate. Of his latter days we 
have no farther account than that he died Nov. 13, 1645, 
and was buried at Hendlip, in the family vault. He left 
a son, Thomas, who dying without issue, bequeathed his 
estate to sir William Compton. 

His poems are distinguished from those of most of his 
contemporaries, by delicacy of sentiment, tenderness, and 
a natural strain of pathetic reflection. His favourite sub- 
jects, virtuous love and conjugal attachment, -are agreeably 
varied by strokes of fancy and energies of affection. 
Somewhat of the extravagance of the metaphysical poets is 
occasionally discernible, but with very little affectation of 
learning, and very little effort to draw his imagery from 
sources with which the muses are not familiar. The vir- 
tuous tendency and chaste language of his poems form no 
inconsiderable part of their merit, and his preface assures 
us that his judgment was not inferior to his imagination, 


They were introduced into the late edition of the English 
Poets, and have since been printed separately. 1 

HACKET (JOHN), bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
descended from an ancient family in Scotland, was born 
near Exeter-house in the Strand, London, September 1, 
1592. He was admitted very young into Westminster- 
school, where, on account of his proficiency, he was much 
noticed by Dr. (afterwards bishop) Andrews, but then dean 
of Westminster. In 1608, along with Herbert the poet, 
he was elected to Trinity-college, Cambridge. His un- 
common parts and learning recommended him to parti- 
cular notice ; so that, after taking the proper degrees, he 
was chosen fellow of his college, and became a tutor of 
great repute. One month in the long vacation, retiring 
with his pupil, afterwards lord Byron, to Newstede abbey, 
Nottinghamshire, he composed a Latin comedy entitled 
" Loyola," which was twice acted before James I. and 
printed in 1648. He took orders in 1618, and was col- 
lated to the rectory of Stoke Hamon, in Buckinghamshire, 
and had singular kindness shewn him by bishop Andrews 
and several great men. But above all others, he was re- 
garded by Dr. Williams, dean of Westminster and bishop 
of Lincoln, who, being appointed lord-keeper of the great 
seal in 1621, chose Hacket for his chaplain, and ever pre- 
served a high esteem for him. In 1623, he was made 
chaplain to Jame$ I. with whom he became a favourite 
preacher, and was also made a prebendary of Lincoln ; and 
the year following, upon the lord-keeper's recommendation, 
rector of St. Andrew's, Holborn, in London. His patron 
also procured him the same year the rectory of Cheam, in. 
Surrey ; telling him that he intended Holborn for wealth, 
and Cheam for health. 

When rector of St. Andrew's, having soon after the re- 
storation, received notice of the interment of a dissenter 
belonging to his parish, he got the burial-office by heart. 
As he was a great master of elocution, and was himself 
always affected with the propriety and excellence of the 
composition of that service, he delivered it with such em- 
phasis and grace as touched the hearts of every one pre- 
sent, and especially of the friends of the deceased, who 
unanimously declared they had never heard a finer dis- 
course. But their astonishment was great, when they 
were told that it was taken from our liturgy, a book which, 

1 Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810, 21 vols.- 


though they had never read, they had heen taught to re* 
gard with contempt and detestation. This story, but 
without the name of Dr. Hacket, for which we are in- 
debted to Mr. Granger, is circumstantially told in bishop 
Sprat's excellent " Discourse to his Clergy," 1695. The 
worthy bishop Bull, when a parish priest, is known to 
have practised the same honest art with like success, in 
using other offices of the liturgy. 

In 1625 he was named by the king himself to attend an 
ambassador in to Germany; but was dissuaded from the jour- 
ney by being told, that on account of his severe treat- 
ment of the Jesuits in his " Loyola," he might be in 
danger, though in an ambassador's train. In 1628, he 
commenced D. D. and in 1631 was made archdeacon of 
Bedford, to which charge he usually went once in a year, 
and frequently exhorted his clergy " to all regular con- 
formity to the doctrine and discipline by law established, 
without under or overdoing, asserting in his opinion, that 
puritanism lay on both sides ; whosoever did more than 
the church commanded, as well as less, were guilty of it; 
and that he only was a true son of the church, who broke 
riot the boundals of it either way." His church of St. An- 
drew being old and decayed, he undertook to rebuild it, 
and for that purpose got together a great sum of money 
in stock and subscriptions; but, upon the breaking out of 
the civil war, this was seized by the parliament, as well as 
what had been gathered for the repair of St. Paul's ca- 
thedral. In March 1641, he was one of the sub-com- 
mittee appointed by the house of lords to consult of what 
was amiss and wanted correction in the liturgy, in hopes 
by that means to dispel the cloud hanging over the church. 
He delivered a masterly speech against the bill for taking 
away deans and chapters, which is published at length in 
his life by Dr. Plume. In March 1642 he was presented 
to a residentiary's place in St. Paul's, London ; but the 
troubles coming on, he had no enjoyment of it, nor of his 
rectory of St. Andrew's. Besides, some of his parishioners 
there having articled against him at the committee of plun- 
derers, his friend Seltlen told him it was in vain to make 
any defence; and advised him to retire to Cheam, where 
he would endeavour to prevent his being molested. He 
was disturbed here by the earl of Essex's army, who, 
marching that way, took him prisoner along with them ; 
but he was soon after dismissed, and from that time lay 

H A C K E T. 9 

hid in his retirement at Cheam, where we hear no more 
of him, except that in 1648-9, he attended in his last mo- 
ments Henry Rich, earl of Holland, who was heheaded 
for attempting the relief of Colchester. 

After the restoration of Charles II. he recovered all his 
preferments, and was offered the bishopric of Gloucester, 
which he refused ; but he accepted shortly after that of 
Lichfield and Coventry, and was consecrated December 
22, 1661. The spring following he repaired to Lichfield, 
where, finding the cathedral almost battered to the ground, 
he rebuilt it in eight years, in a very magnificent style, at 
the expence of 20,000/. of which he had 1000/. from the 
dean and chapter; and the rest was of his own charge, or 
procuring from benefactors. He laid out lOOOl. upon a 
prebendal house, which he was forced to live in, his palaces 
at Lichfield and Ecclestiall having been demolished during 
the civil war. He added to Trinity college, in Cambridge, 
a building called Bishop's hostel, which cost him 1200/. 
ordering that the rents of the chambers should be laid out 
in books for the college library. Besides these acts of 
munificence, he left several benefactions by will ; as 50/. 
to Clare-hall, 50/. to St. John's college, and all his books, 
which cost him about 1500/. to the university library. He 
died at Lichfield, October 21, 1670, and was buried in the 
cathedral, under a handsome tomb, erected by his eldest 
son sir Andrew Hacket, a muster in chancery : he was twice 
married, and had several children by both his wives. 

He published only the comedy of " Loyola" above-men- 
tioned, and " A Sermon preached before the king, March 
22, 1660;" but, after his decease, "A Century of Ser- 
mons upon several remarkable subjects 1 ' was published by 
Thomas Plume, D. D. in 1675, folio, with his life. His 
sermons are rather too much in the quaint style of bishop 
Andrews. In 1693 appeared his " Life of archbishop Wil- 
liams," folio, of which an abridgement was published in 
1700, 8vo, by Ambrose Philips. He intended to have 
written the life of James I. and for that purpose the lord- 
keeper Williams had given him Camden's MS notes or 
annals of that king's reign ; but, these being lost in the 
confusion of the times, he was disabled from doing it. 
According to his biographer, Dr. Plume, he was zealous 
against popery, and all separation from the church of Eng- 
land. In the dispute between the Calvinists and the Ar- 
zmuians he was ever very moderate ; bu-t being bred under 


bishop Davenant and Dr. Samuel Ward in Cambridge, ad- 
hered to their sentiments. He was exemplary in his be- 
haviour, chearful in conversation, hospitable, humble, and 
affable, though subject to great eruptions of anger, but at 
the same time very placable and ready to be appeased, and 
of too generous a nature to be vindictive. When he was a 
bishop he desired to hold nothing in commendam ; he re- 
newed all his leases for years, and not for lives, and upon 
very moderate fines, and spent a very considerable share 
thereof in the repair of his cathedrals and acts of charity. 
In his younger years he had been much addicted to School 
learning, which was then greatly studied in the university ; 
but he afterwards grew weary of it, and professed " that he 
found more shadows and names than solid juice and substance 
in it, and would much dislike their horrid and barbarous 
terms, more proper for incantation than divinity ; and be- 
came perfectly of Beatus Rhenanus's mind, that the school- 
men were rather to be reckoned philosophers than divines ; 
but if any pleased to account them such, he had much 
rather, with St. John Chrysostom, be styled a pious divine, 
than an invincible or irrefragable one with Thomas Aquinas, 
or our own countryman Alexander Hales. For knowledge 
in the tongues, he would confess he could never fix upon 
Arabian learning ; the place was siticulosa regio, a dry and 
barren land, where no water is ; and he being discouraged 
in his younger years, by such as had plodded most in it; 
and often quarrelled with his great friend Salmasius, for 
saying he accounted no man solidly learned without skill in 
Arabic and other eastern languages. Our bishop declared 
his mind otherwise, and bewailed that many good wits of 
late years prosecuted the eastern languages so much as to 
neglect the western learning and discretion too sometimes. 
Mr. Selden and bishop Creighton had both affirmed to him, 
that they should often read ten pages for one line of sense, 
and one word of moment ; and did confess there was no 
learning like to what scholars may find in Greek authors, 
as Plato, Plutarch, &c. and himself could never discern 
but that many of their quotations and proofs from them 
were, in his own words, iucerta, et inexplorata." ! 

vine, and eminent oriental scholar, was born in 1607, at 

1 Life by Dr. Plume, prefixed to his Sermons. Gen. Diet. Biog. P.rit. 
Ath. Ox. vol. II. See a letter in the Gent. Mag. vol. LXVl. on his tomb and 
epitaph, written, if we mistake not, by Mr. Gougli. 

H A C K S P A N. 11 

Weimar. Becoming early attached to the study of sacred 
philology, he endeavoured to acquire a knowledge of the 
Oriental languages as necessarily connected with it, and 
therefore, after attending the philosophical and theological 
schools of Jena for seven years, he went to Altdorf, to 
profit hy the instructions of Schwenter, who was then 
esteemed one of the ablest Orientalists. From Altdorf he 
removed to Helmstadt, where he applied to his theological 
studies under Calixtus, Horneius, and others, and on his 
return to Altdorf in 1636 was the first who gave lessons in 
public on the Oriental languages in that place. In 1654 
lie became professor of theology, and in both situations 
evinced great talents and persevering industry. No man 
in his time was better skilled in the Hebrew, Syriac, Chal- 
dean, and Arabic, and being the first who attempted to 
teach these languages, he wished to assist his students by 
proper elementary books, but the German press at that 
time was so deficient in the requisite types, that he must 
have abandoned his design if Jodocus Schmidmaier, an ad- 
vocate at Nuremberg, had not established a printing-office 
properly supplied with Oriental characters; and at this 
place Hackspan was enabled to print his valuable works. 
He died of a decline in 1659. His principal writings are, 

1. u Tractatus de usu librorum rabbinicorum," 1644, 4to. 

2, " Lucubrationes Frankrallenses, sive specimen aliquod 
interpretationum et expositionum, quas plurimas in diffi- 
cillima quaeque utriusque Testamenti loca meditatus est 
B. C. Bertramus," Altdorf, 1645, 8vo, reprinted in Cre- 
nius's "Thesaurus." 3. " Sylloge disputation ujn theologi- 
carum etphilologicarum," Altdorf, 1663,4to, most of which 
were published before in separate tracts. 4. " Fides et 
leges Mohammedis, ex Alcorano," ibid. 1646, 4to. The 
following appear to have been printed after his death : 5. 
" Miscellaneorum sacrorum libri duo/' ibid. 1660. 6. 
" Notae philologico-theologicoe in varia et difficiliora Ve- 
teris et Novi Testamenti loca," ibid. 1664, 3 vols. 8vo. 
7. " Observationes Arabico-Syriacae in quaedam loca Veteris 
et Novi Testamenti," ibid. 1662, 4to, &c. l 

HADDON (Dr. WALTER), an eminent scholar, and one 
of the revivers of the learned languages in England, was 
descended from a good family in Buckinghamshire, and 

1 Moreri, from the " Gloria academiae AltdorCnae." Le Long Bibl. Sacra.. 
Saxii Onomast. 

12 H A D D O N. 

born in 1516. He was educated at Eton school, under 
Dr. Richard Cox, afterwards bishop of Ely, and was thence 
elected to King's college, in Cambridge; where he greatly 
distinguished himself by his parts and learning, and par- 
ticularly by writing Latin in an elegant, but, as Mr. War- 
ton thinks, not a very pure style. He studied also the civil 
law, of which he became doctor ; and read public lectures 
in it in 1547, and the two years following, arid was so much 
approved, that upon a vacancy in the professor's chair in 
.1550, the university employed the celebrated Ascham to 
write to king Edward VI. in his favour. He was accord- 
ingly appointed professor, and was also for some time pro- 
fessor of rhetoric and orator .of the university. During 
king Edward's reign, he was one of the most illustrious 
promoters of the reformation; and therefore, upon the 
deprivation of Gardiner, was thought a proper person to 
succeed him in the mastership of Trinity-hall. In Sep- 
tember 1552, through the earnest recommendation of the 
court, though not qualified according to the statutes, he 
was chosen president of Magdalen college in Oxford ; but, 
in October 1553, upon the accession of queen Mary, he 
quitted the president's place for fear of being expelled, or 
perhaps worse used, at Gardiner's visitation of the said 
college. He is supposed to have lain concealed in Eng- 
land all this reign ; but, on the accession of Elizabeth, was 
ordered by the privy council to repair to her majesty at 
Hatfield in Hertfordshire, and soon after was constituted 
by her one of the masters of the court of requests. Arch- 
bishop Parker also made him judge of his prerogative- 
court. In the royal visitation of the university of Cam- 
bridge, performed in the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, 
he was one of her majesty's commissioners, as appears by 
the speech he then made, printed among bis works. In 
1566 he was one of the three agents sent to Bruges to re- 
store commerce between England and the Netherlands 
upon the ancient terms. He died Jan/21, 1571-2, and 
was buried in Christ Church, London, where a monument 
was erected to his memory, but was destroyed in the great 
fire of Lo f ndon. He was engaged, with sir John Cheke, 
in turning into Latin and drawing up that useful code of 
ecclesiastical law, published in 1571, by the learned John 
Fox, under this title, " Reformatio Legum Ecclesiastica- 
rum," in 4to. He published, in 1563, a letter, or answer 
tp an epistle, directed to queen Elizabeth, by Je,rom Osorio, 

H A D D O N. IS 

bishop of Silva in Portugal, and entitled " Admonitio ad 
Elizabethan! reginam Anglise," in which the English na- 
tion, and the reformation of the church, were treated in a 
scurrilous manner. His other works were collected and 
published in 1567, 4to, under the title of " Lucubra- 
tiones." This collection contains ten Latin orations, four- 
teen letters, besides the above-mentioned to Osorio ; and 
also poems. Several of his original letters are in the Har- 
leian collection ; and his poems, " Poemata," containing a 
great number of metrical epitaphs, were separately pub- 
lished with his life in 1576. Many of our writers speak in 
high terms of Haddon, and not without reason ; for, through, 
every part of his writings, his piety appears equal to his 
learning. When queen Elizabeth was asked whether she 
preferred him or Buchanan ? she replied, " Buchananum 
omnibus antepono, Haddonum nemini postpono." * 


HAEN ( ANTHONY DE), professor of medicine in the uni- 
versity of Vienna, was born at Leyden in 1704, and edu- 
cated under the celebrated Boerhaave. After having re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. at his native place, he settled 
at the Hague, where he practised with success for nearly 
twenty years. Baron Van Swieten being acquainted with 
the extent of his talents, invited him to remove to Vienna, 
with the view of uniting with him in the proposed plan of 
reform, which he had prevailed on the empress to support, 
in the medical faculty of that capital. De Haen accord- 
ingly repaired to that city in 1754 ; and his merits were 
found fully equal to the expectations that had been formed 
of them. At the express command of Maria Theresa, he 
undertook a system of clinical education, in the hospital 
which he superintended, as the most advantageous method 
of forming good physicians : the result of this duty was the 
collection of a great number of valuable observations, which 
were published in the successive volumes of the work en- 
titled " Ratio Medendi in Nosocomio Practico," Vienna, 
1757, which amounted ultimately to sixteen. He died 
Sept. 5, 1776, at the age of seventy- two. 

He published other medical works of considerable repu- 
tation, but added little to his fame by the last of them, 

1 Eiog. Brit. Alumni Etonenses. Ath. Ox. vol. I. Strype's Cranmer, pv 
134, 231, 249. Strype's Parker, p. 28, 43, 82, 105, 222, 365. Warton's 
Hist, of Poetry. Lloyd's State Worthies. Peck's Desiderata. Nichols's Pjc- 
$ressg of Queeu ElizaVeU^Gent, Mag. vol. LXXXI. part 2nd. p. 414. 


" De Magia," 1775, in which he attempted to prove the 
reality of magical operations. 1 

HAGEDORN (FREDERIC), a celebrated German poet 
of the last century, was born at Hamburgh in 1708. His 
father was minister from the king of Denmark to the circles 
of Lower Saxony, a well informed man, who associated 
with men of letters, and was capable of giving a direction 
to his son's studies suitable to his genius. By various mis- 
fortunes, however, he lost his property, and died when our 
poet was only fourteen, and very ill provided for the liberal 
education which his father intended. His mother endea- 
voured to make up this loss by placing him at a college at 
Hamburgh, where, having previously imbibed a taste for 
poetry, he read the ancient as well a* the modern poets 
with eagerness and assiduity. Without the help of a mas- 
ter, or the salutary aid of criticism, he endeavoured to 
draw from his own stock the power of dissipating the fogs 
of dulness in the north, as Haller had done in the south of 
German}-. In 1728 or 1729, he published a small collec- 
tion of poems, which have many marks of youth, and 
though his versification is free, and his language often very 
pure, the thoughts are frequently cold, and the expression 
too concise. In subjects which require little taste and 
philosophy, he has succeeded better than in works of sen- 
timent and imagination. Of his taste at this time, he has 
given a bad specimen in his satire entitled " The Poet," in 
which he puts Pietsch by the side of Virgil. 

About this time (1729), he came to London with the 
Danish ambassador, baron Stoelenthal, and here he com- 
posed some of his most beautiful odes, and his best songs. 
In 1733 he was appointed secretary of the English factory 
at Hamburgh, which united him with our countrymen, 
whom he always esteemed. In 1734 he married the 
daughter of an English taylor, of the name of Butler, a 
step which does not seem to have added to his happiness. 
In 1738 he published the first volume of his "Fables," an 
original work, which contributed much to his reputation. In 
1740, he composed the beautiful satire of " The Philoso- 
pher;" in 1741, the sublime picture of the "Sage;" in 
1742, the Universal Prayer, from the Paraphrase of Pope ; 
and, in 1743, his celebrated poem on " Happiness." This 
last piece is equally favourable to his opinions and his 

1 Diet, Hist.--Rees's Cyclopaedia. 

H A G E D O R N. 15 

poetical talents. His modest muse does not succeed in 
sublime descriptions, or the dithirambic flights : it has 
more of the elegance that pleases, than the splendour that 
dazzles ; more Socratic wisdom, than oriental sublimity. 
His Moral Poems are like the Sermones of Horace. His 
" Considerations on some of the Attributes of God" con- 
tains the sublimest passages of Scripture : " The Prattler'* 
is a dialogue full of familiar descriptions of human life : 
*/ The Letter to a Friend" is an instructive commentary 
on the " Nil Adrnirari" of Horace. Various other pieces 
followed; but, in 1750, he first excited the gaiety of his 
nation, by mixing sports and graces with the solemn poetry 
of the Germans. His odes and songs are highly pleasing. 
Nature, sprightliness, simplicity, enthusiasm, and harmony, 
unite to render them seductive : for spirit and elegance, 
he may be said to resemble our own Prior. 

The second edition of his " Moral Poems" appeared in 
1752, with a considerable supplement, and many new epi- 
grams. In 1754, was published an enlarged edition of his 
songs, with a translation of two discourses, on the songs of 
the Greeks, by Ebert. In this year he died of a dropsy, 
aged only forty-seven. His works have gone through so 
many editions, that they may be considered as perpetuatiirg 
his reputation, and placing him among the standard poets 
of his country. He had a brother, CHRISTIAN LEWIS Hage- 
dorn, who was born at Hamburgh in 1717, and died at 
Dresden in 1780, counsellor of legation and director of 
the academy of arts in Saxony. He wrote a work entitled 
" Meditations on Painting," one of the few which the Ger- 
mans think have not been equalled by their neighbours ; 
" Lettre a un Amateur de Peinture," 1755, and many 
pieces in the Leipsic Journal entitled " The Library of the 
Fine Arts," to the progress of which arts in Saxony he con- 
tributed greatly. 1 

HAHN (SiMON FREDERIC), ayoungrnan of extraordinary 
talents, was born at Bergen, in the duchy of Hanover, in 
1692. He soon acquired an extensive knowledge of the 
learned languages, and when he was only fourteen years 
of age, he pronounced, at the university of Halle, a Latin 
harangue on the origin of the monastery of Bergen, which 
was printed with some other pieces. In 1703, he published 

1 Bilduise, &c. Portraits of Illustrious Germans, from Crit, Rev, vol. XI. N.S, 
~Maty's Review, vol. VIII. p. 102^ 

1C H A H N. 

a continuation of the " Chronicon Bergense" of Meibo- 
mius; and, in 171 1, printed two "Dissertations;" one on 
" Henry the Fowler," the other on the kingdom of Aries, 
which do him great honour. After giving public lectures 
fo'r some years at Halie, he was appointed professor of his- 
tory at Helmstadt, though but twenty-four years old, and 
afterwards was made counsellor, historiographer, and libra- 
rian to his Britannic majesty at Hanover. He died in 1729, 
leaving the first four volumes of a " History of the Empire; 17 
and " Collectio Monumentorum veterum et recentium in- 
editorum," 2 vols. 8vo, &C. 1 

HAILLAN (BERNARD DE GIRARD, lord of), a French 
historian, of an ancient family, was born at Bourdeaux about 
1535. He went to court at twenty years of age, and in 
1556 and 1557 was secretary to Francis de Noailles, bishop 
of Acqs, in his embassies to England and Venice. After 
that, his first appearance in the republic of letters was in 
the quality of a poet and translator. In 1559, he published 
a poem, entitled " The Union of the Princes, by the Mar- 
riages of Philip King of Spain and the Lady Elizabeth of 
France, and of Philibert Emanuel Duke of Savoy, and the 
Lady Margaret of France ;" and another entitled " The 
Tomb of the most Christian King Henry II." In 1560 he 
published an abridged translation of " Tully's Offices, 7 ' 
and of " Eutropius's Roman History;" and, in 1568, of 
" The Life of JEmilius Probus." He applied himself 
afterwards to the writing of history, and succeeded so well, 
that by his first performances of this nature, he obtained 
of Charles IX. the title of Historiographer of France 1571. 
He had published the year before at Paris a book entitled 
" Of the State and Success of the Affairs of France ;" which 
was reckoned very curious, and was often reprinted. He 
augmented it in several successive editions, and dedicated it 
to Henry IV. in 1594 : the best editions of it are those of 
Paris 1609 and 1613, in 8vo. He had published also the 
same year a work entitled " Of the Fortune and Power of 
France, with a Summary Discourse on the Design of a His- 
tory of France :" though Niceron suspects that this may be 
the same with "The Promise and Design of the History of 
France," which he published in 1571, in order to let 
Charles IX. see what he might expect from him in support 
of the great honour he had conferred of historiographer of 

1 Uibi. Germanique, vol. XXII. Moreri. Diet, Hist. 

ti A I L L A tf. 17 

France. In 1576, he published a history, which reaches 
from Phararnond to the death of Charles VII. and was the 
first who composed a body of the French history in French. 
Henry III. shewed his satisfaction with this by the advan- 
tageous and honourable gratifications he made the author. 
The reasons which induced de Haillan to conclude his 
work with Charles Vllth's death were, that the event being- 
recent, he must eitlier conceal the truth, or provoke the 
resentment of men in power, but he afterwards promised 
Henry IV. to continue this history to his time, as may be 
\een in his dedication to him of this work in 1594 ; nothing 
however of this kind was found among his papers after his 
death : the booksellers, who added a continuation to his 
work as far as to 1615, and afterwards as far as to 1627, 
took it from Paulus ^Emilius, de Comines, Arnoul Ferron, 
du Bellay, &c. 

Du Haillan died at Paris, Nov. 23, 1610. Dupleix 
remarks, that he was originally a protestant, but changed 
his religion, in order to ingratiate himself at court. His 
dedications and prefaces indeed shew, that he was not 
very disinterested either as to fame or fortune. He dis- 
plays his labours too ostentatiously, and the success of his 
books, their several editions, translations, &c. and he too 
palpably manifests that species of puffing quackery which 
disgraces the literary character. 1 

HAKEWILL (GEORGE), a learned English divine, was 
the son of a merchant in Exeter, and born there in 1579. 
After a proper education in classical literature, he was ad- 
mitted of St. Alban's-hall, in Oxford, in 1595, where he 
became so noted a disputant and orator, that he was unani- 
mously elected fellow of Exeter college at two years stand- 
ing. He then studied philosophy and divinity, and having 
received holy orders, travelled abroad. In 1610 he was 
admitted to the reading of the sentences, and in 1611 took 
his degrees in divinity. He was afterwards made chaplain 
to prince Charles, and archdeacon of Surrey, in 16] 6 ; but 
never rose to any higher dignity, on account of the zealous 
opposition he made to the match of the infanta of Spain 
with the prince his master. Wood relates the story thus : 
After Hakevvill had written a small tract against that match, 
not without reflecting on the Spaniard, he caused it to be 
transcribed in a fair hand, and then presented it to the 

1 Niceron, vol. XIV. Gen. Diet. Moren, 


IS H A K E W I L L. 

prince. The prince perused it, and shewed it to the king ; 
who, being highly offended at it, caused the author to be 
imprisoned, in August 1621 ; soon after which, being re- 
leased, he was dismissed from his attendance on the prince. 
He was afterwards elected rector of Exeter college, but 
resided very little there, although he proved a liberal be- 
nefactor to the college ; for, the civil war breaking out, he 
retired to his rectory of Heanton near Barnstaple in De- 
vonshire, and there continued to the time of his death in 
1649. He wrote several things, enumerated by Wood ; 
but his principal work, and that for which he is most 
known, is " An Apology or Declaration of the Power and 
Providence of God in the Government of the World, prov- 
ing that it doth not decay, &c." in four books, 1627. To 
which were added two more in the third edition, 1635, in 

He had a brother JOHN, who was mayor of Exeter in 1632; 
and an elder brother WILLIAM, who was of Exeter college, 
and removed thence to Lincoln's-inn, where he arrived at 
eminence in the study of the common law. He was always 
a puritan, and therefore had great interest with the pre- 
vailing party in the civil war. He published some pieces 
in his own way ; and, among the rest, " The Liberty of 
the Subject against the pretended Power of Impositions, 
&c. 1641," 4to. ! 

HAKLUYT (RICHARD), an eminent naval historian, was 
descended from an ancient family at Eyton or Yetton, in 
Herefordshire, and born about 1553. He was trained up 
at Westminster school; and, in 1570, removed to Christ 
church college in Oxford. While he was at school, he 
used to visit his cousin Richard Hakluyt, of Eyton, esq. at 
his chambers in the Middle Temple, a gentleman well 
known and esteemed, not only by some principal ministers 
of state, but also by the most noted persons among the 
mercantile and maritime part of the kingdom, as a great 
encourager of navigation, and the improvement of trade, 
arts, and manufactures. At this gentleman's chambers 
young Hakluyt met with books or' cosmography, voyages, 
travels, and maps ; and was so pleased with them, that he 
resolved to direct his studies that way, to which he was not 
a little encouraged by his cousin. For this purpose, as 

Ath. Ox. vol. II. Walker's. Si.ftVfings of the Clerey. Lloyd's Memoirs, 
folio, p. 540. Usher'* Life and Letter*, t>, 393. 

H A K L U Y f . 19 

soon as he got to Oxford, he made himself master of the 
modern as well as ancient languages ; and then read over 
whatever printed or written discourses of voyages and dis- 
coveries, naval enterprizes, and adventures of all kinds, he 
found either extant in Greek^ Latin, Italian, Spanish, Por- 
tuguese, French, or English. By such means he became 
so conspicuous in this new branch of science, that he was 
chosen to read public lectures on naval matters at Oxford, 
and was the first who introduced maps, globes, spheres, and 
other instruments of the art, into the common schools. The: 
zeal and knowledge he displayed made him acquainted 
with and respected by the principal sea-commanders, mer- 
chants, and manners of our nation ; and^ though it was but 
a few years after that he went beyond sea, yet his fame 
travelled thither long before him. He held a correspond- 
ence with the learned in these matters abroad, as with Or- 
telius, the king of Spain's cosmographer, Mercator, &c. 

In 1582, he published a small " Collection of Voyages 
and Discoveries ;" in the epistle dedicatory of which to 
Mr. Philip Sidney it appears, that his lecture upon naviga- 
tion above mentioned was so well approved of by sir Francis 
Drake, that the latter made some proposals to continue 
and establish it in Oxford. The same year, he was much 
encouraged by secretary Walsingham to pursue the study 
of cosmography, and to persevere in the same commend- 
able collections and communications. The secretary also 
gave him a commission to confer with the mayor and mer- 
chants of Bristol, upon the naval expedition they were un- 
dertaking to Newfoundland ; and incited him to impart to 
them such intelligence as he should think useful. Hakluyt 
readily complied, and in acknowledgment of the services 
he had done them, the secretary sent him a very polite 
letter, which is printed in the third volume of his voyages 
in folio. 

About 1584, he attended sir Edward Stafford as his 
chaplain, when that gentleman went over ambassador to 
France ; and continued there some years with him, and 
during his absence, being then master of arts and in order^ 
he was made a prebendary of Bristol. While at Paris, he 
contracted an acquaintance with all the eminent mathema- 
ticians, cosmographers, and other persons of a similar taste 
with himself. He inquired after every thing that had any 
relation to our English discoveries ; and prevailed with 
some to search their libraries for the same* At last, hav- 

c 2 

20 H A K L U Y T. 

ing met with a narrative in MS. containing " The notable 
History of Florida," which had been discovered about 
twenty years before by captain Loudonniere and other 
French adventurers, he procured the publication of it at 
Paris at his own expence in 1586; and in May 1587, he 
published an English translation of it, which he dedicated , 
after the example of the French editor, to sir Walter 
Raleigh. The same year he published a new edition of 
Peter Martyr's book, entitled " De Orbe Novo," illustrated 
with marginal notes, a commodious index, a map of New 
England and America, and a copious dedication, also, to 
sir Walter Raleigh ; and this book he afterwards caused to 
be translated into English. 

Hakluyt returned to England in the memorable year 
1588, and applied himself to methodize the naval history 
of England more accurately and more extensively than had 
ever yet been attempted, in which he was, as usual, en- 
couraged by sir Walter Raleigh. He applied himself also 
to collect, translate, and digest, all voyages, journals, nar- 
ratives, patents, letters, instructions, &c. relating to the 
English navigations, which he could procure either in print 
or MS. ; and towards the end of 1589 he published these 
collections in one volume folio, with a dedication to sir 
Francis Walsingham, who was a principal patron and pro- 
moter of the work. About 1594 he entered into the state 
of matrimony, which did not divert him from going on 
with his collections of English voyages, till he had in- 
creased them to three volumes folio : and, as he was per- 
petually employed himself, he did not cease to invite 
others to the same useful labours. Thus, Mr. John Pory, 
whom he calls his honest, industrious, and learned friend, 
undertook, at his instigation, and probably under his in- 
spection, to translate from the Spanish " Leo's Geogra- 
phical History of Africa," which was published at London, 
1600, in folio. Hakluyt himself appeared in 1601, with 
the translation of another history, written by Antonio Gal- 
vano in the Portuguese tongue, and corrected and amended 
by himself. This history was printed in 4to, and contains 
a compendious relation of the most considerable discoveries 
in various parts of the universe from the earliest to the 
later times. 

In 1605 he was made a prebendary of Westminster; 
which, with the rectory of Wetheringset in Suffolk, is all 
the ecclesiastical promotion \ve find he obtained. About 

H A K L U Y T. 21 

this time the translation of Peter Martyr's " History of the 
West Indies" was undertaken, and first published by Mr. 
Lock, at the request and encouragement of our, author: 
for, besides his own publications of naval history, far su- 
perior to any thing of the like kind that had ever appeared 
in this kingdom, he was no less active in encouraging 
others to translate and familiarize among us the conquests 
and discoveries of foreign adventurers. This, and the 
spirit with which he also animated those of his countrymen 
who were engaged in naval eriterprizes, by his useful com- 
munications, gained the highest esteem and honour to his 
name and memory, from mariners of all ranks, in the most 
distant nations no less than his own. Of this there are 
several instances ; and particularly in those northern dis- 
coveries made at the charges of the Muscovy merchants in 
1608, under captain W. Hudson: when among other 
places there denominated, on the continent of Greenland, 
which were formerly discovered, they distinguished an 
eminent promontory, lying in 80 degrees northward, by 
the name of Hakluyt's Headland. In 1609 he published a 
translation from the Portuguese of an history of Virginia, 
entitled "Virginia richly valued, by the description of the 
rpaine land of Florida, her next neighbour, &c." and de- 
dicated to the right worshipful counsellors, and others the 
chearful adventurers for the advancement of that Christian 
and noble plantation of Virginia. 

In 1611 we find Edmund Hakluyt, the son of our author, 
entered a student of Trinity college, Cambridge. In the 
same year, the northern discoverers, in a voyage to Peckora 
in Russia, called a full and active current they arrived at, 
by the name of Hakluyt's River; and, in 1614, it appears 
that the banner and arms of the king of England were 
erected at Hakluyt's Headland above-mentioned. Our 
historian died November 23, 1616, and was buried in 
Westminster-abbey. His MS remains, which might have 
made another volume, falling into the hands of Mr. Pur- 
chas, were dispersed by him throughout his " Pilgrimage," 
printed 1613 1625, in 5 vols. fol. His own work, having 
become uncommonly scarce, was lately reprinted in five 
handsome quarto volumes, with some valuable additions. * 

HALDE (JoiiN BAPTIST DU) the historian of China, was 
born at Paris, Feb. 1, 1674, and entered into the society 

1 Biog. Brit. Oldys's Librarian, p. 136. Ath. Ox. vol. L Locke's " Ex 
flapatory Catalogue of Voyages, Clarke's Progress of Maritime Discovery. 

22 H A L D E. 

of the Jesuits. In 1708 be was removed to one of their 
houses in Paris, where he was employed in collecting and 
publishing the letters received from their missionaries 
abroad. He was also secretary to father Tellier, the king's 
confessor, and director of the corporation of artisans. In 
the latter part of his life he was much afflicted with the 
ague, but bore it with great resignation. He was a man of 
an amiable temper, and of great zeal in his profession. 
He died at Paris, Aug. 18, 1743. He published various 
complimentary Latin poems, and some pious works; but 
was principally known for his share in the *' Lettres edifi- 
antes et curieuses, 1 ' or correspondence from the Jesuit 
missionaries, which he published from collection 9th to 
the 26th ; and for his " Description geographique, histo- 
riqae, chronologique, et physique de Tempire de la Chine, 
et de la Tartarie Chinoise," Paris, 1735, 4 vols. fol. which 
has been often reprinted, and considered as the most am- 
ple history we have of the Chinese empire. It was trans- 
lated into English soon after its appearance, by persons 
employed by Cave, the printer, and another translation 
having been attempted at the same time, occasioned a 
controversy, the particulars of which may amuse the reader. 1 
HALE (Sir MATTHEW), a most learned lawyer, an$ 
upright judge, was born at Alderley, in Gloucestershire, 
November J, 1609. His father was a barrister of Lincoln's 
Inn, a man of such tenderness of conscience, as to with- 
draw from his profession because unwilling to tamper with 
truth in giving that colour to pleadings which barristers 
call doing their best for their client;" and this, with 
some other practices, customary in those days, appearing 
unworthy of his character, he retired to his estate in the 
country, where he died in 1614, at which time his son was 
but five years old. His wife having died two years before, 
their son was committed to the guardianship of Anthony 
Kingscot, esq. to whom he was related, and by whom, for 
grammatical learning, he was placed under the care of 
Mr. Staunton, vicar of Wotton-under-Edge, a noted pu- 
ritan. In 1626 he was admitted of Magdalen-hall, Oxford, 
under the* tuition of Obadiah Sedgwick, another puritan, 
where he laid the foundation of that learning and know- 
ledge, on which he afterwards raised so vast a superstruc- 
ture. Here, however, he fell into many levitres and exr 

1 Nichols's Bovcyer. Moreri. 

HALE. 23 

travagances, and was preparing to go along with his tutor, 
who went chaplain to lord Vere into the Low Countries, 
with a resolution of entering himself into the prince of 
Orange's army, when he was diverted from this design by 
being engaged in a law-suit with sir William Whitmore, 
who laid claim to part of his estate. Afterwards, by the 
persuasions of Serjeant Glanville, who happened to be his 
counsel in this case, and had an opportunity of observing 
his capacity, he resolved upon the study of the law, and 
was admitted of Lincoln's Inn, November 8, 1629. Sen- 
sible of the time he had lost in frivolous pursuits, he now- 
studied at the rate of sixteen hours a day, and threw aside 
all appearance of vanity in his apparel. He is said, in- 
deed, to have neglected his dress so much, that, being a 
strong and well-built man, he was once taken by a press- 
gang, as a person very fit for sea-service; which pleasant 
mistake made him regard more decency in his cloaths for 
the future, though never to any degree of extravagant 
finery. What confirmed him still more in a serious and 
regular way of life, was an accident, which is related to 
have befallen one of his companions. Hale, with other 
young students of the inn, being invited out of town, one 
of the company called for so much wine, that, notwith- 
standing all Hale could do to prevent it, he went on in his 
excess till he fell down in a fit, seemingly dead, and was 
with some difficulty recovered. This particularly affected 
Hale, in whom the principles of religion had been early 
implanted, and therefore retiring into another room, and, 
falling down upon his knees, he prayed earnestly to God, 
both for his friend, that he might be restored to life again, 
and for himself, that he might be forgiven for being pre- 
sent and countenancing so much excess : and he vowed to 
God, that he would never again keep company in that 
manner, nor drink a health while he lived. His friend re- 
covered ; and from this time Mr. Hale forsook all his gay 
acquaintance, and divided his whole time between the 
duties of religion and the studies of his profession. 
Noy, the attorney- general, who was one of the most 
eminent men of his profession, took early notice of him, 
directed him in his studies, and discovered so much friend- 
ship for him, that Mr. Hale was sometimes called Young 

While pursuing his studies, he not only kept the hours 
f the hall constantly in term-time, but seldom put him? 

24 HALE. 

self out of commons in vacation -time, and continued 
to pursue his studies with unwearied diligence. Not 
being satisfied with the law-books then published, he was 
very , diligent in searching records; and with collections 
out of the books he read, together with his own learned 
observations, he made a most valuable common-place 
book. Selden soon found him out, and took such a liking 
to him, that he not only lived in great friendship with him, 
but left him at his death one of his executors. Selden 
also prescribed to him a more enlarged pursuit of learning, 
which he had before confined to his own profession ; so 
that he arrived in time to a considerable knowledge in the 
civil law, in arithmetic, algebra, and other mathematical 
sciences, as well as in physic, anatomy, and surgery. He 
was also very conversant in experimental philosophy, and 
other branches of philosophical learning; and in ancient 
history and chronology. But above all, he seemed to have 
made divinity his chief study, so that those who read some 
of his works, might naturally think that he had studied 
nothing else. 

It was by indefatigable application that he acquired so 
great an extent of knowledge. He rose early, was never 
idle, and scarce ever held any discourse about the passing 
events of the day, except with some few in whom he con- 
fided. He entered into no correspondence, unless on ne- 
cessary business or matters of learning, and spent very 
little time at his meals. He never went to public feasts, 
and gave no entertainments but to the poor, literally fol- 
lowing our Saviour's direction, of feasting none but these. 
He always rose from dinner with an appetite, and able to 
enter with an unclouded mind on any serious employment 
that might present itself. 

Some time before the civil wars broke out, he was called 
to the bar, and began to make a figure in the world ; but, 
observing how difficult it was to preserve his integrity, and 
yet live securely, he resolved to follow those two maxims 
of Pomponius Atticus, who lived in similar times; viz. 
" To engage in no faction, nor meddle in public business, 
and constantly to favour and relieve those that were lowest." 
He often relieved the royalists in their necessities, which 
so ingratiated him with them, that he became generally 
employed by them in his profession. He was one of the 
counsel to the earl of Strafford, archbishop Laud, and king 
Charles himself 5 as also to the duke of Hamilton, the earl 

HALE. 3$ 

of Holland, the lord Capel, and the lord Craven. Being 
esteemed a plain honest man, and of great knowledge in 
the law, he was equally acceptable to the presbyterians 
and the loyalists. In 1643 he took the covenant, and ap- 
peared several times with other lay -persons among the 
assembly of divines. He was then in great esteem with 
the parliament, and employed by them in several affairs, 
particularly in the reduction of the garrison at Oxford ; 
being as a lawyer added to the commissioners named by 
the parliament to treat with those appointed by the king. 
In that capacity he was instrumental in saving the univer- 
sity, by advising them, especially the general Fairfax, to 
preserve that seat of learning from ruin. Afterwards, 
though no man more lamented the murder of Charles I. 
he took the oath called " The Engagement;" and, Janu- 
ary 1651-2, was one of those appointed to consider of the 
reformation of the law. Cromwell, who well knew the 
advantage it would be to have the countenance of such a 
man as Hale to his courts, never left importuning him, till 
he accepted the place of one of the justices of the common 
bench, as it was called ; for which purpose he was by writ 
made serjeant at law January 25, 1653-4. In that station 
he acted with great integrity and courage. He had at first 
serious scruples concerning the authority under which he 
was to act ; and, after having gone two or three circuits, 
he refused to sit any more on the crown side ; that is, to 
try any more criminals*. He had indeed so carried himself 
in some trials, that the powers then in being were not un- 
willing he should withdraw himself from meddling any far- 
ther in them; of which Burnet gives the following instance. 
Soon after he was made a judge, a trial was brought before 
him, upon the circuit at Lincoln, concerning the murder 
of one of the townsmen who had been of the king's army, 
and was killed by a soldier of the garrison there. He was 
in the field with a fowling-piece on his shoulder, which 
the soldier seeing, he came to him, and said, he was acting 

* Blackstone observes, that " if and try prisoners, having very strong 

judgment of death be given by a judge objections to the legality of the usur- 

not authorised by lawful commission, per's commission as to capital offences, 

and execution is done accordingly, the but that it was necessary to decide the 

judge is guilty of murder; and upon disputes of civil property in the worst 

this argument sir M. Hale himself, of times; a distinction, perhaps, ra- 

though he accepted the place of a ther too refined, since the punishment 

judge of the common-pleas under of crimes is at least as necessary to so- 

CromwelPs government, yet declined ciety as maintaining the boundaries of 

to sit on the crown side at the assizes, property." 

26 HALE. 

against an order the protector had made, viz. " That none 
who had been of the king's party should carry arms ;" and 
so would have forced the piece from him. But the other 
not regarding the order, and being the stronger man, threw 
down the soldier, and having beat him, left him. The 
soldier went to the town, and telling a comrade how he 
had been used, got him to go with him, and help him to 
be revenged on his adversary. They both watched his 
coming to town, and one of them went to him to demand 
his gun; which he refusing, the soldier. struck at him ; as 
they were struggling, the other came behind, and ran his 
sword into his body, of which he presently died. It was 
in the time of the assizes, so they were both tried. Against 
the one there was no evidence of malice prepense, so he 
was only found guilty of manslaughter, and burnt in the 
hand; but the other was found guilty of murder: and 
though colonel Whaley, who commanded the garrison, 
came into the court, and urged that the man was killed 
only for disobeying the protector's order, and that the 
soldier was but doing his duty; yet the judge regarded 
both his reasonings and threatenings very little, and there- 
fore not only gave sentence against him, but ordered the 
execution to be so suddenly done, that it might not be 
possible to procure a reprieve. On another occasion he 
displayed both his justice and courage in a cause in which 
the protector was deeply concerned, and had therefore 
ordered a jury to be returned for the trial. On hearing 
this, judge Hale examined the sheriff about it, and having 
discovered the fact, shewed the statute which ordered all 
juries to be returned by the sheriff or his lawful officer, 
and this not being done, he dismissed the jury, and would 
not try the cause. The protector was highly displeased 
with him, and at his return from the circuit (for this hap- 
pened in the country) told him in great anger, that " he 
wa not fit to be a judge." Hale replied only, with in- 
imitable aptness of expression, that " it was very true." 

When Cromwell died, he not only excused himself from 
accepting the mourning that was sent him, but also refused 
the new commission offered him by Richard; alleging, 
that " he could act no longer under such authority." He 
did not sit in Cromwell's second parliament in 1655;but 
in Richard's, which met in January 1658-9, he was one^of 
the burgesses for the university of Oxford. In the healing 
parliament in 1660, which recalled Charles II, he was 

HALE. 27 

elected one of the knights for the county of Gloucester ; 
and moved, that a committee might be appointed to look 
into the propositions that had been made, and the conces- 
sions that had been offered by Charles I. during the late 
war, that thence such propositions might be digested as 
they should think fit to be sent over to the king at Breda. 
The king upon his return recalled him in June by writ, to 
the degree of serjeant-at-law ; and upon settling the courts 
in Westminster-hall, constituted him in November chief 
baron of the exchequer. When chancellor Clarendon de- 
livered him his commission, he told him that " if the king 
could have found out an honester and fitter man for that 
employment, he would not have advanced him to it; and 
that he had therefore preferred him, because he knew none 
that deserved it so well." As he knew it was usual for 
persons in his present station to be knighted, he endea- 
voured to avoid that honour, by declining for a considerable 
time all opportunities of waiting on the king ; which Cla- 
rendon observing, sent for him upon business one day, 
when the king was at his house, and told his majesty, 
" there was his modest chief-baron,' 1 on which he was un- 
expectedly knighted. He continued eleven years in this 
place, and very much raised the reputation and practice 
of the court by his impartial administration of justice, and 
by his cautious diligence, and great exactness in trials. 
This gave occasion to the only complaint that was made 
of him, " that he did not dispatch matters quick enough ;" 
but on the other hand his deliberation had this good effect, 
that causes tried before him were seldom if ever tried 

He would never receive private addresses or recom~ 
mendations from any persons of whatever rank, in any 
matter in which justice was concerned. One of the first 
peers in England went once to his chamber, and told him, 
* c that having a suit in law to be tried before him, he was 
come to acquaint him with it, that he might the bet- 
ter understand it when it should be heard in court." 
Judge Hale interrupted him, and said, " he did not deal 
fairly to com-e to his chamber about such affairs, for he 
never received any information of causes but in open court, 
where both parties were to be beard alike," and therefore he 
would not suffer him to go on. The nobleman complained of 
this to the king, as a rudeness that was not to be endured ; but 
fcis majesty bid him "content himself that he was no worse 

28 HAL E. 

used," and added, " he verily believed Hale would have 
used himself no better, if he had gone to solicit him in 
any of his own causes." Two other stories are told to 
prove his strict integrity, one of a gentleman who sent him 
a buck for his table, and the other of the dean and chapter 
of Salisbury, who made him a present of six sugar-loaves, 
and as the gentleman and the dean and chapter had causes 
pending before him, he insisted on paying for these ar- 
ticles before he would try them. Too much, however, 
has been made of these stories, for it was proved that both 
presents were compliments which the parties had been ac- 
customed to pay to the judges for the time being on the 
circuit. So many are the testimonies to judge Hale's in- 
tegrity, that it cannot stand in need of such petty supports 
as these. 

Judge Hale, probably in consequence of his rule of fa- 
vouring and relieving those that were lowest, and perhaps 
owing to the connections he had formed in early life, was 
now very charitable to the nonconformists, and screened 
them as much as possible from the severities of the law. 
He thought many of them had merited highly in the affair 
of the king's restoration, and at least deserved that the 
terms of conformity should not have been made stricter 
than they were before the war. In 1671 he was promoted 
to the place of lord chief justice of England, and behaved 
in that high station with his usual strictness, regularity, and 
diligence ; but about four years and a half after this ad- 
vancement, he was attacked by an inflammation in the 
diaphragm, which in two days time broke his constitution 
to that degree that he never recovered ; for his illness 
turned to an asthma, which terminated in a dropsy. Find- 
ing himself unable to discharge the duties of his function, 
he petitioned in January 1675-6, for a writ of ease ; which 
being delayed, he surrendered his office in February. He 
died December 25th following, and was interred in the 
church-yard of Alderley, among his ancestors ; for he did 
not approve of burying in churches, but used to say, " That 
churches were for the living, and church-yards for the 
dead." He was twice married, having by his first wife ten 
children, all of whom he outlived except his eldest daugh- 
ter and youngest son. The male line of the family became 
extinct in 1784, by the death of his great grandson, Mat- 
thew Haje, esq. barrister at law. 

HALE. 2 

To enter more minutely into the character of this great 
and good man would be to enlarge this article beyond ail 
reasonable bounds. The testimonies to the excellence of 
his character are numerous. Whoever knew him spoke 
well of him. One enemy only, Roger North (in his Life 
of the Lord Keeper North) has endeavoured to lessen the 
respect due to sir Matthew Hale's character ; but in so 
doing, it has been justly remarked, has degraded his own. 
Sir Matthew was, for the brightness and solidity of his ge- 
nius, the variety and elegance of his learning, and the po- 
liteness of his manners, the delight and envy of his con- 
temporaries. His knowledge in divinity and humanity was 
a radicated habit : and there was scarce ever any appeal 
from his judgment as a casuist or a critic. Biirnet's Life 
of Hale cannot be too often read. 

He was the author of several things which were pub- 
lished by himself; namely, 1. " An Essay touching the- 
Gravitation or Non -gravitation of Fluid Bodies, and the 
Reasons thereof." 2. " Difficiies Nugse, or observations- 
touching the Torricellian Experiment, and the various so- 
lutions of the same, especially touching the weight and 
elasticity of the air." 3. " Observations touching the Prin- 
ciples of natural motion, and especially touching rarefac- 
tion and condensation." 4. "Contemplations moral and 
divine." 5. " An English Translation of the Life of 
Pomponius Atticus, written by Corn. Nepos ; together 
with observations political and moral." 6. " The Pri- 
mitive Origination of Mankind considered and explained 
according to the Light of Nature, &e." He left also at 
his decease other works, which were published ; namely, 
1. His "Judgment of the Nature of true Religion, the 
Causes of its Corruption, and the Church's Calamity by 
men's addition and violences, with the desired Cure.'* 
,2. "Several Tracts; as a f Discourse of Religion under 
three heads'," &c. 3. "A Letter to his Children, ad- 
vising them how to behave in their speech." 4. " A Letter 
to one of his sons after his recovery from the small-pox/' 
5. " Discourse of the Knowledge of God and of ourselves, 
first by the light of nature ; secondly, by the sacred Scrip- 
tures." All these, under the title of his " Moral and Re- 
ligious Works," were published by the rev. Thomas Thirl- 
wall, 1805, 2 vols. Svo, with his life by bishop 
and an appendix to it. 

30 HALE, 

Of his law tracts, one only was printed in his life-time^ 
viz. : " London Liberty, or an argument of Law and Rea- 
son,'* 1650, which was reprinted in 1682, under the title 
of " London's Liberties, or the opinions of those great 
lawyers, lord chief justice Hale, Mr. justice Wild, and 
serjeant Maynard, about the election of mayor, sheriffs, 
aldermen, and common councel of London, and concerning 
their charter." In 1668 he wrote a preface to Rolle's 
" Abridgment," which he published with the whole of that 

After his death, appeared, 1. "The Pleas of the Crown, 
or a Methodical Summary," 1678, 8vo, continued by Jacob 
and reprinted in 1716. To this edition is often annexed 
" The Treatise of Sheriffs 7 Accounts," and " The Trial of 
the Witches." It must not be concealed that this other- 
wise learned and sagacious man was so far prejudiced by 
early opinions, as to believe in witchcraft, and to preside 
on the trials of some persons accused of it. The " Pleas" 
has passed through seven editions, the last of which was in 
1773. It was not, however, considered by the author as a 
complete work, but intended as a plan for his " Historia 
Placitorum Coronse," of which hereafter. 2. " Treatise 
shewing how useful, &c. the inrolling and registering of 
all conveyances of land," 1694, 4to, reprinted with addi- 
tions in 1756. 3. " Tractatus de Successionibus apud An- 
glos, or a treatise of Hereditary Descents," 1700, and 
1735, 8vo. This forms a chapter in his " History of the 
Common Law." 4. u A treatise on the original Institution, 
&c. of Parliaments," 1707, republished by Francis Har- 
grave, esq. in 1796, 4to, under the title of " Hale's Juris- 
diction of the House of Lords," with an introductory pre- 
face, including a narrative of the same jurisdiction, from 
the accession of James I. 5. " Analysis of the Law," 
without date, but seems to have been only a design for a, 
6. " History of the Common Law of England, in twelve 
chapters," 1713, 8vo, a fourth and fifth edition of which 
were published in 1779 and 1794, 2 vols. 8vo, by Mr. ser- 
jeant Runnington. 7. " Historia Placitorum Coronie, or 
History of the Pleas of the Crown," 1739, 2 vols. folio, 
edited by Sollom Emlyn, esq. and again in 1772, by George 
Wilson, esq. 2 vols. 8vo, and lastly in the same size, in 
1800, by Thomas Dogherty, esq. There are a few other 
tracts and opinions published by Mr. Hargrave and other 
law writers in tbeir collections, 


Sir Matthew Hale by his will bequeathed to the so- 
ciety of Lincoln's-inn his MS books, of inestimable value, 
which he had been near forty years in gathering with great 
industry and expence. " He desired they should be kept 
safe and all together, bound in leather, and chained; not 
lent out or disposed of: only, if any of his posterity of that 
society should desire to transcribe any book, and give good 
caution to restore it again in a prefixed time, they should 
be lent to him, and but one volume at a time : " They are,'* 
says he, " a treasure not fit for every man's view; nor is 
every man capable of making use of them." 1 

HALES (ALEXANDER), an eminent scholastic divine of 
the thirteenth century, is supposed by some to have been 
a native of Gloucestershire, but others think he was a na- 
tive of Hales in Norfolk. He was educated probably at 
Oxford, whence he went to the university of Paris, studied 
divinity and the canon law, and excelled so in both as to 
be called the " Irrefragable Doctor," and the " Fountain 
of Life." Nothing indeed can exceed the encomiums be- 
stowed upon him in extravagance, although he appears to 
have been a good man, and well versed in the learning of 
his time. In 1222 he entered into the order of the Friars 
Minims, and took up his principal residence at Paris, 
where he died August 27, 1245. By order of Innocent 
IV. he wrote a commentary on the four books of sentences, 
or " Sum of Divinity," printed at Nuremberg, 1482, and 
often reprinted ; but there is a commentary on the sen- 
tences printed at Lyons in 1515, with his name to it, 
which is not his ; and Dupin is inclined to think that the 
" Sum of the Virtues," Paris, 1509, and the " Destruc- 
torium Vitiorum," Nuremberg, 1496, and Venice, 1582, 
are improperly attributed to his pen. Other works are 
enumerated by Dupin, of which doubts may be entertained, 
and many of his MSS. are said to be lost, but neither the 
authenticity of the one, or the loss of the other, "will now 
be thought matters of much interest or regret. 2 

HALES, or HAYLES (JOHN), a learned Englishman, 
was the younger son of Thomas Hales, of Hales'- place, at 
Halden in Kent, and was liberally educated, although at 
no university. He became an excellent scholar in the 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues, and was well skilled 

* Life by Buruet. Biog. Brit, Life by Runnington, Granger, &^ 
2 Tanner. Dupin. Care. 

3$ HALES.. 

in the municipal laws and antiquities. In the reign of 
Henry VIII. he was clerk of the ha,naper for several years^ 
and in 1548 was appointed a commissioner to inquire into 
inclosures, decayed houses, and the unlawful converting 
of arable land into pasture, for the counties of Oxfordj, 
Berks, &c. On this occasion he made an excellent charge, 
which is printed at length hy Strype. He obtained a good 
estate in Warwickshire and elsewhere, upon the dissolution 
of the monasteries, and founded a free-school at Coventry. 
For the use of the scholars there, he wrote " Introduc- 
tiones ad Grammaticam," Latin and English. He was also 
the author of the " High way to Nobility," Lond. 4to ; and 
translated into English " Plutarch's Precepts for the pre- 
servation of good health," Lond. 1543, 8vo. Being a 
zealous protestant, he went abroad during queen Mary's 
reign, and took every pains to compose the unhappy dif- 
ferences that took place among the English exiles at Franc- 
fort. On the accession of queen Elizabeth, he distin- 
guished his loyalty in " An Oration to Queen Elizabeth 
at her first entrance to her reign," which was, however, 
not spoken, but delivered in manuscript to the queen. 
He also wrote a treatise in favour of the succession of the 
house of Suffolk to the crown on the demise of Elizabeth, 
who was so displeased with it, as to commit the author to 
the Tower. It was answered by Lesley, bishop of Ross. 
Mr. Hales, whose imprisonment was probably of no long 
duration, died Jan. 28, 1572, and was buried in the church 
of St. Peter le Poor, Broad-street, London. Some of his. 
MSS. are in the Harleian collection. 1 

HALES (JOHN), an eminent divine and critic, usually 
distinguished by the appellation of THE EVER MEMORABLE,, 
was the fourth son of John Hales, of High Church, near 
Bath, in Somersetshire, by Bridget his wife, one of the 
Goldsburghs of Knahill, in Wiltshire. He was born April 
19, 1584, at Bath, where his father then resided, but ac- 
cording to his register at Corpus college, Oxford, at High- 
church. His parents, who are stated to have been of 
" genteel quality," placed him to school at Mells and Kill- 
maston,'in Somersetshire, until fit for the university, in 
which he was entered of Corpus college April 16, 1597,, 
but being then under age, was not sworn till April 17> 

Ath, Ox. new edit. voL I. Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials. Stryp**a 
Cranmer, p. 147. 


1599. He continued at this college until he toolc his ba- 
chelor's degree in arts July 9, 1603, and had distinguished 
himself in the interval hy equal diligence and proficiency 
in his studies. The reputation he thus acquired engaged 
the attention of sir Henry Savile, then warden of Merton- 
college, who being always desirous of increasing the num- 
ber of its learned members, persuaded him to remove ; 
and accordingly he was chosen probationer of Merton in 
September, and admitted fellow Oct. 13, 1606. He pro- 
ceeded to his master's degree in 1609. He had not been 
long in this station before the warden availed himself of 
his assistance in preparing his edition of St. Chrysostom's 
works, and found him a very able coadjutor, as he was an 
excellent Greek scholar. His reputation indeed for skill 
in this language was such as to procure him the place of 
lecturer in Greek in the college. 

On the death of sir Thomas Bodley, Jan. 28, 1613, he 
was appointed by sir Henry Savile to deliver the funeral 
oration at Merton -college, where sir Thomas was buried; 
and this was published the same year at Oxford, " Oratio 
funebris habita in collegio Mertonensi, a Johanne Halesio, 
magistro in artibus, et ejusdem collegii socio, anno 1613; 
Martii 29, quo die clarissimo equiti D. Thoniae Bodleio 
funus ducebatur," 4to. It is reprinted in Bates's " Vitae 

On May 24 of this year, Mr. Hales quitted his fellow- 
ship at Merton, and was admitted fellow of Eton col- 
lege. He was then in orders, and had acquired fame as a 
preacher. In 1616 he held a correspondence with Mr. 
Oughtred, as appears by a letter of his to that excellent 
mathematician, printed in the General Dictionary, hi 
1618 he accompanied sir Dudley Carlton, ambassador to 
the Hague, as his chaplain, by which means he procured 
admission into the synod of Dort, though he was not pro- 
perly a member. This indeed seems to have been his 
principal view in accompanying sir Dudley, who, besides 
his brother the bishop of Llandaff, first English commis- 
sioner, recommended him to Bogerman, president of the 
synod, and some other leading men. Ail this afforded him 
a favourable opportunity of collecting that information re- 
specting the proceedings of the synod, which was after- 
wards published in his " Golden Remains." The effect of 
these proceedings on his own mind was, that he became a 
convert to Arminianism. His friend Mr. Faringdon. informs 


34 HALES. 

us that " in his younger days he was a Calvinist, but that 
some explanation given by Episcopius* of the text in St. 
John iii. 16, induced him, as he said, to " bid John 
Calvin good night." It does not appear, however, from 
his sermons, that he became a decided anti-predestinarian, 
although he pleads strongly for a toleration between the 
two parties, and thinks they may remain in Christian 
charity with each other. It is more remarkable that he 
should be induced by the arguments advanced in this sy- 
nod, to think with indifference of the divinity of Jesus 
Christ as a necessary article of faith. This, however, 
seems obvious from some passages in his " Tract on 
Schism ;" and such was his free and open manner both of 
talking and writing on these subjects, that he soon incurred 
the suspicion of inclining to Socinianism. Dr. Heylin 
went so far as to attribute two works to him, published with 
fictitious names, which have been since printed in the 
" Phoenix;" but it has been proved that they were written 
by Socinian authors. His biographers, however, all allow 
that he may be classed among those divines who were 
afterwards called Latitudinarians. He returned from the 
synod Feb. 8, 1619. 

About 1636 he wrote his tract on " Schism" for the use 
of his friend Chilling-worth, in which, as already noticed, 
he expresses his sentiments on liturgies, forms of worship, 
&c. in exact conformity with those who are for dispensing 
with all obligations of the kind in established churches. 
Being informed that archbishop Laud was displeased with 
it, he drew up a vindication of himself in a letter addressed 
to his grace, who in 1638 sent for him to Lambeth, and 
after a conference of several hours, appears to have been 
reconciled to him. Of this conference we have a curious 
account by Dr. Heylin, in his " Cyprianus Anglicus," 
some particulars of which have been eagerly contested by 
Des Maizeaux, in his Life of Hales. What seems most 
clear is, that Hales made some kind of declaration to the^ 
archbishop, purporting that he was a true son of the church 
of England, both in doctrine and discipline, which cer- 
tainly implies a change or intended change of opinion, 
unless we allow to the writer of his life in the Biographia 
Britannica, that " a true son of the church," or an " or- 

* Such is the story given by all his 87 and 92, we shall see more reasor. 
biographers ; but if we consult his to think that he was influenced by the 
Letters in the " Golden Remains," p. opinions of Martinius. 

HALES. 35 

thodox son of the church," were phrases used, not in op- 
n ^ition to heretics, but to puritans. In either way, the 
archbishop appears to have been satisfied, and informed 
Mr. liuies that he might have any preferment he pleased. 
Hales at this time modestly declined the offer, but the 
year following was presented by the archbishop at a public 
dinner, with a canonry of Windsor, in which he was in- 
stalled June 27, 1639. With respect to the letter above-r 
ttientioned, which he wrote to the archbishop, it is said to 
have been first published by Dr. Hare in the seventh edi- 
tion of his pampnlet entitled " Difficulties and Discourage- 
ments which attend the study ot the Scriptures in the way 
of private judgment." Des Maizeaux says it was probably 
found among the papers of archbishop Laud, which after 
the restoration were taken from Prynne; but this conjecture 
is erroneous; it was found in the house of Mrs. Powney, 
where Mr. Hales died, and there are even some reasons for 
doubting whether it was ever sent to the archbishop, al- 
though this is certainly not improbable. The original is at 
Eton, and appeared in print before it fell into the hands 
of Dr. Hare, the author of " Difficulties and Discourage- 
ments," if indeed Dr. Hare was that author, which has 
been questioned. 

In 1642 his tract on " Schism" was printed* without 
his consent, as favouring the disorganizing principles then 
prevailing, a clear proof that its tendency before had not 
been mistaken ; but this procured our author no favour ; 
for the same year he was ejected from his stall at Windsor. 
About the time of archoishop Laud's death, in 1644, Mr. 
Hales retired from his lodgings in the college to a private 
chamber at Eton, where he remained for a quarter of a 
year unknown to any, and spent in that time only six- 
pence a week, living upon bread and beer; and as it was 
his custom formerly to fast from Tuesday night to Thurs- 
day night, now in his retirement he abstained during the 
same time from his bread and beer ; and when he iieard of 
the archbishop's murder, he wished that his own head had 
been taken off instead of his grace's. Another account 

* It was published with the title " A printed in the same year R. C. i.e. 

Tract concerning Schism* and Sdiis- Richard Cud worth's Tract, <c The 

matiques; wherein is briefly discovered Union of Christ and the Church in a 

the original causes of all schisme. Shadow. ' The tract on Schistn has a 

Written by a learned and judicious curious wood-cut in the title-jjage. If, 

divine," London, 4to, printed for R. B. occasioned some controversy, not uew 

supposed, to be Richard Bishop, who worth reviving. 

D 2 

36 HALES. 

forms us that he was bursar about the time when the con- 
test began between the king and parliament, and when 
both armies had sequestered the college rents, so that he 
could not get any to pay wages to the servants, or to buy 
victuals for the scholars. But after nine weeks hiding him- 
self to preserve the college writings and keys, he was 
forced to appear. The old woman that concealed him 
demanded but six-pence a week for his brown bread and 
beer, which was all his meat, and he would give her 
twelve-pence. This concealment was so near the college 
or highway, that he used to say, " those who searched for 
him might have smelt him if he had eaten garlick." 

He continued in his fellowship at Eton, although he re- 
fused the covenant, but was ejected upon his refusal to take 
the engagement " to be faithful to the Common- wealth of 
England, as then established without a king, or a house 
of lords." His successor, a Mr. Penwarn, or Penwarden, 
kindly offered him half the profits of his fellowship ; but 
Mr. Hales refused to accept it, saying, if he had a right 
to any part, he had a right to the whole. Both Wood and 
Des Maizeaux have misrepresented this expression, which 
we give on the authority of Mr. Montague, one of his 
executors. About the same time he refused a liberal offer 
from a gentleman of the Sedley family, in Kent, of 100/. 
his board, and servants to attend him. In this spirit of in- 
dependence he retired to the house of a Mrs. Salter, at 
Rickings, near Colebrook, accepting of a smaller salary of 
50/. with his diet, to instruct her son. Here he also offi- 
ciated as chaplain, performing the service according- to 
the liturgy of the church of England, in company with 
Dr. Henry King, the ejected bishop of Chichester, who 
was in the same house. But this retirement was soon dis- 
turbed by an order from the ruling powers, prohibiting all 
persons from harbouring malignants, or royalists ; and al- 
though Mrs. Salter assured Mr. Hales that she was prepared 
to risk the consequences, he would not suffer her to incur 
any danger upon his account, but retired to the house of 
Hannah Dickenson, in Eton, whose husband had been his 
servant, and who administered the humble comforts she 
could afford with great care and respect. But being now 
destitute of every means of supporting himself, ne was 
obliged to sell (not the whole, as Wood says, but) a part 
of his valuable library to Cornelius Bee, a bookseller in 
London, for 700/. which, Walker informs us, and the fact 


seems to be confirmed by Dr. Pearson in his preface to the 
" Golden Remains," he shared with several ejected cler- 
gymen, scholars, and others. 

We shall now relate a story which has appeared in the 
various accounts of his life, and which is at least interesting-, 
but in most particulars questionable. It is thus related,: 
" His friend Mr. Faringdon" (See FARINGDON) " coming 
to see Hales some few months before his death, found him 
in very mean lodgings at Eton, but in a temper gravely 
ch earful, and well becoming a good man under such cir- 
cumstances. After a slight and homely dinner, suitable 
to their situation, some discourse passed between them 
concerning their old friends, and the black and dismal 
aspect of the times ; and at last Hales asked Faringdon to 
walk out with him into the church-yard. There this un- 
happy man's necessities pressed him to tell his friend that 
he had been forced to sell his whole library, save a few 
books which he had given away, and six or eight little 
books of devotion which lay in his chamber ; and that for 
money, he had no more than what he then shewed him, 
which was about seven or eight shillings ; and ' besides,' 
says he, < I doubt I am indebted for my lodging.' Fa- 
ringdon, it seems, did not imagine that it had been so very 
low with him, and therefore was much surprised to hear it ; 
but said that ' he had at present money to command, and 
to-morrow would pay him fifty poui>ds, in part of the 
many sums he and his wife had received of him in their 
great necessities, and would pay him more as he shoukl 
want it.' But Hales replied, < No, you don't owe me a 
penny ; or if you do, I here forgive you ; for you shall 
never pay me a penny. I know you and yours will have 
occasion for much more than what you have lately gotten;; 
but if you know any other friend that hath too full a purse, 
and will spare me some of it, I will not refuse that.' To 
this Hales added, ' When I die, which I hope is not far 
off, for I am weary of this uncharitable world, I desire you 
to see me buried in that place in the church-yard,' point- 
ing to the place. l But why not in the church-/ said Fa- 
ringdon, * with the provost (sir Henry Savile), sir Henry 
Wotton, and the rest of your friends and predecessors?' 
' Because,' says he, * I am neither the founder of it, nor 
have I been a benefactor to it, nor shall I ever now be able 
to be SQ.'" 


Dr. Walker, who , relates this story, informs us of the 
persons from whom he received it; but it is now unneces- 
sary to trace a narrative so flatly contradicted by Mr. 
Ha,es's will*, in which we find him bequeathing a very 

* The following: is a copy of his 
will, from Eton college register. " In 
Dei nomine Amen. May 19, 1656. 
My soul having been Ion;: since bf- 
qutaihed unto the mercies of God in 
Jesus Christ my ouly Saviour, and my 
body naturally bequeathing itself to 
dust and ashes, out of which it was 
taken, I John Hales, of Eton, in the 
county of Bucks, C'eik, by this my 
last will and testa in- nt, do dispose of 
the small remainder of my poor and 
broken- estate, in manner and form 
following. First, I give to my sister 
Cicely Combes, 51. I give to my sis- 
ter Bridget Guilliford, J/. More, I 
give to the poor of the town of Eton, 
to be distributed at the disci etion of 
iny executrix hereafter named, 51. 
More, I give to .six persons, to be ap- 
pointed by my said executiix to carry 
my body to the grave, 31. to be dis- 
tributed among them by even portions. 
More, I give to Mr. Thomas Mans- 
field, of Windsor, grocer, 51. More, 
I give to Mrs. Mary Collins, wife to 
Mr. John Collins, of Eton, 51. to this 
end and purpose, that she would be 
pleased to provide her a ring in what 
manner she listeth, to remain with her 
in memory of a poor <ler< aser friend. 
All which monies here bequt^ted, do 
nt this present rest intrusted in the 
hands of ray singular good friends Mr. 
William Smith, and Mr. Thomas Mon- 

" Moreover, all my Greek and Latin 
books (except St. Jerome's works, 
which 1 give to Mr. Thomas Monta- 
gue), I give to my most deservedly 
beloved friend W.I iam Salter of Rich- 
kings, esq. ; to whom 1 further give 51. 
to this end, that he would provide him 
a fair seal-ring of gold, engraven with 
his arms and hatchments doubled and 
mantled, to preserve the memory of a 
poor deceased friend. All my Eng- 
lish books, together with the remainder 
of all monies goods and utensils what- 
soever, I give and bequeath to Mrs. 
Hannah Dickenson of Eton, widow 
and relict of John Dickenson, lately 
deceased. In whose house (for her's 
indeed it is, and not mine, as being 
bought with her money, howsoever 

for some reasons I have suffered the 
public voice to entitle me to it) in 
whose house I say, I have for a long 
time (especially since my unjust and 
causeless extrusion from my college) 
been with great caieand good respect 
entertained. And her the said Han- 
nah, I do by these presents constitute 
and ordain my sole executrix. And 
unto this my last will I make overseers 
rny very good friends Mr. Thomas 
Montague and Mr. William Smith, of 
Eton, and to each of them I give 5/. 
humbly requesting them to be assis- 
tant to my said executrix with their 
besr advice to help, it so be .^he chance 
to find any trouble. 

" Now because monies are many 
times not at command, but may re- 
qtfire some time to take them up, I 
ordain, that in six months after my 
departure, she see all these my be- 
quests and legacies orderly and faith- 
fully discharged. As for my funeral, 
I ordain that at the time of the next 
evensong after my departure (if con- 
veniently it may be) my body be laid 
in the church-yard of the town of Eton 
(if 1 chance to die there), as near as 
may be to the body of my little god- 
son, Jack Dickenson the elder ; and 
this to be done in plain and simple 
manner, without any sermon, or ring- 
ing the bell, or calling the people to- 
gether; without any unseasonable com- 
me-sation or compotatiou. or other 
solemnity on such occasions usual. 
And t strictly command rny executiix, 
that neither of her own head, nor at 
the importunity or authority of any 
other, neither upon any other pretence 
whatsoever, to take upon her to dis- 
pense with this part of my will ; for 
as in my life I have done the church 
no service, so I will not, that in my 
death, the church do me any honour." 

Mr. Montague, mentioned here as 
an overseer or executor, was at that 
time usher of Eton school, afterwards 
head-master, and then fellow of the 
college. Mrs. Dickenson afterwards 
was married to Simon Powney, and 
has already been mentioned by that 

HALES. 39 

considerable property, and a very considerable part of his 
library, and indeed leaving such friendly legacies as are 
wholly inconsistent with the circumstances of a man re- 
duced to a few shillings, and in debt for his lodging. 

His last illness was of short duration, nor did it appear 
serious to his friends, with whom he conversed as freely as 
if in perfect health, within half an hour of his death. Mr. 
Montague, to whom he had been talking, left the room for 
about that time, and found him dead on his return. During 
this sickness, being aware that he was suspected of holding 
opinions adverse to the faith of the church of England, he 
made a declaration of his belief to his pupil, Mr. Salter, 
and appears to have recanted, if ever he held, opinions 
unfavourable to the doctrine of the Trinity. Mr. Salter 
made a memorandum of this from his mouth, which was 
long in possession of that family, as Mr. Fulman, when 
collecting materials for Hales' s life, was credibly assured, 
both by Mr. Salter and by Mr. Montague. There is an 
article indeed in his u Remains" which seems to confirm 
this point, entitled his " Confession of the Trinity," and 
may probably be the manuscript which Mr. Salter penned. 

He died May 19, 1656, aged seventy-two, and was bu- 
ried, according to his own desire, in Eton church-yard, 
where a monument was erected over his grave by Mr. Peter 
Curwen. In person, he was of an ingenuous and open 
countenance, sanguine, cheerful, and vivacious; his body 
was well proportioned, and his motion quick and sprightly. 
As to the excellence of his character, all writers seem 
agreed. Whatever his errors, he was esteemed a good 
man by those who knew him, and an able writer, as ap- 
pears by the testimonies of lord Clarendon, lord Say and 
Sele, Dr. Pearson, bishop of Chester, Dr. Heylin, An- 
drew Marvel, Wood, Sailing-fleet, and others, quoted by 
sir David Dalrymple lord Hailes, in his fine edition of 
Hales's works, and in the Biographia Britannica. "They," 
says lord Hailes, " who are acquainted with the literary 
and political history of England, will perceive that the 
leading men of all parties, however different and discordant, 
have, with a wonderful unanimity, concurred in praise of 
the virtues and abilities of the ever memorable Mr. John 
Hales of Eton.' 7 

We do not find that Hales ever suffered any thing to be 
published in his life-time, except his oration at the funeral 
of sir Thomas Bodley. Bishop Pearson says, that " while 

40 HALES. 

he lived, none was ever more solicited and urged to write, 
and thereby truly teach the world, than he ; but that none 
was ever so resolved, pardon the expression, so obstinate 
against it." In 1659, however, there appeared a collec- 
tion of his works with this title, " Golden Remains of the 
ever-memorable Mr. John Hales of Eton college, &c." 
which was enlarged with additional pieces in a second 
edition of 1673. This collection consists of sermons, mis- 
cellanies, and letters ; all of them written upon particular 
occasions. In 1677 there appeared another collection of 
his works, entitled " Several Tracts by the ever-memo- 
rable Mr. John Hales, &c." The 1st of which is, " Con- 
cerning the. Sin against the Holy Ghost;" 2. " Concern- 
ing the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and whether the 
Church may err in Fundamentals;" 3. " A Paraphrase on 
the 12th chapter of the Gospel according to St. Matthew ;" 
4. " Concerning the power of the Keys, and auricular 
Confession ;" 5. " Concerning Schism and Schismatics ;" 
and some short pieces entitled " Miscellanies." There is 
no preface nor advertisement to this volume, which seems 
to have been put out by the editor, who was thought to 
be sir Robert Filmer, with caution : but it is finely and 
correctly printed, with a portrait of Mr. Hales. To these 
volumes of posthumous works we must add the letter to 
archbishop Laud, mentioned before, which was printed in 
1716. In 1765 lord Hailes edited a beautiful edition of 
his whole works, 3 vols. 12mo, with a very few alterations 
of obsolete words, and corrections in spelling, &c. Dr. 
Johnson blamed him for taking these liberties. We are 
more inclined to blame him for omitting bishop Pearson's 
preface to the " Golden Remains," with Faringdon's Let- 
ter, which give a particular value to the edition of 1673. 
On the other hand, lord Hailes has added some letters 
and other articles which enhance the merit of his labours. 

It remains to be mentioned, that Wood informs us that 
Mr. Hales not only associated with, and was respected by 
the wits of his time, sir John Suckling, sir William Da- 
venant, Ben Jonson, &c. but would sometimes divert him- 
self with writing verses; and that he had a talent for 
poetry he thinks appears from sir John Suckling's 
tioning him in his " Session of Poets :" 

" Hales, set by himself, most gravely did smile 
To see them about nothing keep such a coil. 
Apollo had spied him, but knowing his mind, 
Past by, and called Falkland that sat just behind." 

HALES. 41 

But there is no proof that Mr. Hales of Eton was meant 
here, and still less proof of a letter in verse by sir John 
Suckling having been written to Mr. Hales at Eton, and be- 
ginning"" Sir, whether these lines do find you out," &c. 
It has more the appearance of one written to some person, 
at Oxford or Cambridge, than at Eton. 

Mr. had collected materials with a view to the 
life of Mr. Hales, which, Mr. Zouch informs us, were on 
his demise consigned to the care of Isaac Walton, by Mr. 
Fulman of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, who had pro- 
posed to finish the work, and on that occasion had applied 
for the assistance of Mr. Walton. Mr. Zouch adds, that 
" the result of this application is not known." Having, 
however, by the kindness of Henry Ellis, esq. of the Bri- 
tish museum, had access to a transcript of Mr. Fulman's 
MSS. in Corpus college, as far as they regard the project 
of writing Hales's life, we are enabled to say that it was a 
Mr. Milington, and not Mr. Fulman, who sent Faringdon's 
materials to Mr. Walton, and that the latter gave Fulman 
every information in his power. By the same MSS. we have 
been enabled to correct many mistakes in Des Maizeaux's 
life of Haiti,, as well as in those in the General Dictionary, 
and Biographia Britannica. l 

HALES (STEPHEN)^ an eminent natural philosopher, 
particularly distinguished by his experiments on the phy- 
siology of plants, was the sixth son of Thomas Hales, esq. 
of Beakeborn, or Beckesbourn, Kent, and grandson of sir 
Robert Hales, bart. of Beckesbourn, where he was born, 
Sept. 17, 1677, and was admitted a pensioner of Bene't 
college, Cambridge, under the tuition of Mr. Moss, June 
19, 1696, where, after taking his first degree in arts, he 
was admitted a fellow, Fob. 25, 1702-3. He proceeded 
M. A. at the next commencement, and was admitted B. D. 
in 1711. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by 
the university of Oxford in 1733. Botany and anatomy 
formed his studies of relaxation while at Cambridge, his 
companion in which 'was the celebrated antiquary Dr. 
Stukeiey, He was advanced successively to the perpetual 
curacy of Teddington, Middlesex, and "to the livings of 
Portlock, Somersetshire, and Farringdon, Hampshire. He 
married Mary, the daughter and heiress of Dr. Henry 

1 Gen. Diet. Biog. Brit. Des Maizeaux's Life interleaved with MS notes 
and corrections, apparently intended as materials for a life. Letters} by emi- 
nent persons, 3 vols. 8vo, 1813. 



Newce of Much-Hadham, in the county of Hertford, and 
rector of Halisham in Sussex. This lady died at the end 
of two years, leaving no issue, nor did he ever marry 
strain. He resided to the end of his life at Teddington, 
wliere he was visited by persons of rank and taste, amongst 
others by late prince of Wales, after whosedeath 
Dr. Hales was made clerk of the closet to the princess 
dowager, who always entertained a high respect for him, 
and after his decease erected a handsome monument to his 
memory in Westminster-abbey, near that of Handel. On 
this is liis bust in a large medallion, supported by a female 
figure representing Botany, accompanied by Religion. The 
epitaph is in Latin. He refused a canonry 01 Windsor, 
that he migbt continue to devote himself to his parochial 
duties, and his favourite scientific pursuits ; and as piety, 
truth, and virtue were the principles of his character, he 
lived in universal esteem to the age of eighty-four, dying 
at Teddington, January 4, 1761, where he was buried, 
under the church tower, which he had rebuilt at his own 

Dr. Hales, having been elected a fellow of the royal so- 
ciety in 1717, communicated to that learned body his first 
essay in Vegetable Physiology, containing an account of 
some experiments concerning the effect of the sun's heat 
in raising the sap. In 1727 appeared the first edition of 
his " Vegetable Staticks," in 8vo, illustrated by plates, of 
which a second edition was published in 1731, followed 
afterwards by several others. This work was translated 
into French by Buffon in 1735, and into Italian by a Nea- 
politan lady named Ardinghelli, in 1756. There are also 
German and Dutch editions. The original book was, in 
fact, the first volume of a work entitled " Statical Essays," 
of which the second, relating to the circulation of the 
blood in animals, was called "Hemastaticks," and came out 
in 1733. In this the subject of the urinary calculus also is 
treated chemically and medically. With a laudable view 
of preventing as well as curing, the sufferings and crimes 
of his fellow-creatures, this good man published anony- 
mously " a friendly admonition to the drinkers of gin, 
brandy, and other spirituous liquors," which has often 
been reprinted and distributed gratis, by those who consi- 
der the temporal and eternal interests of their fellow sub- 
jects rather than the increase of the revenue. His inven- 
tion of a ventilator for mines, prisons, hospitals, and the 

HALES. 43 

holds of ships, laid before the royal society in 1741, and 
applied also to the ventilation and consequent preservation 
of corn in granaries, has proved one of the most exten- 
sively useful contrivances for the preservation of health 
and human life. His philosophy was not a barren accu- 
mulation for the ignorant to wonder at, or for its professor 
to repose on in sottish self-sufficiency and uselessness ; but 
an inexhaustible bank, on which his piety and his bene- 
volence were continually drawing. Such philosophy and 
such learning alone entitle their possessors to authority or 
respect, and such are the best fruits of religion. In this 
instance at least they were duly honoured, both at home 
and abroad. The fame of Hales was widely diffused 
throughout the learned world, of which he received a most 
distinguished testimony, in being elected one of the eight 
foreign members of the French academy of sciences, in 
1753, in the place of sir Hans Sloane, who died that same 
year. In 1732 he had been appointed, by the British go- 
vernment, a trustee for settling a colony in Georgia. He 
was well acquainted with Mr. Ellis, and other naturalists of 
his day, with whose views and pursuits of all kinds he ar- 
dently concurred ; but it does not appear that his foreign 
correspondence was extensive. His name does not occur 
among the correspondents of Haller, who nevertheless held 
him in the highest estimation, as a philosopher and a man. 
As a vegetable physiologist, Dr. Hales is entitled to the 
highest honour. His experiments and remarks led the 
way to those of Du Hamel, Bonnet, and all that have fol- 
lowed. His accuracy of observation, and fidelity of rela- 
tion, have never been impeached, and his ideas in physics, 
in many instances, went before the knowledge of his day, 
and anticipated future discoveries : such are his observa- 
tions relative to airs, and to vegetable secretions. One of 
his more able successors in the study of vegetable physio- 
logy has doubted the accuracy of one of his plates only, 
tab. 11, in which three trees, having been united by en- 
grafting their branches, the intermediate one, by the earth 
being removed from its roots, iy left hanging in the air, 
but an experiment of the late Dr. Hope's at Edinburgh, 
upon three willows, of which Dr. Smith was an eye-witness, 
and which was conducted with success in imitation of this 
of Hales, puts his account beyond all doubt whatever. ' 

1 Masters's Hist, of C. C. C. C. Annual Register, 1764. Rees's Cyclopaedia. 
Gent. Ma S . vol. LXIX, Butler's Life of Hildesley, p. 362, Lysons's a- 
yiroiis, vol. III. 

44 H A L I - B E I G H. 

HALI-BEIGH, a Polande'r, of the seventeenth century, 
whose original name was Albert Bobowski, was born a 
Christian ;but, being taken by the Tartars while a child, 
was sold to the Turks, who educated him in their religion. 
He acquired the knowledge of seventeen languages, among 
the rest, of the French, English, and German, having had 
part of his education in these countries ; and became in- 
terpreter to the grand seignior. He translated into the 
Turkish language the catechism of the church of England, 
and all the Bible. He composed a Turkish grammar and 
dictionary, and other things which were never printed. 
His principal work is, " A Treatise upon the Liturgy of 
the Turks, their pilgrimages to Mecca, their circumcision, 
and manner of visiting the sick," which he was induced to 
write by Dr. Smith, chaplain to the English embassy at the 
Porte, and who gave the MS. to Dr. Hyde, by whom it was 
published in Latin, in the appendix of the " Itinera mun- 
cli ab Abrahamo Peritsol," Oxford, 1691. His death, 
which happened in 1675, prevented the execution of a 
design which he had formed of returning to the Christian 
religion. He is supposed to have furnished Ricaut, the 
consul of Smyrna, with some materials for his book en- 
titled " The State of the Ottoman Empire." l 

HALKET (LADY ANNE), a learned English lady, the 
daughter of Mr. Robert Murray of the Tullibardin family, 
and allied by the mother's side to the Perth family, was 
born in London, Jan. 4, 1622. Her father was preceptor 
to Charles I. and afterwards provost of Eton college, and 
her mother was subgoverness to th.Q duke of Gloucester 
and the princess Elizabeth. Anne was instructed by her 
parents in every polite and liberal science ; but theology 
and physic were her favourite studies. She became so 
particularly versed in the latter art, and in the practice of 
surgery, that she was consulted by the first personages in 
the kingdom : and the reputation of her skill was also dif- 
fused over Holland, whence many persons came for her 
advice. She was a faithful royalist, and a sufferer in the 
cause of Charles. On March 2, 1656, she was married to 
sir James Halket, a worthy and amiable man, to whom she 
bore four children, one of which, Robert, her eldest son, 
only survived. During her first pregnancy she wrote, 
mder the apprehension that she should not survive her 

! Moreri Gen, Diet. 

H A L K E -T. 45 

delivery, a tract, containing excellent instructions, entitled 
"The Mother's Will to the Unborn Child." She was 
fourteen years a wife, and twenty-eight a widow. She was 
an acute theologian and a profound student. Her learning, 
simplicity, unaffected piety, exemplary conduct, and sweet- 
ness of manners, conciliated universal respect and esteem. 
She left twenty-one volumes, principally on religious sub- 
jects, some in folio, and others in quarto, from which a 
volume of " Meditations" was printed at Edinburgh in 
1701. She died April 22, 1699. l 

HALL (ANTHONY), a learned, but not very accurate 
editor, was the son of the rev. Henry Hall, of Kirkbridge 
in Cumberland, where he was born in 1679. He received 
the rudiments of learning at Carlisle, whence he was re- 
moved to Queen's college, Oxford, and admitted battiler 
July 7, 1696, but for some reason was not matriculated till 
Nov. 18, 1698. He took his bachelor's degree in 1701, 
and that of master in 1704, having just entered into holy 
orders; and war, elected fellow of his college, April 18, 
1706. In 1719, upon the death of Dr. Hudson, keeper of 
the Bodleian library, he became a candidate for that office, 
and it appears that Dr. Hudson, a little time before his 
death, expressed a wish that Mr. Hall should be his suc- 
cessor; but his endeavours failed. Dr. Hudson, at the 
time of his death, had nearly finished his edition of Jose- 
phus; and by Mr. Hall's exertions it was soon published. 
Shortly after, he married Dr. Hudson's widow. On April 
8, 1720, he was instituted to the rectory of Hampton Poyle, 
in Oxfordshire, at the presentation of his college ; and in 
the following year took his degrees in divinity. He died 
at Garford, in Berkshire, and was buried at Kingston, in 
that county, April 6, 1723. 

Dr. Hall, by his literary labours, deserved far more at- 
tention than he acquired. He had a quick apprehension, 
and his judgment was clear and penetrating; but it was his 
misfortune never to compare or revise the manuscripts he 
had once transcribed. His edition of " Leland de Scrip- 
toribus" is very erroneously printed, and in some parts are 
great omissions, from his negligence. This was his first 
publication, and appeared in 2 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1709. 
From a letter of bishop Tanner, we learn that he originally 
designed to publish Leland's work only, and not what he 

Ballard's Memoirs. 

4G HAL L. 

afterwards completed in his " Bibliotheca ;" and that he 
was at first somewhat concerned to find himself antici- 
pated, although he allows Mr. Hall's fitness for the task. 
Mr. Hail published also " N. Triveti Annales," 1718, 3vo, 
the " Continuatio" of the same, 1722, 8vo ; and drew up 
the account of Berkshire for the " Magna Britannia," but 
was not, as reported, the author of the account of Cumber- 
land in that work. 1 

HALL, or HALLE (EDWARD), an English lawyer and 
historiographer, was the son of John Halle of Northall in 
Shropshire, by Catherine his wife, daughter and heir of 
Thomas Gedding, and was descended from sir Francis Van 
Halle, knight of the garter in the time of Edward III. who 
was the son of Frederic Van Halle, of the Tyrol, in Ger- 
many, natural son of Albert king of the Romans and arch- 
duke of Austria. He was born, probably about the last 
year of the fifteenth century, in the parish of St. Mildred's, 
London. He was educated at Eton, whence in 1544 he 
was sent to King's college, Cambridge, where he continued 
until he became a junior fellow. He afterwards studied at 
GrayVinn, and resided there until he was made a judge in 
the sheriffs' court. Wood, however, says that he went to 
Oxford about 1518, when cardinal Wolsey founded certain 
lectures there; and adds that, that being the common mart 
of learning, no person of ingenuity or curiosity thought 
themselves complete until they had been there. But Mr. 
Baker of St. John's, in a letter to Hearne, seems to think 
this doubtful, as he is not to be traced from GrayVinn to 

After he had been called to the bar, he became first one 
of the common Serjeants, and then under-sheriff of the city 
of London, in both which offices he gave much satisfaction. 
In 1533 he was appointed summer reader of GrayVinn, 
and in 1540 double reader in Lent, and one of the judges 
of the sheriffs' court. About the same time, according to 
Fox, he was a member of the house of commons, and was 
one of those who supported the bill for establishing the Six 
Articles by which popery was in a great measure upheld. 
He died in 1547, and was buried, but without any memo- 
rial, in the church of St. Bennet Sherehog, London. He 
wrote " The Union of the Houses of York and Lancaster," 

iMt'*' *\* ? ' V n ' L ^ X * wrUfen by a ? entle n, on whose accuracy we can 
licitly rely. Mutchmsou's Cumberland, vol. II. p. 485. 

HALL. 47 

Lond/1548, folio*. This was continued only to the reign 
of Henry VIII. 1532. The continuation to the latter end 
of that king's reign in 1546, he left in manuscript, which 
falling into the hands of Grafton, he completed it, and 
printed it in 1550. In 1555 it was protiibiied by procla- 
mation. A third edition was printed in Lond. 1809, 4to, 
by the booksellers, who have reprinted the whole of the 
English Chronicles, with a care and at an expence which 
cannot be too highly commended. 

There are various characters given of this chronicle by 
antiquaries. Bishop Nicolson speaks of it with disrespect, 
as a record of the fashions of clothes ; but Peck vindicates 
Hall with some warmth. The author of a fragment, sup- 
posed to be Stow, published by Hearne in the appendix 
to the chartulary of Worcester, also vindicates the merit 
of the work ; and Hearne says it is written in a masculine 
and elegant style, and contains nothing but what is agree- 
able to the dignity and majesty of an historian. On the 
other hand Fox and Ascham object to the fidelity and style 
of our author. Hall has been accused of being no favourer 
of the clergy, and some instances of misrepresentation in 
that respect have been pointed out by Fiddes in his life of 
cardinal Wolsey (p. 50, &C.) 1 

HALL (HENRY), a learned English divine, was born in 
London in 1716. Of his parents little is known. His fa- 
ther is said to have occasionally resided at an old house at 
Poplar, which had a large hanging garden and a building 
at the bottom, and this, tradition reported, had been the 
laboratory of sir Richard Steele. The subject of this memoir 
was sent early to Eton, admitted on the foundation in 1729; 
and elected to King's college, Cambridge, in 1735, where 
of course he became a fellow in 1738, and took the degrees 
in arts. Being recommended by Dr. Chapman to arch- 
bishop Potter, his grace appointed him his librarian at 
Lambeth in 1748, on the resignation of Mr. Jones. In 
that station he continued till the death of his patron in 
1749; when archbishop Herring, who succeeded to the 
primacy, being sensible of his merit, not only continued 
him in that office, but, on his taking orders, appointed 
him one of his chaplains; and, in April 1750, collated him 
to the rectory of Harbledown (vacant by the promotion of 

* That of Bertholette of 1542 seems doubtful. 

1 Ath. Ox. rol. I. Cole's MS Athens Cantab, in Brit. Mns. Harwood's 
Alumni Etoaenses. Tanner and Piu.~P<;k'$ J^sideiala, rol, II, 

48 H A L L. 

Mr, Thomas Herring to the rectory of Chevening) ; in 
November 1752, the archbishop collated him also to the 
vicarage of Herne, which he held by dispensation ; to 
which his grace afterwards added the sinecure rectory of 
Orpington, in the deanery of Shoreham, one of his pecu- 
liars. In 1756, Mr. Hall vacated Herne, on being pre- 
sented to the vicarage of East Peckham by the dean and 
chapter of Canterbury, by whom he was much esteemed, 
having greatly assisted their auditor in digesting many of 
the records, charters, &c. preserved in their registry. In 
return, the late Dr. Walwyn (one of the prebendaries, who 
vacated that vicarage) was called by the archbishop to the 
rectory of Great Mongeham, void by the death of Mr. 
Byrch. On the death of archbishop Herring in 1757, he 
resigned the librarianship of Lambeth, and from that time 
resided chiefly at Harbledown, in a large house, which he 
hired, afterwards the seat of Robert Mead Wilmot, esq. 
Soon after the death of archbishop Herring, Mr. Hall was 
presented by his executors to the treasurership of the cathe- 
dral of Wells, one of his grace's options. He was also at 
first a competitor for the precentorship of Lincoln, an op- 
tion of archbishop Potter (which Dr. Richardson gained in 
1760 by a decree of the house of lords) ; but soon withdrew 
his claim, well grounded as it seemed. His learning and 
abilities were great, but not superior to his modesty ; and 
by his singular affability he obtained the love and esteem 
of all who knew him. His charitable attention to his poor 
parishioners, especially when they were ill, was constant 
and exemplary. At archbishop Seeker's primary visitation 
at Canterbury, in 17.58, Mr. Hall was "pitched upon" (his 
grace's official expression) to preach before him at St. 
Margaret's church, which he did from Acts xvii. 21. He 
died a bachelor, at Harbledown, Nov. 2, 1763, in the forty- 
seventh year of his age, after a short illness, occasioned by 
a violent swelling in the neck, which could not be ac- 
counted for by the eminent physicians who attended him. 
He was buried under the communion-table, at Harble- 
down -church, without any epitaph. 1 

HALL (JOHN), an English poet of some note, was born 

Durham, August 1627, and after one year spent at St. 

John's college, Cambridge, removed to Gray's-inn, Lon- 

un, where he was called to the bar- but entering into 

* Bri, 

HALL. 49 

the politics of the times, and writing on subjects favour- 
able to the rebellion, he attracted the notice of parliament, 
who sent him into Scotland to attend Oliver Cromwell, 
and afterwards distinguished him by other marks of favour : 
but, being too much addicted to pleasure, he fell a sacri- 
fice to its indulgence; and returning to his native city of 
Durham, died there, August 1, 1656. In 1646 (during his 
short residence at Cambridge), being then but nineteen 
years of age, he published " Horas Vacivse, or Essayes," a 
sufficient proof of his abilities. His poems came out the 
same year. He published the first English version of Lon- 
ginus, which he entitled " The Height of Eloquence," 
Lond. 1652, 8vo. This he translated from the Greek, as 
he also did " Hierocles upon the Golden Verses of Pytha- 
goras ;" before which is an account of the ingenious trans- 
lator and his works, by John Davis of Kidwelly, by whom 
it was published in 1657, 8vo. Several of his poems are 
preserved in Nichols's " Select Collection," reprinted from 
a little volume, entitled " Poems by John Hall, Cambridge, 
printed by Roger Daniel, printer to the universitie, 1646, 
for J. Rothwell at the Sun in St. Paul's Churchyard," to 
which in 1647 was added "The Second Booke of Divine 
Poems by J. H." which is now become exceedingly scarce. 
Recommendatory verses are prefixed to it by Jo. Pawson 
(his tutor), H. More, W. Dillingham, W. Harrington, Ja. 
Windet, R. Marshall, T. Smithsby, and Edw. Holland. 1 

HALL (JOSEPH), a very eminent, pious, and learned 
English prelate, was born July 1, 1574, in Bristow-park, 
within the parish of Ashby de la Zouch, in Leicestershire. 
His father was an officer to Henry earl of Huntingdon, then 
president of the North, and under him had the government 
of that town, which was the chief seat of the earldom. His 
mother was of the family of the Bembridge's, and accord- 
ing to his own account, a woman of great piety. His pa- 
rents had twelve children, and therefore, although disposed 
to bring up Joseph for the church, were inclined from mo- 
tives of oeconomy to confine his education to the care of a 
private tutor. But Mr. Gilby, fellow of Emanuel college, 
hearing of tbis design, represented its disadvantages in 
such a manner to Mr. Hall's eldest son, that the latter im- 
portuned his father that Joseph might be sent to the uni- 
versity, and generously offered to sacrifice part of his in-* 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. Ellis's Specimens, vol. II. Nichols's Poems. 


10 HALL. 

beritance, rather than prevent his brother from enjoying 
the advantages of academical education. His father, struck 
with this mark of brotherly affection, declared that, what- 
ever it might cost him, Joseph should be sent to the uni- 

He was accordingly removed to Cambridge at the age 
of fifteen, and admitted of Ernanuel college, of which he 
was chosen scholar, and took the degree of bachelor of arts. 
His residence, however, was not without its difficulties. In 
1591, as his expences began to be felt in so large a family, 
he was recalled to fill the office of schoolmaster at Ashby 
de la Zouch, and would have been prevented from ever 
returning to college, had not Mr. Edmund Sleigh of Derby, 
an uncle by marriage, offered to defray half the expences 
of his residence at Cambridge, until he should attain the 
degree of master of arts; and this he liberally performed. 
Another difficulty still presented itself. In 1395, his 
rholar&hip exnir*^ a^rj +h Q statutes of the college per- 
mitting only one person of a county to become fellow, he 
was about to leave the university a second tinie, when the 
earl of Huntingdon prevailed on his countryman and tutor, 
Mr. Gilby, to resign his fellowship, on promise of being 
made his lordship's chaplain, and receiving higher promo- 
tion ; Mr. Gilby consented, and the days of examination for 
die fellowship were appointed ; but before two of the three 
days of trial had expired, news was brought of the sudden 
death of the earl, by which event Mr. Gilby was likely to 
be deprived of the conditions on which he resigned. 
Alarmed at this, our author, with very honourable feeling, 
went to the master of the college, Dr. Chaderton, and 
stated the case, offering at the same time to leave college, 
and hoping that Mr. Gilby could be re-admitted. The 
latter, however, he was told, could not take place, as the 
fellowship had been declared void, and the election must 
proceed whether he continued to be a candidate or not. 
Mr. Hall accordingly went to the third examination, and 
was unanimously chosen. 

In 1596 he took his degree of master of arte, and ac- 
quitted himself on every public trial with great reputation. 
He read also the rhetoric lecture in the schools, but re- 
signed it, when he found that it interfered with an object 
more dear to him, the study of divinity ; and he soon after 
entered into holy orders. As we have no account of him 
when at college, except the few particulars in his " Spe- 

HALL. 51 

cialities," written by himself, we cannot trace the progress 
of his muse. It is not improbable that, like other juvenile 
poets, he had written some pieces at a very early period of 
life. All that is certain, however, is, that his satires were 
published in 1597 and 1598 in the following order : " Vir- 
gidemiarurn (i. e. a gathering or harvest of rods), sixe 
bookes. First three bookes of tooth-lesse satyrs, 1. Poetical. 
2. Academical!. 3. Moral." Printed by T. Creede for R. 
Dexter. " The three last bookes of byting satyrs," by R. 
Bradock for Dexter, 1598 ; both parts, 1599*. 

Soon after his entering into the church, he was recom- 
mended by Dr. Chaderton to the lord chief justice Popham, 
to be master of Tiverton -school in Devonshire, then newly 
founded by Mr. Blundel ; but he had scarcely accepted the 
appointment, when lady Drury of Sufteld offered him the 
rectory of Halsted near St. Edmundsbury, which induced 
him to relinquish the school. Two years after his settle- 
ment at this place, he married a daughter of sir George 
Winniff of Bretenham. In 1605, he accompanied sir Ed- 
mund Bacon to the Spa, where he composed his " Second 
Century of Meditations,'* the first having been published 
before he set out. At Brussels he entered into a confer- 
ence with Coster the Jesuit, and confirmed his own reli- 
gious persuasion by what he had occasion to see of the 
practices and actual state of the Romish church, which he 
states as the principal object that induced him to take this 
journey. About a year and a half after, happening to be 
in London, he was invited to preach before prince Henry 
at Richmond palace, which he performed so much to his 
highness' s satisfaction, that he made him one of his chap- 
lains f, 

His errand to London was a dispute with his patron sir 
Robert Drury, whom we have noticed as the patron of the 
poet Donne, but who in Mr. Hall's case does not appear 
to have acted with liberality or justice. He had detained 
about ten pounds per annum belonging to the living of 

* Warton observes, not with his once proscribed by authority, as unfit 

usual judgment, that " the poet is bet- to be circulated or read. See Warton's 

ter known than the prelate or the pole- Hist, of Poetry, and the Life of Hall in 

roic." So far is this from being the the late edition of the Poets, 

case, that of many thousands who have f Wood says that in 1611, Oct. 30, 

read bishop Hail's Meditations and he was collated to the archdeaconry of 

Sermons with pleasure and advantage, Nottingham, upon the promotion of 

few have ever heard that he was a poet. Dr. John King to the see of London, 

and still fewer that his poems were Wood's Ath. vpl. I. Fasti. 155. 

E 2 



Halsted, notwithstanding the remonstrances of the incum- 
bent, who assured him that with such a deduction it was an 
incompetent maintenance, and that he had been obliged 
to write books in order to be able to buy some. These ar- 
guments not prevailing, he was about to resign Halsted, 
when Edward lord Denny, afterwards earl of Norwich, 
gave him the donative of Waltham Holy Cross in Essex. 
About the same time (1612) he took the degree of doctor 

in divinity. . 

He now returned home, and resumed his professional 
duties, happy in having overcome his perplexities, an in 
the acquisition of a new patron, whom he valued so highly 
as to refuse the prince's invitation to reside near his per- 
son, and in the road to higher preferment. He was after- 
wards made a prebendary of the collegiate church of Wol- 
verhampton, a very small endowment, but acceptable to 
our author from the prospect it afforded of public useful- 
ness ; and after many law-suits he was the means of reco- 
vering some revenues belonging to the church which had 
been unjustly withheld. He is said by all his biographers 
to have retained the living of Waltham for twenty-two 
years, and this assertion is founded on his own words in 
his " Specialities ;" but as he expressed the time in nume- 
rals, there may be a mistake in the printing, for if he re- 
mained at Waltham twenty -two years, he must have kept 
that living after he was bishop of Exeter, which is not very 
probable, especially as we find there were three incum- 
bents on the living of Waltham before 1637. 

In 16)6 he attended the embassy of James Hay, viscount 
Doncaster, into France, and during his absence king James 
performed a promise he had made before his setting out, 
of conferring upon him the deanery of Worcester. In the 
following year he accompanied his majesty into Scotland 
as one of his chaplains ; but on his return it was insinuated 
to the king that Dr. Hall leaned too much to the presby- 
terian interpretation of the five points *, the discussion of 
which at that time occupied the attention of the protestant 
world : on this he was required to give his opinion in writ- 
ing, with which the king was so well satisfied, and found 
himself s* much of his way of thinking, that he commanded 
it to be read in the university of Edinburgh. In 1618 he 

* Viz. Predestination j the extent of Christ's death ; Man's free-will and cor- 
ruption, the manner of our conversion, to Gcdj ami, Perseverance. 

HALL. 53 

was sent to the synod of Dort, which was summoned by 
the states-general, and consisted of the most eminent di- 
vines deputed from the United Provinces, and churches of 
England, Scotland, Switzerland, &c. and its object .was to 
decide the controversy between the Calvinists and Armini- 
ans respecting the five points. Dr. Hairs companions on 
this mission were Dr. Carleton, bishop of Landaff, and 
afterwards of Chichester, Dr. Davenant, master of Queen's 
college, Cambridge, and Dr. Ward, master of Sidney ; bujt 
the state of his health requiring his return after about two 
months, his place was supplied by Dr. Goad. During his 
short residence, however, he preached a Latin sermon be- 
fore the synod, and on his departure, among other honour- 
able testimonies of their esteem, received from them, a 
rich gold medal which is painted suspended on his breast 
in the fine portrait now in Emanuel college. It appears 
by his treatise entitled " Via Media," that he was not 
extremely rigid with respect to all the five points; but his 
was not an age for moderation, and no party sought a 
middle way. 

In 1624- he refused the bishopric of Gloucester, but in 
1627 accepted that of Exeter, to which he was consecrated 
Dec. 23, holding with it in commendam the rectory of St. 
Breock in Cornwall. At this time he appears again to 
have lain under the suspicion of being a favourer of the 
puritans. What he says in his defence is worthy of no- 
tice. " I entered upon that place (the bishopric) not with- 
out much prejudice and suspicion on some hands ; for some 
who sat at the stern of the church, had me in great jea- 
lousy for too much favour of puritanism. I soon had intel- 
ligence who were set over me for spies; my ways were 
curiously observed and scanned. Some persons of note in 
the clergy, finding me ever ready to encourage those 
whom I found conscionably forward and painful in their 
places, and willingly giving way to orthodox and peace- 
able lecturers, in several parts of my diocese, opened 
their mouths against me, both obliquely in the pulpits, and 
directly at the court, complaining of my too much indul- 
gence to persons disaffected, and my too much liberty of 
frequent lecturings within my charge. The billows went 
so high, that I was three several times upon my knees to 
his majesty, to answer these great criminations ; and what 
contest I had with some graat lords concerning these par- 
ticulars, it would be too long to report : only this, under 

54 HALL. 

how dark a cloud I was here upon, I was so sensible, that 
I plainly told the lord archbishop of Canterbury (Laud) 
that rather than I would be obnoxious to these slanderous 
tongues of his misinformers, I would cast off my rochet ; I 
knew I went right ways, and would not endure to live 
under undeserved suspicion." 

It must be allowed that the religious principles which he 
inculcated from the pulpit and the press, were much more 
consonant to what the puritans maintained, than the lax 
Arminianism for which Laud contended, but at the same 
time bishop Hall's zeal for episcopacy was not inferior to 
that of any supporter of the church. Few men, indeed, 
wrote more, or suffered more, in the cause. He published, 
even when publishing became hazardous, several able 
treatises in defence of the liturgy and church discipline ; 
and was the powerful antagonist of Marshall, Calamy, 
Young, Newcomen, and Spurstow, who wrote a celebrated 
book called Smectymnuus (a title made up of their initials, 
Christian and surname), and all this he boldly ventured, 
when the republican party had possessed themselves of the 
fortresses of civil and ecclesiastical government, and were 
about to substitute power for argument ; nor was it long 
before they made him experience the dangers of a high 
station in the church. 

On the 15th of November, 1641, he was translated, by 
the little power now left to the king, to be bishop of Nor- 
wich ; but on the 30th of December following, having joined 
with the archbishop of York, and eleven other prelates, in 
a protest against the validity of such laws as should be 
made during their compelled absence from parliament, he 
was ordered to be sent to the Tower with his brethren on 
the 30th of January, 1641-2. Shortly after, they were im- 
peached by the commons of high treason, and on their 
appearance in parliament were treated with the utmost 
rudeness and contempt. The commons, however, did not 
think fit to prosecute the charge of high treason, having 
gained their immediate purpose by driving them from the 
house of lords, and he and his brethren were ordered to 
be dismissed ; but upon another pretext they were again 
sent to the Tower, and it was not until June following that 
he was finally released on giving bail for 5000/. He im- 
mediately returned to Norwich, and being received with 
rather more respect than could be hoped for in the then 
state of popular opinion, he resumed his functions, fre- 

HAL L. 55 

quently preaching, as was his custom, to crowded audien- 
ces, and enjoying the forbearance of the predominant 
party till the beginning of April, 1643, when the destruc- 
tion of the church could no longer be delayed. About this 
time, the ordinance for sequestering notorious delinquents 
having passed, and our prelate being included by name, a 
distinction which his writings and his popularity had me- 
rited, all his rents were stopped, even the half-year then 
due ; and a few days after, the sequestrators entered his 
palace, and began the work of devastation with unfeeling 
brutality, seizing at the same time all his property real 
and personal. Some notion of their proceedings may be 
formed from his own brief account. 

" The sequestrators sent certain men appointed by them 
(whereof one had been burned in the hand) to appraise all 
the goods that were in my house; which they accordingly 
executed with all diligent severity, not leaving so much as 
a dozen of trenchers, or my children's pictures out of their 
curious inventory : yea, they would have apprized our 
very wearing-apparel, had not some of them declared their 
opinion to the contrary. These goods, both library and 
household-stuff of all kinds, were appointed to be exposed 
to public sale ; but in the mean time, Mrs. Goodwin, a 
religious good gentlewoman, whom yet we had never 
known or seen, being moved with compassion, very kindly 
offered to lay down to the sequestrators the whole sum at 
which the goods were valued ; and was pleased to leave 
them in our hands, for our use, till we might be able to 
re-purchase them. As for the books, several stationers 
looked on them, but were not forward to buy. At last Mr. 
Cooke, a worthy divine of this diocese, gave bond to the 
sequestrators, to pay them the whole sum whereat they 
were set ; which was afterwards satisfied out of that poor 
pittance which was allowed me for my maintenance." 

This " poor pittance" had at first the appearance of 
liberality, for when he applied to the committee of seques- 
trators at Norwich, they were either so ashamed of what 
they had been compelled to do, or entertained so much 
respect for his character, as to agree that he should have 
400/. a-year out of the revenues of the bishopric. But 
their employers at the seat of government disdained to vary 
their proceedings by such an act of generosity, and the 
Norwich committee were told that they had no power to 
allow any such thing, but if his wife needed a maintenance. 

56 HALL. 

upon her application to the lords and commons she might 
receive a fifth part. After long delays, this was granted ; 
but the sequestrators produced such confused accounts, that 
the bishop could never ascertain what a fifth part meant, 
and was obliged to take what they offered. And that even 
this pittance might wear the appearance of insult and per- 
secution, after they had cut off all his resources they de- 
manded assessments and monthly payments for the very 
estates they had seized, and levied distresses upon him in 
spite of every assurance that he had given up all. They 
even commanded him to find the arms usually furnished 
by his predecessors, although they had deprived him of all 
power over his diocese. 

While he remained in his palace, he was continually ex- 
posed to the insolence of the soldiery and mob, who were 
plundering and demolishing the windows and monuments 
of the cathedral. At length he was ordered to leave his 
house, and would have been exposed to the utmost extre- 
mity, had not a neighbour offered him the shelter of his 
humble roof. Some time after, but by what interest we 
are not told, the sequestration was taken off a small estate 
which he rented at Higham near Norwich, to which he re- 
tired. His sufferings had not damped his courage, as in 
1644 we find him preaching in Norwich, wherever he 
could obtain the use of a pulpit, and, with yet more bold- 
ness, in the same year he sent " A modest offer of some 
meet considerations," in favour of episcopacy, addressed 
to the assembly of divines. During the rest of his life he 
appears to have remained at Higham unmolested, perform- 
ing the duties of a faithful pastor, and exercising such 
hospitality and charity as his scanty means permitted. He 
died Sept. 8, 1656, in the eighty-second year of his age, 
and was buried in the church-yard of Higham without any 
memorial. In his will he says, " I leave my body to be 
buried without any funeral pomp, at the discretion of my 
executors, with this only monition, that I do not hold 
God's house a meet repository for the dead bodies of the 
greatest saints." His wife died in 1647. He left a family 
behind, according to Lloyd, of whom Robert, the eldest 
son, was afterwards a clergyman and D. D. and archdeacon 
of Cornwall, and George was bishop of Chester. 

His works were published at various periods in folio, 
quarto, and duodecimo. They have lately been collected 
w a very handsome, correct, and well-arranged edition, 

HALL. 57 

by the rev. Josias Pratt, in 10 vols. 8vo. The " Medita- 
tions" have been often reprinted. As a moralist he has 
been entitled the Christian Seneca ; his knowledge of the 
world, depth of thought, and elegance of expression, place 
him nearer our own times than many of his contemporaries, 
while he adorned his age by learning, piety, and the uni- 
form exercise of all the Christian graces. It would, in- 
deed, be difficult to mention a prelate of more excellent 
character, or one, of his time, whose talents and sufferings, 
whose zeal in prosperity, and courage in adversity, deserve 
more honourable mention. 1 

HALL (GEORGE), son of the preceding, was born at 
Waltham Holy Cross in 1612, while his father was rector 
there, and was admitted commoner of Exeter college, Ox- 
ford, in 1628. After taking his degrees and obtaining a 
fellowship, he was in 1639 collated to a prebend of Exeter. 
In 1641 he was made archdeacon of Cornwall on the re- 
signation of his brother Robert, and had also the rectory 
of Minhinnet in that county, but was sequestered by the 
usurping powers, and although he would have kept a 
school for his subsistence, was not suffered even that re- 
source. On the restoration, he was first made canon of 
Windsor, and afterwards bishop of Chester, with which he 
held Wigan in Lancashire, a living that was for several 
turns presented to the bishops of Chester. His death, on 
Aug. 23, 1668, was occasioned by a wound received by a 
knife, which happened to be in his pocket, when he fell 
from the mount in his garden at Wigan. He published 
some sermons, and a treatise entitled " The Triumphs of 
Rome over despised Protestancy," Lond. 1655. He was 
a considerable benefactor to Exeter college. 2 

HALL (RICHARD), a Roman catholic writer, was edu- 
cated at Christ's college, Cambridge, which his principles 
obliged him to leave about 1572. He then went to Doway, 
and thence to Italy, where he resumed his studies and took 
his degree of D. D. Returning afterwards to Doway, he 
obtained a professorship and some preferment. He died 
in 1604-. He wrote some books of controversy; but is 
chiefly worthy of notice now, as the author of that " Life 
of bishop Fisher" which goes under the name of Bailey. 
He left it in manuscript at his death, and it was long pre- 

1 Life by himself in his " Specialities," &c. Biog. Brit. Johnson and Chal- 
mers' English Poets, 1810. Warton's Hist, of Poetry. 

2 Atji. Ox. vol. II Birch's Life of Tillotson. 


served as a choice rarity in the library of the English Bene- 
dictines at Dieuward in Lorraine ; but several transcripts 
getting abroad, one fell into the hands of Thomas Bailey, 
D. D. a son of Bailey, or Bayly, bishop of Bangor. This 
Dr. Bailey, who was a Roman catholic, sold it to a book- 
seller, by whom it was printed at London in 1655, under 
the editor's name. In 1739 another edition was published 
at London, 12mo, edited by Coxeter. It is valued as a 
narrative of considerable interest and authenticity. ' 

HALL (THOMAS), a learned nonconformist, was born at 
Worcester July 22, 1610, and after being educated in 
grammar at the king's school there, under Mr. Henry 
Bright, was entered at Baliol-college in 1624, whence he 
soon removed to Pembroke, and had for his tutor a Mr. 
Thomas Lushington, a man eminent for learning. After 
taking his first degree in arts, he returned home, and for 
a while taught a private school, and preached at King's- 
Nortou. About this time Wood says he began to adhere 
to the puritans, but he adds, " was so rigid in his persua- 
sion that he was disliked by the brethren.'* This perhaps 
may he gathered from his works, some of which were writ- 
ten in opposition to unlicensed preachers, fifth-monarchy 
men, and other extravagancies of the times. He was after- 
wards master of the free-school at KingVNorton, and cu- 
rate of the place, the only preferments he had. He ap- 
pears to have been a man of retired and studious habits, 
and although averse to episcopacy and the ceremonies, free 
from turbulence or open interference in the commotions of 
the times. He died April 13, 1665, and was buried at 
KingVNorton, to the school of which he was a bountiful 
benefactor in the establishment of a library there, as well 
as to the library of Birmingham school. Among his works 
are many controversial tracts enumerated by Wood, com- 
mentaries on some parts of the Scriptures, and some trans- 
lations, adapted apparently for the use of schools, from 
Ovid. = 

HALLE (PETER), professor of canon law in the univer- 
sity of Paris, was born at Bayeux in Normandy, Septem- 
ber 8, 1611. He studied philosophy, law, arid divinity, 
five years in the university of Caen ; and also applied 
himself to poetry, under the direction of his uncle Anthony 

iSt ' V01 ' "~ Cole ' s MS AthenjB in British Museum, 

H A L L E. 59 

Halle, who was a Latin poet of some note, with such suc- 
cess, that he gained the prizes in the poetical exercises 
that are performed every year in these two cities, " to the 
honour of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary." 
This procured him so much reputation, that, though he 
was still very young, he was chosen professor of rhetoric 
in the university of Caen. Some time afier, being rector 
of the university, he made an oration to M. Seguier, chan- 
cellor of France, then in Normandy, to -suppress some 
popular insurrections; which was so much approved by 
that head of the law, that he received a doctor of law's de- 
gree from him in 1640. He attended M. Seguier to Paris, 
and gained such reputation by some pieces he published, 
that they offered him the mastership of five different col- 
leges ; and he was incorporated in his absence (a very un- 
usual thing) into the body of the university in 1641. He 
was made king's poet, and reader of the Latin and Greek 
tongues in the royal college in 1646. His assiduous appli- 
cation to study having ruined his health, he was obliged to 
rest for two years, in order to recover it. He afterwards 
resolved to raise the glory of the faculty of the law, which 
was miserably sunk; and in 1655 he obtained the post 
of regius professor of the canon law, when he vigorously 
began, and, though he met with great difficulties, success- 
fully executed what he had resolved. Besides " Canoni- 
cal Institutions," which he published in 1685, he wrote 
also for the use of his pupils several treatises upon the 
civil and canon laws ; as, concerning councils, the Pope's 
authority, the regale, simony, usury, censures, regular per- 
sons, ecclesiastical benefices, matrimony, last wills and 
testaments, &c. He had published in 1G55, 8vo. "A Col- 
lection of Latin Poems and Orations." He died Decem- 
ber 27, 1689. 1 

HALLER (ALBERT DE), one of the most eminent phy- 
sicians and philosophers of the eighteenth century, was 
born at Berne, Oct. 16, 1708. He was the son of Nicholas 
de Haller, an advocate of considerable distinction in his 
profession, who had a numerous family. Albert was the 
youngest of five sons. From the commencement of his 
education, he discovered a great capacity for literature of 
every kind; to forward the progress of his studies, his 
father took into his family a private tutor, named Abraham 

J Gen. Diet. Niceron, vol. III. 

60 H A L L E R. 

Billodz ; but such was the discipline employed by this pe- 
dagogue, that the accidental sight of him at any subse- 
quent period of life, excited in Haller those painful recol- 
lections, of which all may have some idea who have been 
tutored with rigid severity. The progress of Haller's 
studies, however, at the earliest periods of life, was rapid 
almost beyond belief. When other children were be- 
ginning only to read, he was studying Bayle and Moreri, 
and at nine years of age he was able to translate Greek, 
and was beginning to learn Hebrew. Not long after this, 
however, the course of his education was somewhat inter- 
rupted by the death of his father, which happened when 
he was in the thirteenth year of his age. After this he was 
sent to the public school at Berne, where he exhibited 
many specimens of early and uncommon genius. He was 
distinguished for his knowledge in the Greek and Latin 
languages, but principally for his poetical genius; and his 
essays of this kind, which were published in the German 
language, were read and admired throughout the whole 

In the sixteenth year of his age he began the study of 
medicine at Tubingen, under those eminent teachers Du- 
vernoy and Camerarius ; and continued there for the space 
of two years, when the reputation of the celebrated Boer- 
haave drew him to Leyden. Nor was this distinguished 
teacher the only man from whose superior abilities he had 
there an opportunity of profiting. Ruysch was still alive, 
and Albinus was rising into fame. Animated by such ex- 
amples, he spent all the day, and the greatest part of the 
night, in the most intense study ; and the proficiency 
which he made gained him universal esteem, both from his 
teachers and fellow-students. From Holland, in 1727, he 
came to England, where, however, his stay was but short, 
t being his intention rather to visit the illustrious men of 
that period than to prosecute his studies at London, and he 
ormed connections with some of the most eminent of 
them. He was honoured with the friendship of Douglas 
and Cheselden, and he met with a reception proportioned 
nis merit from sir Hans Sloane, president of the royal 
>ciety. After his visit to Britain he went to France, and 
ere, under those eminent masters, Winslow and Le Bran, 
with the latter of wbom he resided during his stay in Paris, 
be had opportunities of prosecuting anatomy which he 
bad not before enjoyed. But the zeal of our youno- ana. 

H A L L E R. 61 

tomist was greater than the prejudice* of the people at that 
period, even in the enlightened city of Paris, could admit 
of. An information being lodged against him to the police, 
for dissecting dead bodies, he was obliged to make a pre- 
cipitate retreat to Basil, where he became a pupil to the 
celebrated Bernoulli!. 

Thus improved and instructed by the lectures of the most 
distinguished teachers of that period, by uncommon na- 
tural abilities, and by unremitting industry, he returned to 
Berne in the twenty-sixth year of his age. Not long after 
this, he offered himself a candidate, first for the office of 
physician to an hospital, and afterward for a professorship. 
But neither the character which he acquired before he left 
his native country, nor the fame which he had accumulated 
abroad, were sufficient to combat the interest opposed to 
him. He was disappointed in both ; and it was even with 
difficulty that he obtained in the following year the ap- 
pointment of keeper to a public library at Berne. The 
exercise of this office, however, although ill suited to his 
great abilities, was agreeable to him, as it afforded him an 
opportunity for that extensive reading by which he has 
been so justly distinguished; nor did this neglect of his 
merit diminish his ardour, or detract from his reputation 
either at home or abroad. He was soon after nominated 
a professor in the university of Gottingen, by king George 
II. The duties of this important office, which he dis- 
charged with no less honour to himself than advantage to 
the public, afforded him an ample field for the exertion 
of those great talents he possessed. Extensively acquainted 
with the sentiments of others respecting the ceconomy of 
the human body, struck with the diversity of opinions 
which they held, and sensible that the only means of in- 
vestigating truth was by careful and candid experiment, he 
undertook the arduous task of exploring tbe phenomena 
of human nature from the original source. In these pur- 
suits he was no less industrious than successful, and there 
was hardly any function of the body on which his expe- 
riments did not reflect either a new or a stronger light. 
Nor was it long necessary for him, in this arduous under- 
taking, to labour alone. The example of the preceptor 
inspired his pupils with the spirit of industrious exertion. 
Zinn, Zimmerman, Caldani, and many others, laboured 
with indefatigable industry to prosecute and to perfect the 
discoveries of their great master. And the mutual exertions 

62 H A L L E R. 

of the teacher and his students not only tended to for- 
ward the progress of medical science, but placed the phi- 
losophy of the human body on a more sure, and an almost 
entirely new basis. 

But the labours of Dr. Haller during his residence at 
Gottingen, were by no means confined to any one depart- 
ment of science. He was not more anxious to be an im- 
prover himself, than to instigate others to similar pursuits. 
To him, the anatomical theatre, the school of midwifery, 
the chirurgical society, and the royal academy of sciences 
at Gottingen, owe their origin. Such distinguished merit 
could not fail to meet with a suitable reward from the 
sovereign under whose protection he then taught. The 
king of Great Britain not only honoured him with every 
mark of attention which he himself could bestow, but pro- 
cured him also letters of nobility from the emperor. The 
title, however, of baron de Haller, he never assumed, 
although it was often bestowed on him. On the death of 
Dillenius he had an offer of the professorship of botany at 
Oxford ; the states of Holland invited him to the chair of 
the younger Albinus ; and the king of Prussia was anxious 
that he should be the successor of Maupertuis at Berlin. 
Marshal Keith wrote to him in the name of his sovereign, 
offering him the chancellorship of the university of Halle, 
vacant by the death of the celebrated Wolff. Count Orlowr 
invited him to Russia, in the name of his mistress, the 
empress, offering him a distinguished place at St. Peters- 
burgh. The king of Sweden conferred on him an unso- 
licited honour, by raising him to the rank of knighthood, 
of the order of the polar star; and the late Joseph II. em- 
peror of Germany, honoured him with a personal visit. 

Thus honoured by sovereigns, revered by men of lite- 
rature, and esteemed by all Europe, he had it in his power 
to have held the highest rank in the republic of letters. 
Yet, declining all the tempting offers which were made to 
him, he continued at Gottingen, anxiously endeavouring 
to extend the rising fame of that medical school. But 
after seventeen years residence there, an ill state of health 
rendering him less fit for the duties of the important of- 
fice which he held, he solicited and obtained permission 
from the regency of Hanover to return to his native city of 
Berne. His fellow-citizens, who might at first have fixed 
inm among themselves, with no less honour than advantage 
to their city, were now as sensible as others of his superior 

H A L L E R. 63 

merit. A pension was settled upon him for life, and he 
was nominated at different times to fill the most important 
offices in the state. These occupations, however, did not 
diminish his ardour for useful improvements. He was the 
first president, as well as the greatest promoter, of the 
economical society at Bern ; and may he considered as the 
father and founder of the orphan hospital of that city. 
Declining health at length restrained his exertions in the 
more active scenes of life, and for many years he was 
confined entirely to his own house. But even this could 
not put a period to his studies ; he continued his favourite 
employment of writing till within a few days of his death, 
and preserved his senses and composure to the last mo- 
ment, meeting death with the calmness of a philosopher, 
and what is transcendently superior, the lively faith of a 
Christian. His last words were addressed to the physician 
who attended him. " My friend," said he to M. Rosselet, 
u the artery no longer beats," and immediately he ex- 
pired, at the age of sixty-nine years, on the 12th of De- 
cember, 1777. 

The personal character of this extraordinary man is uni- 
versally acknowledged to deserve the highest praise. In 
conversation he was most agreeable. His elocution was 
free, strong, and concise ; and his knowledge remarkably 
diversified. His immense reading, fertile and faithful me- 
mory, and sound judgment, gave satisfaction to men of 
all dispositions. He was superior to the affectation of wit, 
and equally disdained to make a parade of his knowledge. 
His disposition was gentle, and his heart replete with sen- 
sibility. All his writings are expressive of his love of vir- 
tue. Ever pure in his own morals, he beheld with regret 
the neglect of them in others ; and sincerely lamented the 
influence which irregularities in private life seemed likely 
to produce on the manners of the state. 

But his religious principles form his highest honour. 
Religion was the object of his most serious inquiries, even 
from his earliest youth, at which period it was his happiness 
to enjoy a religions education. His comprehensive mind, 
ever capable of a just mode of thinking, had beeo happily 
impressed with the grand idea of a God, the great origin 
of all beings, and with the belief of eternity, " that an- 
cient source as well as universal sepulchre of worlds and 
ages, in which the duration of this globe is lost as that of a 
day, and the life of map. as a moment." Persuaded of a 

64 H A L L E R. 

future life, he waited with confidence for that consumma- 
tion which shall dissipate the mists of human wisdom, and 
display to us the universe such as it actually is, by the 
light of a new luminary, emanating from the Divinity him- 
self. It was impossible that a spirit thus elevated, and 
constantly employed in researches after truth, could neglect 
to inquire into that most important one, the religion of his 
ancestors and of his country. Convinced of the reality of 
revelation, by diligently studying the scriptures, he could 
not behold with indifference any attacks on this funda- 
mental law, this strongest bond of society ; and at a time 
when other illustrious men prostituted their fame and ta- 
lents in making dangerous attacks upon religion, he thought 
it his duty to enter the lists as her avowed champion and 

It has been usual for modern infidels to associate with 
themselves, if at all possible, men of eminent literary 
talents, and it must be confessed, they have been often too 
successful, especially with medical professors and prac- 
titioners, but Haller disdained such an association. Of 
this we have a remarkable proof which occurred soon after 
he had published his discoveries relative to irritability. 
On this property of animated matter, the unprincipled La 
Mettrie, the Dr. Sangrado of his day, laid the foundation 
of a system of materialism ; and he had the impudence to 
dedicate it to Haller, declaring that to him he owed the 
acquisition of the great truths which it contained. Haller 
considered what La Mettrie meant for jocularity, as a se- 
rious insult ; and observed, with horror, that he was held 
up to Europe as a favourer of materialism, or at least as 
the inventor of principles which served as a basis for that 
doctrine. Neither the respect which he had constantly 
declared for Christianity, in all his works, nor his mode of 
life, so conformable to the precepts of the Gospel, seemed 
sufficient to secure him against this imputation. He com- 
plained of it bitterly, and La Mettrie, in his answer, as- 
sumed the same tone ; and Haller had prepared to publish 
a long and serious refutation of the charge, when he was 
informed of the death of his antagonist, and discovered, 
that, deceived by an excess of delicacy, which was, doubt- 
less, laudable, he alone had been made the dupe of La 
Mettrie's irony. 

Another trait of his character may here be introduced, 
which is of more importance than the institutors of wanton 

H A L L R. 65 

experiments are disposed to allow. His humanity must 
have suffered in making experiments which could not be 
conducted without subjecting a great number 'of animals to 
most excruciating pains. This would have been pur- 
chasing an useless fact at too great a price. Haller per- 
ceived it, and the compassion he felt for the victims of his 
researches is often apparent in the narrative of his expe- 
riments. We behold him impressed with a kind of re- 
morse, and omitting no occasion of expatiating on the 
utility which may be derived from them to mankind. He 
even seems desirous to believe that these animals suffer no 
pain, and is unwilling to renounce the opinion of Des- 
cartes. To such dilemmas may the best of men be re- 
duced, when, from whatever motive, they are performing 
an action in itself wrong. We are willing, however, to 
believe, that he was as sparing as possible in such ex- 

In person Haller was tall and majestic, and of a serious 
and expressive countenance ; he had at times an open 
smile, always a pleasing tone of voice, usually low, and 
seldom elevated, even when he was most agitated. He 
was fond of unbending himself in society, and was on those 
occasions remarkably cheerful, polite, and attentive ; he 
would converse with the ladies on fashions, modes of dress, 
and other trifles, with as much ease as if he had never 
secluded himself from the world. Mr. Bonnet informed 
Mr. Coxe that Haller wrote with equal facility the German, 
French, and Latin tongues ; that he was so well acquainted 
with all the European languages, except the Russian, Po- 
lish, and Hungarian, as to speak with the natives in their 
respective idioms. When he conversed on any science or 
subject of literature, his knowledge was so extensive, that 
he seemed to have made that his particular study. His 
profound erudition in every branch of science is well 
known to all who are conversant with his works : but the 
variety of his information, and the versatility of his talents, 
are thus delineated by Tscharner Lobrede, who was his 
particular friend : " He possessed a fundamental knowledge 
of natural history ; was well read in history, both ancient 
and modern, universal and particular; and uncommonly 
versed in the state of agriculture, manufactures, trade, 
population, literature, and languages of the respective 
nations of Europe ; he had read with attention the most 
remarkable voyages and travels : and was particularly con- 



versantin the late discoveries which tend to illustrate the 
geography of the globe. He had even perused many 
thousand novels and plays ; and possessed such an astonish- 
ing memory, that he could detail their contents with the 
utmost precision. As it was his custom to make extracts, 
and to give his opinion of every book which came into his 
hands, as well for his own private use, as for the Gottin- 
gen Review (in which his department embraced history, 
medicine, anatomy, natural history, and several miscel- 
laneous works, especially those which appeared in Italy), 
he read most new publications; and so eager was he usually 
in the perusal, that he laid them upon the table even when 
he was at dinner, occasionally looking into them, and 
marking those parts with a pencil which he afterward ex- 
tracted or commented upon. He was accustomed to make 
his remarks on small pieces of paper, of different sizes, 
which he placed in order and fastened together ; a method 
he learned from Leibnitz." It may be added, as one 
weakness in this great character, that he was always im- 
patient under sickness, as well from his extreme suscepti- 
bility of pain, as because he was precluded in that situa- 
tion from his literary occupations. He was fond, therefore, 
of taking violent remedies, more calculated to remove the 
immediate effects of pain, and to check his disorder, than 
to cure it radically. In his latter years he accustomed him- 
self to opium, which, Zimmerman informs us, he took in 
so large a dose as eight grains, aud which operated as a 
temporary palliative, but increased his natural impatience. 
This restlessness of temper, which occasionally disturbed 
his tranquillity even in his younger clays, and in the full 
flow of his health and spirits, was considerably heightened 
by the advances of age, and the disorders which shattered 
his frame toward the close of his days. 

In his youth, during a residence of some time at Bienne 
in 1723, he composed several pieces in the epic, dra- 
matic, and lyric styles, his genius being awakened by the 
romantic scenery of the country to poetical enthusiasm. 
At this period he was so entirely absorbed in his favourite 
study, that on a fire breaking out in the house in which he 
lived, he rushed into his apartment, and rescued his poetry 
from the flames, leaving his other papers, with little regret, 
to destruction. Afterward, when a more mature age had 
ripened his judgment, he was frequently heard to say that 
he had preserved from the flames those composition^ which 

H A L L E R. 67 

he then thought the finest productions of human genius, 
in order at a future period to consign them to destruction, 
as unworthy of his pen. In the sequel, however, he was 
more successful in his poetical effusions. In 1729 he 
composed his poem " On the Alps," on which critics have 
been highly lavish of praise. He likewise wrote some 
ethic epistles on the " The Imperfection of human Virtue, 
on Superstition and Infidelity, the origin of Evil, and on 
the vanity of Honour ;" also various " Satires," " Doris 3 " 
a pastoral on his first wife, and his much admired " Elegy 
on her death*." It is a convincing proof of Haller's ver- 
satile genius and extraordinary mental powers, that be 
should have so eminently excelled in poetry, which, except 
in his early youth, he never considered otherwise than as 
an amusement, either to soothe him under afflictions, or to 
console him for the envy and neglect of his contemporaries. 
The soundest German critics place Haller among the most 
eminent of their poets : and consider sublimity as the grand 
characteristic of his writings. They acknowledge that he 
improved the harmony and richness of his native tongue ; 
that he possessed the highest powers of invention and 
fancy; great originality both in his ideas and language; 
that he is the true colourist of nature ; that he sounded the 
depths of metaphysical and moral science ; and that he 
equally excels in picturesque descriptions, in soft and 
delightful imagery, in elevated sentiments, and philoso- 
phical precision. A few supercilious critics have re- 
proached his poetry with occasional obscurities, and accuse 
him of having introduced a new language affectedly averse 
to the common modes of diction ; but twenty- two succes- 
sive editions of his German poems, and the translation of 
them into the principal languages of Europe, prove that 
they possess the great aim of poetry, that of pleasing and 
interesting the reader. 

To his other writings he added, in the German tongue, 
" Letters to his Daughter, on the truth of the Christian 
Revelation," which have been translated into English. He 
published also an extract from Ditton's " Truth of the 
Resurrection of Jesus Christ," which he acknowledges to 
have first cleared any doubts he might entertain on that 
subject. He avows at the same time tflat he received in- 

* These poems were translated into proae and verse by Mrs. Haworth, 1794, 
. feno The prosaic versions are much the best. 


finite satisfaction from the study of the New Testament, 
because he was never more certain of holding converse 
with the Deity than when he read his will in that divine 
book. In 1775 he published, in German, " Letters con- 
cerning several late attempts of Free-thinkers yet living, 
against Revelation." His own religious principles, it has 
been already remarked, were fixed ; and having imbibed 
the system of Calvin, this was supposed to have occasioned 
some uneasiness and anxiety to him on his death, but he 
finally obtained consolation. 

His scientific works form an imperishable monument to 
his memory. The most of his various dissertations on ana- 
tomical and physiological subjects, published during hi* 
residence at Gottingen, were collected, revised, and re- 
printed in 1751, under the title of" Opuscula Anatomica, 
de respiratione, de rnonstris, aliaque minora, quae recensuit, 
emendavit, auxit. Addidit alia inedita, et novas icones," 
Gottingae, 8vo. The principal publications within the pe- 
riod just mentioned were, his great work on the botany of 
Switzerland, the first edition of which appeared in 1742, 
under the title of " Enurneratio methodica Stirpium Helve- 
tise indigenarum, &c." folio ; which, after undergoing con- 
siderable corrections and augmentations, was given under 
its perfect form, entitled " Historia Stirpium Helvetiae in- 
digenarum," in 1768, 3 vols. folio, with many plates. This 
admirable work, which was the most copious then published, 
was remarkably accurate in specific distinctions, and very 
full upon the economical and medicinal uses of the plants. 
The arrangement was peculiar to himself, and he shewed 
an unwillingness to adopt the improvements of Linnaeus. 
His " Commentarii ad Hermanni Boerhaave Praelectiones 
Academicas, &c." appeared in seven successive volumes, 
8vo, between 1739 and 1744. Immediately after the death 
of his venerable preceptor Boerhaave in 1738, Haller un- 
dertook to publish his " Prelections," from a MS copy of 
his own, collated with others. In 1743, he began to pub- 
lish fasciculi of anatomical plates in folio, particularly re- 
lative to the blood-vessels in situ, which are among the 
most valuable of these helps to the study of the human 
frame. They were entitled " Iconum Anatomicarum, 
quibus praecipuae partes corporis humani delineate conti- 
nentur, Fascic." The plates amount to thirty-six in num- 
ber. The first edition of his excellent little work " PrimsB 
Lmese Physiologic in usum Praelectionum Academicarum " 

H A L L E R. 69 

was published in 1747, 8vo. It passed through many sub- 
sequent editions, and several translations, and is an outline 
of the system afterwards developed in his larger work. In 
1751 he published at Amsterdam another work of great 
labour and research, viz. an edition of Boerhaave's " Me- 
thodus Studii Medici," with so many additions, that by 
much the greater part was his own ; it may be considered 
as a prelude to his later " Bibliothecae." He delivered two 
academical discourses in 1752, in which he proposed his 
peculiar opinions respecting the properties of sensibility 
and irritability in living bodies ; they were written in 
French (of which language he had a perfect commarjd), 
under the title of " Dissertation sur les parties sensibles et 
irritables des Animaux," Lausanne, 12mo. Besides these 
works, he printed a catalogue of plants growing in the 
botanic garden, and in the district, of Gottingen ; obser- 
vations made in a journey to the Hercynian forest in 1738, 
and an "Iter Helveticum, anni 1739;" and likewise a num- 
ber of botanical papers, which were collected in his 
" Opuscula Botanica," 1749, 8vo, or contained in the 
memoirs of the Gottingen academy, and other periodical 

In 1755 he published his " Opuscula Pathologica, quibus 
sectiones cadaverum morbosorum potissimum continentur," 
at Lausanne, 8vo. In the following year he printed " Deux 
Memoires sur le Mouvement du Sang, et sur les Effets de 
la Saignee, &c. ;" and a continuation of his inquiries re- 
specting irritability and sensibility, entitled " Memoires sur 
la nature sensible et irritable des partes du Corps Animal," 
Lausanne, 4 vols. I2mo. He likewise sent to the press a 
collection of theses, under the title of " Disputationes Chi- 
rurgicae selects," ibid. 1755 6, in 5 vols. 4to. Soon after- 
wards, his great work, " Elementa Physiologiae Corporis 
Humani," began to make its appearance : the first volume, 
in 4 to, having been published at Lausanne in 1757, and 
the eighth and last in 1766. Such a vast collection of 
well- authenticated facts, with so much accurate descrip- 
tion and truly scientific argumentation, so well arranged, 
was never perhaps brought together upon any subject; and 
of this the author's own discoveries made a very conspi- 
cuous part. His other anatomical writings are principally 
comprised in his " Opera anatomica minora," in 1762 68, 
3 vols. 4to. He had published in 1758, " Deux Memoires 
sur la Formation du Cceur dans le Poulet, &c." containing 

JO H A L L E R. 

the result of three years* experiments at Berne, in which 
he traced, hour after hour, the developement of the parts 
of the chick in ovo, and especially of the heart. There 
are besides many separate tracts, which it would be tedious 
to enumerate. 

But before we complete the catalogue of the labours of 
Haller in favour of medical science, we have to notice a 
series of volumes, which alone would have entitled him to 
the praise of a life well spent in the service of his profes- 
sion. These were his (t Bibliothecse," containing a chro- 
nological list of every book, of every age, country, and 
language, respecting subjects connected with medicine, 
which had come to his knowledge, with brief analyses, and 
opinions. Of these he published the " Bibl. Botanica," 
1777, 2 vols. 4to; " Bibl. Chirurgica," 1774, 2 vols. 4to ; 
"Bibl. Anatomica," 1774, 2 vols. 4to ; "Bibl. Medicine 
PracticED," 1776 88, 4 vols. 4to. The third and fourth 
volumes of this last were published from his papers by 
Drs. Tribolet and Brandis. 

Haller was three times married ; first to Marianne Wyt- 
*en, in 1731, who died in 1736; secondly to Elizabeth 
Buchers, in 1738, who died in childbed the same or the 
following year ; both natives of Berne ; and lastly in 1739, 
to Amelia Frederica Teichmeyer, a German lady, who sur- 
vived him. He left eight children, four sons and four 
daughters, all of whom he lived to see established. His 
eldest son, GOTLIEB EMMANUEL, who was bom in 1735, 
followed his father's example in dedicating himself to the 
service of his country, and to the pursuits of literature, 
He was elected member of the great council, and obtained 
various employments under government, particularly the 
baillage of Nyon, in which situation he died in 1786. He 
distinguished himself as an author by various publications 
tending to illustrate the history and literature of Swisser- 
land, and particularly by his " Swiss Library," in 6 vols. 
8vo, of which he lived to publish only the first Another 
valuable work of his was entitled " Cabinet of Swiss Coins 
and Medals. 1 

HALLET (JOSEPH), a dissenting clergyman, was born 
at Exeter in 1692, and educated under the care of Mr. 
Pierce, who was assistant to his father Mr. Hallet, minister 

. s , A 5 ade l micieus ' l. HCoxe's Travels in Swisserland, to which 

HaUe? WHKMUiZ the p gre fo P ? rt f thc above "ticle.-Henry's Memoirs of 
Waller, 1783, 12mo. Kees's Cyclopaedia, 

H A L L E T. 71 

of a congregation of protestant dissentars in that city. Jo- 
seph was ordained in 1713, and in 1722 he succeeded his 
father as joint-minister with Mdf. Pierce. Prior to this 
event he had engaged in the controversy, then warmly 
carried on in the west of England, concerning the Trinity ;; 
and in 1720, adopted the principles of Dr. Clarke, which 
he demonstrated in a treatise entitled " The Unity of God 
not inconsistent with the Divinity of Christ; being remarks 
upon Dr. Waterland's Vindication, relating to the Unity of 
God, and the Object of Worship." He published other 
pieces on the same subject ; but his reputation is chiefly 
founded on his work entitled " A free and impartial Study 
of the Holy Scriptures recommended, being notes on some 
peculiar texts, with discourses and observations," 1729 
1736, 3 vols. published at different times. Our author 
published many other works, which being of the contro- 
versial kind, are now forgotten. Those which merited 
most general approbation were his " Discourse of the na- 
ture, kinds, and numbers of our Saviour's Miracles ;" his 
" Immorality of the Moral Philosopher," and his " Con- 
sistent Christian," against the infidel writers, Woolston, 
Morgan, and Chubb. Mr. Hallet died in 1744. 1 

HALLEY (EDMUND), an eminent English philosopher 
and astronomer, was born at Haggerston, in the parish of 
St. Leonard, Shoreditch, near London, October 29, 1656. 
His father, a wealthy soap-boiler in Winchester-street, 
put him to St. Paul's school, under the learned Dr. Tho- 
mas Gale, but his h'rst tutor is said to have been his fa- 
ther's apprentice, who taught him writing and arithmetic 
at nine years old. At school he not only excelled in all 
parts of classical learning, but made such uncommon pro- 
gress in mathematics, that, as Wood says, he had perfectly 
learnt the use of the celestial globe, and could make a 
complete dial ; and we are informed by Halley himself, 
that he observed the change of the variation of the mag- 
netic needle at London, in 1672, that is, one year before 
he left school. In 1673 he was entered a commoner of 
Queers-college, in Oxford, where he applied himself to 
practical and geometrical astronomy, in which he was 
greatly assisted by a curious apparatus of instruments 
which his father, willing to encourage his son's genius, 
had purchased for him. At nineteen he began to publish 

' British Biography, vol. X. 

72 H A L L E Y. 

new observations and discoveries, and continued to do so 
to the end of a very long life; nor did he distinguish him- 
self less in the practical part of the science. Several ob- 
servations made by him concerning a spot in the sun, seen 
at Oxford in July and August 1676, were published, with 
others by Flamsteed upon the same subject, in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions. By these the motion of the sun 
round its own axis, a phenomenon till then not well ascer- 
tained, was finally determined. The same year he like- 
wise observed there, on Aug. 21, a.n occultation of Mars 
by the Moon, which he made use of afterwards, with others, 
in settling the longitude of the Cape of Good Hope against 
the objections of the French astronomers. 

He had from his first admission into college, pursued a 
general scheme for ascertaining the true places of the fixed 
stars, and thereby correcting the errors of Tycho Brahe. 
His original view was to carry on the design of that first 
restorer of astronomy, by completing the catalogue of 
those stars from his own observations ; but upon farther 
inquiry, finding this province taken up by Hevelius and 
Flamsteed, he dropped that pursuit, and formed another ; 
which was, to perfect the whole scheme of the heavens by 
the addition of the stars which lie so near the south pole 
that they could not be observed by those astronomers, as 
never rising above the horizon either at Dantzick or Green- 
wich. With this view he left the university, before he had 
taken a degree, and applied himself to sir Joseph William- 
son, then secretary of state, and to sir Jonas Moore, sur- 
veyor of the ordnance, both encouragers of these studies ; 
who, applauding his purpose, mentioned it to Charles II. 
The king was much pleased with the plan, and immediately 
recommended him to the East India Company, who readily 
promised to supply him with every convenience, and to 
carry him to St. Helena, then in their possession by a grant 
from the crown, which he had been told was a proper situa- 
tion for his design. Accordingly he embarked for that island 
November 1676, and arriving there safely in three months, 
began his task ; but the frequent fogs which hover over the 
island made it much more difficult than he expected, and 
it was only by embracing every opportunity which offered 
during his abode on the island, that he was enabled to exe- 
cute his purpose. He ascertained the position of 350 
Stars, and published an account of his labours in 1676, 
under the title of" Catalogus Stellarum Australian." In 

H A L L E Y. 73 

honour of his royal patron, he formed a new southern con- 
stellation, to which he gave the name of Kobur Carolinum," 
or the " Royal Oak." During his stay at St. Helena, he 
had an opportunity of observing the transit of Mercury 
over the sun's disk ; an observation of some importance, 
because it could not be completely made in Europe, the 
sun not being risen in that country at the beginning of the 
transit. Having returned to England November 1678, the 
king, greatly satisfied, gave him, at his own request, a let- 
ter of mandamus to the university of Oxford for the degree 
of M. A. the words of which are, that " his majesty has 
received a good account of his learning as to the mathe- 
matics and astronomy, whereof he has gotten a good tes- 
timony by the observations he has made during his abode 
in the island of St. Helena." This letter was dated No- 
vember 18, and the same month he was also chosen fellow 
of the royal society. Indeed his catalogue of these south- 
ern stars merited particular honour; it was an entirely 
new acquisition to the astronomical world, and might not 
unaptly be called " Ccelum Australe eo usque incogni- 
tum ;" and thence he acquired a just claim to the title, 
which by Flamsteed was not long after given him, the 
Southern Tycho. 

In 1679 he was appointed by the royal society to go to 
Dantzick, for the satisfaction of Hevelius the consul, to 
adjust a dispute between him and our Hooke, about the 
preference of plain or glass sights in astroscopical instru- 
ments. He set out May 14 of this year, with a letter re- 
commendatory from the society, and arrived at that city 
on the 26th. He waited on the consul immediately, and 
after some conversation, agreed to enter upon the business 
of his visit that same night ; on which, and every night 
afterwards, when the sky permitted, the two astronomers 
made their observations together till July 18, when Halley 
left Dantzick, and returned to England. Here he con- 
tinued till the latter end of the following year, 1680 ; when 
he set out upon what is usually called the grand tour, ac- 
companied by the celebrated Mr. Nelson, who had been 
his school-fellow, and was his friend. They crossed the 
water in December to Calais ; and in the mid-way thence 
to Paris, Haliey had, first of any one, a sight of the re- 
markable comet as it then appeared a second time that 
year in its return from the sun. He had the November 
before seen it in its descent, and now hastened to complete 


his observations upon it, in viewing it from the royal 
observatory of France. That building had been finished 
not many years before; and Halley's design in this part 
of his tour was to settle a friendly correspondence between 
the two royal astronomers of Greenwich and Paris ; em- 
bracing in the mean time every opportunity of improving 
himself under so great a master as Cassini, as he had done 
before under Hevelius. From Paris he went with his fel- 
low-traveller, b}' the way of Lyons, to Italy, where he 
spent a great part of the year 1681 ; but his affairs then 
calling him home, he left Mr. Nelson at Rome, and re- 
turned to England, after making some stay a second time 
at Paris. 

Soon after his return to England, he married the daugh- 
ter of Mr. Tooke, auditor of the Exchequer ; and took a 
house at Islington, where he immediately set up his tube 
and sextant, and eagerly pursued his favourite study. In 
1683 he published his "Theory of the Variation of the 
Magnetical Compass," in which he supposes the whole 
globe of the earth to be one great magnet, having four 
rnagnetical poles or points of attraction, two near the north 
and two near the south pole. The same year also he en- 
tered early upon a new method of finding out the longitude 
by a most accurate observation of the moon's motion. His 
pursuits are said to have been interrupted about this time 
by the death of his father, who having suffered greatly by 
the fire of London, as well as by a second marriage, into 
which he had imprudently entered, was found to have 
wasted his fortune. He soon, however, resumed his usual 
occupations; for, January 1684, he turned his thoughts to 
the theory of the planetary motions ; and gravity occurred 
to him, as it bad done to Dr. Hooke, as the probable cause. 
But he could not satisfy himself as to the law according to 
which this power diminishes, and therefore first applied to 
Dr. Hooke and sir Christopher Wren ; who not affording him 
any assistance, he went to Cambridge to Newton, who 
supplied him fully with what he had so ardently sought. 
But Halley having now found an immense treasure, could 
not rest till he had prevailed with the owner to enrich the 
public with it, and to this interview the world is in some 
measure indebted for the celebrated " Principia" of New- 
ton, which were published in 1686 ; and Halley, who had 
the whole care of the impression by the direction of the 
royal society, presented it to James II, with a discourse of 


his own, giving a general account of the astronomical part 
of that book. He also wrote some very elegant verses in 
Latin, which are prefixed to the " Principia." 

In 1685 he became clerk to the royal society, and seems, 
for several years about that period, to have been the prin- 
cipal person employed in drawing up the " Philosophical 
Transactions." In 1687 he undertook to explain the cause 
of a natural phenomenon, which had till then baffled the 
researches of the ablest geographers. The Mediterranean 
Sea is observed not to swell in the least, although there is 
no visible discharge of the prodigious quantity of water 
which runs into it from nine large rivers, besides several 
small ones, and the constant setting-in of the current at 
the mouth of the Streights. His solution of this difficulty 
gave so much satisfaction to the society, that he received 
orders to prosecute these inquiries, in the course of which, 
having shewn by the most accurate experiments, how that 
great increase of water was actually carried off in vapours 
raised by the action of the sun and wind upon the surface, 
he proceeded with the like success to point out the method 
used by nature to return the said vapours into the sea. 
This circulation he supposes to be carried on by the winds 
driving these vapours to the mountains ; where, being col- 
lected, they form springs, which uniting, becomte rivulets 
or brooks, and many of these again meeting in the valleys, 
grow into large rivers, emptying themselves at last into the 
sea ; thus demonstrating in the most beautiful manner the 
way in which the equilibrium of receipt and expence is 
continually preserved in the universal ocean. In 1698 he 
was candidate for the Savilian professorship at Oxford, but 
lost it by the intervention of bishop Stillingtteet, who re- 
fused to recommend him, on account of his opinions, which 
were considered as unfavourable to Christianity. We shall 
find, however, that he was afterwards elected*. 

Halley published his " Theory of the Variation of the 
Magnetical Compass," as already observed, in 1683; 

* Whiston, in the Memoirs of his ley should talk with him about it, which 
own Life, tells us from Dr. Bentlev, he did. But Halley was so sincere in 
that Halley " being thought of for sue- his infidelity, that he would not so 
cessor to the mathematical chair at Ox- much as pretend to believe the Chris- 
ford, bishop Stilling&eet was desired tiau religiou, though he thereby was 
to recommend him at courti; but, hear- likely to lose a professorship; which 
ing that he was a sceptic and a ban- he did accordingly, and it was the 
terer of religion, the bishop scrupled given to Dr. Gregory." 
fco be concerned, till his chaplain Bent. 

76 H A L L E Y. 

which, though it was well received both at home and 
abroad, he found upon a review liable to great and insu- 
perable objections. Yet the phenomena of the variation 
of the needle, upon which it is raised, being so many cer- 
tain and indisputed facts, he spared no pains to possess 
himself of all the observations relating to it, he could pos- 
sibly come at. To this end he procured an application to 
be made to king William, who appointed him commander 
of the Paramour Pink, August 19, 169S; with express 
orders to seek by observations the discovery of the rule of 
the variations, and, as the words of his commission run, 
" to call at his majesty's settlements in America, and make 
such farther observations as are necessary for the better 
laying down the longitude and latitude of those places, and 
to attempt the discovery of what land lies to the south of 
the Western ocean." He set out on this attempt Novem- 
ber 24th following, and proceeded so far as to cross the 
line ; but his men growing sickly and untractable, and his 
first lieutenant mutinying, he returned home in June 1699. 
After getting his lieutenant tried and cashiered, he sailed 
September following, a second time, having the same ship 
with another of less bulk, of which he had also the com- 
mand. He traversed the vast Atlantic Ocean from one 
hemisphere to another, as far as the ice would permit him 
to go ; and, in his way back touched at St. Helena, the 
coast of Brazil, Cape Verd, Barbadoes, Madeiras, the Ca- 
naries, the coast of Barbary, and many other latitudes, 
arriving in England in September 1700. Having thus fur- 
nished himself with a competent number of observations, 
he published in 1701, "A General Chart, shewing at one 
view the Variation of the Compass in all those seas where 
the English navigators were acquainted ;" and was the first 
who laid a sure foundation for the discovery of the law or 
rule whereby the said variation changes all over the world. 
In 1775 the original journals of Dr. Halley's two voyages 
were published by Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, in a thin 
quarto volume, but they are not of much value, and were 
obviously never intended for publication by Dr. Halley 

Halley had been at home little more than half a year, 
en he went in the same ship with another express com- 
mission from the king, to observe the course of the tides in 
cry part of the British channel at home, and to take the 
wigitude and latitude of the principal head-lands, in order 

H A L L E Y. 77 

to lay down the coast truly. These orders were executed 
with his usual expedition and accuracy ; and soon after his 
return he published, in 1702, a large map of the Britisli 
channel. The emperor of Germany having resolved to 
make a convenient and safe harbour for shipping in that 
part of his dominions which borders upon the Adriatic, 
Halley was sent this year by queen Anne to view the two 
ports on the Dalmatian coast,, lying to that sea. He em- 
barked November 27, went over to Holland, and passing 
thence through Germany to Vienna, proceeded to Istria, 
with a view of entering upon the execution of the emperor's 
design ; but, some opposition being given to it by the 
Dutch, it was laid aside. The emperor, however, pre- 
sented him with a rich diamond ring from his finger, and 
gave him a letter of high commendation, written with his 
own hand, to queen Anne. He was likewise received with 
great respect by the king of the Romans, by prince Eugene, 
and the principal officers of that court. Presently after his 
arrival in England, he was dispatched again upon the same 
business; and, passing through Osnaburgh and Hanover, 
arrived at Vienna, and was presented the same evening to 
the emperor, who directly sent his chief engineer to attend 
him to Istria. 

He returned to England November 1703; and, Wallis 
being deceased a few weeks before, Halley was appointed 
Savilian professor of geometry at Oxford in his room, and 
had the degree of LL. D. conferred upon him by that 
university. He was scarcely settled at Oxford when Aid- 
rich, dean of Christ Church, engaged him to translate into 
Latin from the Arabic "Apollonius de Sectione llationis." 
At the same time, from the account given of them by 
Pappus, he restored the two books, which are lost, of the 
same author, " De Sectione Spatii ;" and the whole was 
published by him in one. volume, 8vo, at Oxford, 1706. 
Afterwards he took a share with his colleague, Dr. David 
Gregory, in preparing for the press the same Apollonius's 
" Conies ;" and ventured to supply the whole 8th book, 
which is lost, of the original. He likewise added Serenus 
on the " Section of the Cylinder and Cone," printed from 
the original Greek, with a Latin translation, and published 
the whole, 1710, in folio; not to mention, that in the 
midst of all these publications the " Miscellanea Curiosa," 
in 3 vols. 8vo, had come out under his direction in 1708. 
Jn 1713 he succeeded Dr. (afterwards sir) Haas Sloane, in 

78 H A L L E T. 

the post of secretary to the royal society; and, upon the 
death of Flamsteed in 1719, was appointed to succeed him 
at Greenwich by George I. which made Halley, that he 
might be more at liberty for the proper business of his 
situation, resign the post of secretary to the royal society 
in 1721. 

Upon the accession of king George II. his consort queen 
Caroline thought proper to make a visit at the royal obser- 
vatory ; and, being pleased with every thing she saw, took 
notice that Dr. Halley had formerly served the crown as a 
captain in the navy ; and she soon after obtained a grant of 
his half-pay for that commission, which he enjoyed from 
that time during his life. An offer was also made him of 
being appointed mathematical preceptor to the duke of 
Cumberland ; but he declined that honour in consideration 
of his advanced age, and because he deemed the ordinary 
attendance upon that employment not consistent with the 
performance of his duty at Greenwich. In August 1729 
he was admitted as a foreign member of the academy of 
sciences at Paris. About 1737 he was seized with a pa- 
ralytic disorder in his right hand, which, it is said, was the 
first attack he ever felt upon his constitution : however, 
he came as usual once a week till within a little while be- 
fore his death, to see his friends in town on Thursday, be- 
fore the meeting of the royal society. His paralytic disor- 
der increasing, his strength gradually wore away, and he 
came at length to be wholly supported by such cordials as 
were ordered by his physician Dr. Mead. He expired as 
he sat in his chair, without a groan, January 14, 1741-2, 
in his eighty-sixth year, and was interred at Lee, near 

Halley's astronomical tables, on which he laboured from 
1725 till his death, were published in 1749, and were for 
many years the best and most complete with which astro- 
nomers were furnished, though of late years other tables 
have been constructed still more perfect, and entitled to a 
greater degree of confidence. 

Dr. Halley was of a middle stature, inclining to tallness, 
of a thin habit of body, and fair complexion, and always 
spoke and acted with an uncommon degree of sprightliness 
and vivacity. He was of an ardent and glowing temper, of 
a generous and friendly disposition, and of great candour, 
He retained his good spirits to the last, and used to say 
" that 9. studious life generally contributes to make a long 

H A L L E Y. 79 

ne, by keeping a man out of harm's way." That he was, 
with all his learning and amiable qualifications, an infidel 
in religions matters, seems as generally allowed as it ap- 
pears unaccountable. It must, however, be deeply re- 
gretted that he cannot be numbered with those illustrious 
characters who thought it not beneath them to be Chris- 
tians, with Bacon and Milton, Boyle, Locke, and Newton. * 

HALLIER (FRANCIS), a celebrated French bishop, was 
born in 1595. He rose to be doctor and professor of the 
Sorboune, archdeacon of Dinan, prebendary of Chartres, 
syndic of the faculty of divinity at Paris, and, at length, 
bishop of Cavaillon in 1656. He travelled into Greece, 
Italy, and England. Urban VIII. had so great a value for 
him, that he twice nominated him to the bishopric of Toul; 
and wishing to create two cardinals, one of which should 
be a Frenchman, the other a Spaniard, proposed him, with 
father de Lugo, for that dignity; but a strong faction, and 
some reasons of state, placed the hat designed for M. Hal- 
lier on the head of the commander of Valencey. M. Hal- 
lier appeared with great distinction, as proctor, at the 
assembly of the French clergy, 1645, in which the rules 
concerning the regulars were revived, which he explained 
by a learned " Commentary." On his second visit to 
Kome in 1652, he solicited, both by personal application 
and by writing, the condemnation of the five famous pro- 
positions of Jansenius, and obtained the bull " Cum occa- 
sione" against them. He died in 1659, worn out with sick- 
ness and infirmities, aged sixty -four. His principal works 
are, " Defence of a censure of the faculty of theology at 
Paris respecting the Bishops of England against the Je- 
suits ;" " Treatise on the Hierarchy ;" and a " Treatise 
on Elections and Ordinations," 1636, folio; by which he 
acquired great reputation, both at Rome and in France. 
He wrote also various pieces against the five propositions 
of Jansenius, which, in the estimation of his church, dis- 
cover profound learning, and abound with very strong and 
solid reasoning. They are all in Latin. 2 

HALLIFAX (SAMUEL), a learned English prelate, was 
born at Mansfield in Derbyshire, Jan. 18, 1733. He was 
the eldest son of Mr. Samuel Hallifax, apothecary, by 
Hannah, daughter of Mr. Jebb, of Mansfield, by which 

1 Biog. Brit. Birch's Life of Tillotson. Whiston's IJfV. Ath. Ox. vol. II. 
Thompson'^ Hist, of the Royal Society. 
* Morw, Diet. Hist.. 

$0 H A L L I F A X. 

alliance our author became first cousin of the late sir 
Richard, and Dr. John Jebb. He was admitted of Jesus 
college, Cambridge, where he distinguished himself in his 
academical exercises, and he was in the list of wranglers, 
as they are called, and obtained the chancellor's gold medal 
forclassical learning, and some prize dissertations. He pro- 
ceeded A. B. in 1744, and A.M. in 1747, and afterwards re- 
moved to Trinity Hall (where are only two fellowships in di- 
vinity), and proceeded LL.D. in 1761. In Nov. 1 7 65 he was 
presented to the rectory of Chaddington, in Buckingham- 
shire, and in 1768 was elected professor of Arabic in the uni- 
versity of Cambridge, which he resigned in 1770 on being 
made regius professor of civil law. In February 1774 he was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to his majesty; in 1775 was 
created D. D. by royal mandate, and on the death of Dr. 
Topham succeeded him as master of the faculties in Doc- 
tors Commons. Galley, relict of Dr. Galley, 
prebendary of Gloucester, he received, without any soli- 
citation on his part, but merely as a reward for his eminent 
services in the cause of religion, the valuable rectory of 
Warsop, in Nottinghamshire, in 1778. In 1781 he was 
advanced to the see of Gloucester, and thence was trans- 
lated to the see of St. Asaph in 1787, being the first Eng- 
lish bishop that was translated to that see, and the second 
that was translated to a bishopric in North Wales. He 
died of the stone, March 4, 1790, when only fifty-seven 
years of age. He married one of the daughters of Dr. 
Cooke, provost of King's college, Cambridge, who wrote 
the elegant epitaph on his monument in the church of 
Warsop, where bishop Hallifax was buried at his own de- 
sire, near a favourite son who was interred there. By his 
wife he left another son and six daughters. 

Bishop Hallifax published at various times, fourteen 
sermons, preached on occasional subjects ; an " Analysis 
of the Roman Civil Law compared with the Laws of Eng- 
land, being the heads of a course of lectures publicly read 
in the university of Cambridge," 1774, 8vo ; Twelve 
Sermons on the Prophecies concerning the Christian Reli- 
gion, and in particular concerning the church of Papal 
Home, preached in Lincoln's Inn chapel, at bishop War- 
burton's lecture," 1776, 8vo. He published also an ex- 
cellent analysis of bishop Butler's Analogy annexed to a 
charge of that prelate ; and Wi , s t j ie et u tor o f j) r . Ogden'* 

H A L L O I X. *T 

Sermons. He was a man of great ability, an excellent 
civilian, and a very acute and elegant public speaker. * 

HALLOIX (PETER), a learned Jesuit, born at Liege in 
1572, acquired great reputation by his critical knowledge 
of the learned languages, and of ecclesiastical history. He 
was also an admired preacher in his day. He died in 1656. 
His principal works are; 1. " Anthologia poetica, Gr. Lat." 
Douay, 1617, 12mo; and 2. " Illustrium ecclesiae orientalis 
Scriptorum Vitae et documenta," Douay, 1633, and 1636, 
2 vols. fol. comprising the lives of the eminent men of the 
first and second age of the Eastern church. He wrote the 
lives of some other eminent ecclesiastics and saints, which 
are inserted in the " Acta Sanctorum," and other col- 
lections. 2 

HALS (FRANCIS), a portrait painter of great celebrity, 
was born at Mechlin in 1584. He was a pupil of C. Van 
Mander, and by a careful observation of nature obtained 
that accurate knowledge of the structure of the human 
frame, which is so useful in his art. No man ever set the 
features of a face together with more truth than Frank 
Hals, or with a readier pencil ; and he did it with great 
truth and spirit also of colour, as well as of execution. He 
avoided the laboured mode of finish so much admired 
among his countrymen at the time, and gave his portraits 
much expression and animation of countenance, particu- 
larly of a gay and humourous nature. A decided charac- 
ter of individual nature is remarkable in his portraits, and 
is not found in an equal degree in any other painter. If 
he had joined to this most difficult part of the art, a pa- 
tience in finishing what he had so correctly planned, he 
might justly have claimed the place which Vandyke, all 
things considered, so justly holds as the first of portrait 
painters. This last mentioned artist was so delighted with 
his works, that he went to Haerlem, where he resided, for 
no other purpose than to pay him a visit. He introduced 
himself as a gentleman on his travels, who wished in haste 
to have his portrait painted. Hals was hurried from the 
tavern, where he usually passed his leisure time, seized 
the first canvas he could find, and began his labour. In a 
short time he had proceeded so far, that he asked Vandyke 
to look at what he had done, who expressed himself as very 

1 Edwards's new edition of Willis's Survey of St. Asaph. Nichols'* Bowyer. 
* Alegambe. Foppen Bibl. Eelg. Saxii Onomast. 




well pleased with it, at the same time saying that he 
thought such work so easy, he was persuaded he could do 
it himself. Taking the palette and pencils, he desired F. 
Hals to sit down, and in a quarter of an hour shewed him 
the portrait. The moment he saw it he recognized his 
visitor, and embraced him with transport. Vandyke en- 
deavoured to prevail upon Hals to accompany him to Eng- 
land, engaging to enrich him ; but he was not able to suc- 
ceed ; Hals declaring that his happiness consisted in the 
enjoyment of his friends and his bottle, and while he pos- 
sessed these he was satisfied with his condition. For his 
treatment of Brouwer, see our account of that artist. He 
died in 1666, at the age of eighty-two. He had a brother, 
Dirk Hals, a painter of animals, merry-makings, conver- 
sations, feasts, and subjects of drollery, to whom, however, 
as an artist, he was far superior in all the better qualities 
of art: yet Dirk's works gained him much reputation, and 
he practised with great success till he was sixty-seven 
years old, when he died in 1656. ' 

HALYBURTON (THOMAS), a pious Scotch divine, and 
professor of divinity in the university of St. Andrew's, was 
born at Duplin in the parish of Aberdalgy, near Perth, 
Dec. 25, 1674. His father had been minister of that 
parish, from which he was ejected after the restoration, for 
nonconformity. He died in 1682, and as the country was 
still unsafe for those who professed the presbyterian reli- 
gion, his mother went over to Holland with her son, then 
about eight years old. During their stay there, he was 
educated at Erasmus's school, and made great proficiency 
in classical literature. On his return to Scotland in 1687, 
he resumed his studies, and was also sent to the university. 
When he had finished his philosophical course there, he 
entered upon the study of divinity; and being, in June 
1699, licensed to preach, he was in May 1700, appointed 
minister of the parish of Ceres, in which he performed the 
part of a zealous and pious pastor; but his labours proving 
too many for his health, the latter became gradually im- 
paired. In April 1710, he was appointed by patent from 
queen Anne, professor of divinity in the college of St. 
Leonard at St. Andrew's, through the mediation of the 
.synod of Fife. On this occasion he entered on his office 
an inaugural oration, in qua, post exhibitam ra~ 

1 Pilkiugton. Sir J. Reynolds's Work?. 


tionem suscepti muneris, examinatur schedula nupera, cui 
titulus ' Epistola Archimedis ad Regem Gelonem Albae 
Graecae reperta anno serae Christianas 1688, A. Pitcarnio, 
M. D. ut vulgo creditur, auctoreV Pitcairn's reputation 
as a deist was at that time very common in Scotland, how- 
ever justly he may have deserved it; and Mr. Halyburton's 
attention had been much called to the subject of deism as 
revived in the preceding century. He did not, however, 
enjoy his professorship long, dying Sept. 23, 1712, aged 
only thirty-eight. It does not appear that he published 
any thing in his life-time ; but soon after his death two 
works were published, which still preserve his memory in 
Scotland. 1. "The Great Concern of Salvation," 1721, 
8vo. 2. " Ten Sermons preached before and after the 
celebration of the Lord's Supper," 1722. But the work 
which proves his ability as a controversial writer, and the 
great extent of his reading, although it is less known than 
the preceding, is his " Natural Religion insufficient ; and 
Revealed necessary to man's happiness," Edinburgh, 1714, 
4to. This was written in confutation of the deism of lord 
Herbert and Mr. Blount. In this elaborate performance 
he largely and distinctly shews that the light of nature is 
greatly defective, even with respect to the discoveries of a 
Deity, and the worship that is to be rendered to him ; with 
respect to the inquiry concerning man's true happiness ; 
with respect to the rule of duty, and the motives for en- 
forcing obedience, &c. Dr. Leland says that " whosoever 
carefully examines what this learned and pious author has 
offered on these several heads, will find many excellent 
things ; though the narrowness of his notions in some points 
has prejudiced some persons against his work, and hin- 
dered them from regarding and considering it so much as 
it deserves." 1 

HAMBERGER (GEORGE EDWARD), professor of che- 
mistry and of the practice of medicine in the university of 
Jena, was born in that city, December 21, 1697, his father 
being professor of mathematics in the same university. 
From his earliest years he had evinced a disposition to the 
study of anatomy, and was accustomed to steal from his 
parents, whf> destined him for the church, to attend the 
lectures of Slevoight on that subject. After the death of 
his father he relinquished even the study of the mathe- 

1 Life written partly by himself, 12rao. Leland's View of Deistical Writers 

G 2 

St H A M B E R G E R. 

matics, to which he had applied himself during several 
years, and gave up his attention exclusively to medical 
pursuits. In 17-21 he took the degree of M. D. and in 1726 
was appointed professor; and he held the chair of the 
practice of medicine at the time of his death, which oc- 
curred June '22, 1755. 

Hamberger is entitled to the merit of having illustrated 
physiology by the doctrines of philosophy, and of having 
rendered both more popular than they had ever before 
been in Germany ; but in the dispute with the celebrated 
Haller, in which the publication of his hypothesis concern- 
ing respiration involved him, and which was carried on 
with considerable asperity, he was altogether in error; he 
lived long enough, indeed, to be convinced of the weak- 
ness of his hypothesis, which he avowed to his friends. Jt 
was contained in a dissertation, " De Respirationis me- 
chanismo et usu genuino," published in 1727. His other 
principal works are, 1. " Elementa Physices, methodo Ma- 
thematica in usum auditorum conscripta," Jense, 1727, 8vo. 
2. " Disputatio de Venaesectione, quatenus motum san- 
guinis mutat," ibid. 1729. 3. " Dissertation stir la me- 
chanique des Secretions dans le corps humain," Bour- 
deaux, 1746. This dissertation obtained a prize from the 
academy of that city. 4. " Physiologia Medica, seu do 
actionibus corporis humani sani doctrina," Jense, 1751, 
4to. 5. " Elementa Physiologiae Medicse, &c." 1757, an 
abridgment of the preceding for students : and 6. " Me- 
tfiodus medendi Morbos, cum prafatione de prsestantia 
Theorise Hambergeri, prae ceteris," ibid. 1763, published 
by professor Baldinger. * 

HAMEL (JOHN BAPTISTS DU), a very learned French 
philosopher and divine, was born at Vire in Lower Nor- 
mandy, 1624. He passed through his first studies at Caen, 
and his course of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris. At 
eighteen he wrote a treatise, in which he explained, in a, 
very simple manner, and by one or two figures, Theodo- 
sius's three books upon spherics ; to which he added a tract 
upon trigonometry, extremely short, yet perspicuous, and 
designed as an introduction to astronomy. In one of his 
latter works he observes, that he was prompted by the va- 
nity natural to a young man to publish this book : but, as 
Fontenelle remarks, there are few persons of that age 

1 Rees's Cyclopaedia, from Eloy, &,c. 

H A M E L. 85 

capable of such an instance of vanity. At nineteen he en- 
tered himself in the congregation of the oratory, where he 
continued ten years, and left it in order to be curate of 
Neuilli upon the Marne. He applied in the mean time in- 
tensely to study, and acquired much reputation' by pub- 
lishing works upon astronomy and philosophy. In 1666, 
Colbert proposed to Lewis XIV. a scheme, which was ap- 
proved by his majesty, for establishing a royal academy of 
sciences ; and appointed our author secretary of it. In 
1668, he attended M. Colbert de Croissy, plenipotentiary 
for the peace at Aix la Chapelle ; and, upon the conclu- 
sion of it, accompanied him in his embassy to England, 
where he formed an acquaintance with the most eminent 
persons of this nation, particularly with Boyle, Hay, and 
Willis. Thence he went over to Holland, and returned to 
France, having made a great number of useful observations 
in his travels. In 1678 his "Philosophia Vetus etNova, ad 
usum scholae aceommodatain regia Burgundia pertractata," 
was printed at Paris in 4 vols. 12mo; and, in 1681, en- 
larged and reprinted there in six. This work, which was 
done by the order of M. Colbert, contains a judicious col- 
lection of the ancient and modern opinions in philosophy. 
Several years after its publication, the Jesuits carried it 
to the East-Indies, and taught it with success ; and father 
Bovet, a missionary in China, wrote to Europe, that when 
his brethren and himself engaged in drawing up a system of 
philosophy in the Tartarian language for the emperor, one 
of their chief aids was Du Hamel's " Philosophia e't Astro- 
nomia ;" and they were then highly valued, though the 
improvements in philosophy since his time have rendered 
them of little use. In 1697 he resigned his place of secre- 
tary of the royal academy of sciences, which by his recom- 
mendation he procured for M. de Fontenelle. He had 
some years before this devoted himself to divinity, and 
published various works in that science. However, he did 
not entirely resign his former studies, but published at 
Paris, in 1698, " Regiae Scientiarum Academiae Historia," 
4to, in four books ; which, being much liked, he after- 
wards augmented with two books more. It contains an 
account of the foundation of the royal academy of sciences, 
and its transactions, from 1666 to 1700, and is now the 
most useful of any of his works relating to philosophy ; as 
perhaps the most useful which he published in theology is 
his last work printed at Paris, 1706, in folio, and entitled 

86 H A M E L. 

" Biblia Sacra Vulgatae editionis, una cum selectis ex op- 
timis quib usque interpretibus notis, prolegomenis, novis 
tabulis chronologicis et geographicis." 

He died at Paris August 6, 1706, without any sickness, 
and of mere old age, being almost eighty-three. Though 
he had quitted his cure at Neuilli in 1663, yet he went 
every year to visit his old flock ; and the day he spent there 
was kept as an holy- day by the whole village. He was 
highly esteemed by the most eminent prelates of France, 
though he enjoyed but very small preferments. He was a 
man of great modesty, affability, piety, and integrity ; he 
was disinterested, averse to all contests, and exempt from 
jealousy and affectation. He wrote Latin with remarkable 
purity and elegance. 1 

nent French writer on rural ceconomy and vegetable phy- 
siology, was born at Paris in 1700. Being a member of 
the academy of sciences, he published in the memoirs of 
that body in 1728, "his first ceconomical essay, on a kind of 
parasitical fungus which infests the roots of the cultivated 
saffron, and is fatal to them. In the same year he pub- 
lished in that work his first treatise on a much more im- 
portant subject, the propagation of trees by grafting, 
where he hazarded some physiological opinions, and en- 
tered on a course of experiment and observation, subse- 
quently pursued to an extent which has been of great ser- 
vice to science, and has justly rendered his name famous. 
He continued from time to time to communicate to the 
academy various papers relative to these matters. In 1750 
he began to publish in 12mo, his " Traite de la Culture 
des Terres," which was continued in following years till 
1761, when the sixth volume came out. Our English 
writer Tull was his first guide, but he subsequently pro- 
fited widely by the experience of himself and of various 
other people, aided by his physiological sagacity, of which 
he made a far more cautious use than is general with farm- 
ing philosophers, and deserves to be reckoned the father 
of intelligent agriculture in France. His " Elements d'Agri- 
culture," in 2 vols. 12mo, published in 1764, may be con- 
sidered as a sequel to the preceding work. These two 
volumes have been translated into German, Spanish, and 

1 Hen. Diet. Moreri. Niceron, vol. I. and X. Saxii Onoma^t. Hutton'* 

II A M E L. 87 

English. Du. Hamel wrote also on the cultivation and pre- 
paration of Madder, in 1757, 4to. 

A more splendid and extensive work of our author was 
published in 1755, making 2 vols. 4to, entitled " Trait6 
des Arbres et Arbustes qui se cultiventen France en pleine 
terre." Having been made inspector of the marine, he 
undertook to investigate all that concerned the cultivation 
and preservation of timber, and in this work extended his 
views to the treatment and botanical discrimination of all 
trees and shrubs capable of bearing the climate of France. 
Hence a number of American species became first known 
to his countrymen, and even to other nations by his means. 
Haller reckons that this work treats of a thousand species 
and varieties. They are arranged alphabetically, according 
to their Latin generic names, and he took for the basis of 
the work the nomenclature of Tournefort. It is to be regret- 
ted that he did not regularly adopt the Linnaean nomencla- 
ture as to species, which had appeared two years before in 
the '* Species Plautarum," a work he occasionally cites ; but 
he was not enough of a practical botanist to feel its tran- 
scendant utility. His most eminent and important work, 
the " Physique des Arbres," came out in 1758, in 2 vols. 
4to, with numerous copper-plates ; and on this his merit 
as a physiologist securely rests. In it he has collected and 
revised all that had been done before him, especially by 
Malpighi, Grew, Hales, and Bonnet, as well as his own 
preceding experiments and remarks. The great merit of 
this work consists in its details respecting the structure and 
anatomy of plants, and the physiology of their different 

In 1760 he published another valuable practical volume 
in 4to, with plates, entitled " Des Semis et Plantations 
des Arbres, et de leur Culture." This had an especial 
view to the great national object of improving the forests 
of the kingdom, highly important in a country where so 
much wood is continually used for fuel, and so little, in 
proportion to some other countries, naturally produced. 
The author laudably takes advantage of the panic with 
which his countrymen are every now and then seized, of 
a scarcity of fuel, to excite their attention to the means he 
would recommend for the prevention of so dreadful an 
evil, and his book is a mine of practical information for 
the woodman, the planter, and the gardener, of the first 
authority and value. The same subject is followed up in 

S3 HA M E L. 

2 vols. 4to, published in 1764, under the title of " De 
1'exploitation des Bois, ou moyen de tirer parti des taillis 
demi futayes et hautes futayes ;" and in 1767 appeared 
another 4to volume, " Du transport, de la conservation, 
et de la force du Bois," full of practical information re- 
lative to the properties, qualities, and uses of different 
woods, intermixed with physiological remarks, as in the 
preceding performances of this excellent writer, who pub- 
lished also in 1764, upon the art of refining sugar, in folio, 
and in 1765, on the preservation of grain, in 12mo. His 
most splendid work was printed at Paris in 1768, in 2 vols. 
4to, with fine coloured plates. Its title is " Traite des 
Arbres fruitiers." In this the varieties of fruit-trees are ele- 
gantly distinguished by figures and descriptions, and their 
treatment illustrated with the usual science of the author. 

Du Hamel was associated to the chief learned societies 
of Europe, lived in high respect and esteem, and died at 
Paris in 1782, when he was dean of the academy of sciences. 
Besides the above works, he wrote on the management of 
rope-yards and fisheries, and on naval architecture. 1 

HAMELMANNE (HERMAN), a learned Lutheran di- 
vine, was born at Osnabrug, in 1525, and began to pub- 
lish his opinions at Camen ; but being driven from thence, 
was received by the canons at Bilefeldt,~ and taught the 
youth there according to Luther's catechism. His enemies 
having obliged him to retire to Rostock, he took a doctor 
of divinity's degree, and attended the conference at Ant- 
werp in 1567, by desire of the prince of Orange. He was 
appointed superintendant of the churches in the duchy of 
Brunswick, that they might be regulated according to the 
confession of Augsburg ; and at last, superintendant-ge- 
neral of the county of Oldenburg, 1593; where he died 
June 27, 15L5. His principal works are, 4 * Commentaria 
in Pentateuchum," Dilingae, 1563, fol. ; Cbronicum 
Dldenburgicum,".&c. and "Opera Genealogico-Historica 
de M -estphalia et Saxonia inferiori," 1711, 4to, new edit.* 

HAMILTON (ANTONY COUNT), of whom some notice 

has been taken in our account of GRAMMONT, was of an 

ancient Scotch family, but born in Ireland, whence with 

his family he passed over to France, as followers of the 

Charles the Second. At the Restoration he agaia 



returned to England, but was a second time compelled to 
leave this country at the revolution. He was an elegant 
and accomplished character, and was for many years the 
delight and ornament of the most splendid circles of so- 
ciety, by his wit, his taste, and above all, his writings. 
His works have been often published, particularly in 6 
vols. 12mo, 1749, and in 3 vols. 8vo, 1805, and consist of 
pieces of poetry, fairy-tales, and " Memoirs of the Count 
de Grammont," all of which are excellent in their kind. 
The Fairy Tales were intended as a refined piece of ridi- 
cule on the passion for the marvellous, which made the 
Arabian Nights Entertainments so eagerly read at their 
first appearance. The " Memoirs of Grammont" will 
always excite curiosity, as giving a striking and too faith- 
ful detail of the dissolute manners of Charles II. 's court. 
Count Hamilton died at St. Germain's, in 1720, aged se- 
venty-four. l 

HAMILTON (GAVIN), an excellent painter, descended 
from the ancient family of the Hamiltons of Murdieston, 
originally of Fife, but now of Lanarkshire, in Scotland, 
was born at Lanark, and having discovered from his in- 
fancy a great predilection for historic painting, went young 
to Rome, where he became the scholar of Augustine Mas- 
suchi. With the exception of a few occasional visits to 
Britain, he resided the whole of his life at Rome, where 
he died in 1797. He had not perhaps the genius of an 
inventor; but the advantages of liberal education, and of 
a classic taste in the choice of his subjects, and the style 
at which he always, and often successfully, aimed, made 
him at least equal to his most celebrated contemporaries. 
Some of the subjects which he painted from the Iliad bear 
ample evidence of this. Achilles grasping the body of 
Patroclus, and rejecting the consolation of the Grecian 
chiefs, and Hector tied to his chariot, have something of 
Homeric sublimity and pathos ; the moment chosen is the 
crisis of the fact, and the test of the hero's character. 
But in this last he is not always happy, as in Achilles dis- 
missing Briseis, where the gesticulation of an actor sup- 
plants the expression of the man. Of his women the Bri- 
seis in the same subject is the most attractive. Neither 
his Andromache mourning over Hector, nor the Helen in 
the same, or the scene with Paris, reach our ideas of the 

1 Moreri. Diet. Hist, 


former's dignity and anguish, or the form and graces of 
the latter. Indeed, what idea can be supposed to reach 
that beauty, which, in the confession of age itself, de- 
served the ten years' struggle of two nations ? And yet, in 
the subject of Paris, those graces and that form are to be 
subordinate to the superior ones of Venus. He would 
rank with the first names in art, who from such a combi- 
nation should escape without having provoked the indig- 
nation, contempt, or pity of disappointed expectation. 

Though he was familiar with the antique, the forms of 
Hamilton have neither its correctness nor characteristic 
purity ; something of the modern eclectic principle prevails 
in his works, and his composition is not seldom as much 
beholden to common-place ornamental conceits and ha- 
bits, as to propriety. Though solicitous about colour, he 
was no colourist ; he should have disdained what the gran- 
deur of his subjects rejected, and contented himself with 
negative hues, and grave and simple tones, instead of the 
clammy greys, harsh blues, and sordid reds, the refuse of 
the Roman and Bolognese schools, that cut his breadth 
and dim his chiaroscuro. 

A considerable part of the latter periods of this artist's 
life was dedicated to the discovery of antique monuments. 
He opened scavos in various places of ttye Roman state, at 
Centumcellue, Velletri, Ostia* and above all at Tivoli, 
among the ruins of Adrian's Villa ; and it must be owned 
that the success which attended most of his researches made 
amply up to art in general for the loss which painting per- 
haps may have suffered by the intermission of his practice 
and example. In the collection of the Museo Clementino, 
next to the treasures of Belvedere, the contributions of 
Hamilton in statues, busts, and basso relievos, were by far 
the most important to the progress of art and classic learn- 
ing ; and the best collections scattered over Russia, Ger- 
many, and this country, owe many of their principal or- 
naments to his discoveries. Nor was he less attentive to 
modern art; he published his " Schola Italica Picture" 
to trace the progress of its styles from Lionardo da Vinci 
to the successors of the Caracci. It yet remains to be said 
Hamilton, that however eminent his talents or other 
.qualities were, they were excelled by the liberality, bene- 
volence, and humanity of his character. 1 

to Lor^OrTord ^ ^ XVI Pilk 'Ston, by Fuseli.Edwards's Supplement 


HAMILTON (GEORGE), earl of Orkney, a brave offi- 
cer, was the fifth son of William earl of Selkirk, and very 
early embraced the profession of arms. In March 1689-90 
he was made a colonel, and distinguished himself with 
particular bravery at the battle of the Boyne, under king 
William, July 1, 1690; and those of Aghrim, July 12, 
1691; of Steinkirk, Aug. 3, 1692, and of Lauden, July 
19, 1693. Nor did he appear to less advantage at the 
sieges of Athlone, Limerick, and Namur. His eminent 
services in Ireland and Flanders through the whole 
course of the war, recommended him so highly to the 
favour of William III. that on Jan. 10, 1695-6, he was 
advanced to the dignity of a peer of Scotland, by the title 
of earl of Orkney. His lady, likewise, whom he married 
in 1695, and who was the daughter of sir Edward Villiers, 
knight-marshal, and a special favourite with the king, re- 
ceived a grant under the great seal of Ireland, of almost all 
the private estates of the abdicated king James, of very 
considerable value. Upon the accession of queen Anne, 
the earl of Orkney was promoted to the rank of major- 
general March 9, 1701-2, to that of lieutenant-general 
Jan. 1, 1703-4, and in February following was made knight 
of the thistle. In 1 704 his lordship was at the battle of 
Blenheim, which was crowned with so important a victory 
in favour of the allies ; and he made prisoners of war a 
body of 1300 French officers and 12,000 common soldiers, 
who had been posted in the village of Blenheim. In July 
1705, he was detached with 1200 men to march before the 
main body of the army, and to observe the march of a 
great detachment of the enemy, which marshal Villars 
had sent off to the Netherlands, as soon as he found the 
march of the allies was directed thither ; and his lordship 
used such expedition, that he seasonably reinforced the 
Dutch, and prevented marshal Villeroy-'s taking the citadel 
of Liege, about which his troops were then formed. The 
next month his lordship marched with fourteen battalions- 
of foot, and twenty-four squadrons of horse, to support 
the passage over the Dyle, which was immediately effected. 
In July 1706, he assisted at the siege of Menin ; and on 
Feb. 12, 1706-7, was elected one of the sixteen peers for 
Scotland, to sit in the first parliament of Great Britain 
after the union. The same year he again served under the 
duke of Marlborough in Flanders; being in the latter end 
of May detached with seven battalions of foot from Mel- 

92 HA M I L T N. 

dart to the pass of Louvain, in order to preserve the com- 
munication with it, and on that side of Flanders; which 
his lordship did, and abode there during the time of the 
allied army's encamping at Meldart. When they decamped 
on Aug. 1, to Nivelle, within two leagues of the French 
army, and a battle was expected, the earl, with twelve bat- 
talions of foot, and thirty squadrons of horse and dragoons, 
and all the grenadiers of the army, advanced a little out 
of the front of it, and lay all night within cannon-shot of 
the enemy ; and the next morning charged their rear in 
their retreat for above a league and a half, and killed, dis- 
abled, and caused to desert, above 4000 of them. In the 
beginning of September following his lordship was again 
detached with another considerable body of troops to Tur- 
quony, under a pretence of foraging by the Scheld, but 
really with the design of drawing the enemy thither from 
Tournay to battle, and getting between them and the city. 
In November 1708, the earl commanded the van of the 
army at the passing of the Scheld ; and in June the year 
following, assisted at the siege of Tournay, and took St. 
Amand and St. Martin's Sconce; and on Aug. 20, was de- 
tached from the camp at Orchies towards St. Guilliampass, 
on the river Heine, towards the northward of MOMS, in 
order to attack and take it, for the better passage of the 
army to Mons ; and on the 30th of that month, was pre- 
sent at the battle of Malplaquet. In 1710 he was sworn 
of the privy-council; and made general of foot in Flanders, 
and in 1712 colonel of the royal regiment of foot-guards 
called the fuzileers, and served in Flanders under the 
duke of Ormond. In October, 1714, his lordship was ap- 
pointed gentleman extraordinary of the bed-chamber to 
king George I. and on Dec. 17 following, governor of 
Virginia. He was likewise afterwards constable, governor 
and captain of Edinburgh castle, lord-lieutenant of the 
county of Clydesdale, and field-marshal. He died in 
London, at his house in Albemarle-street, Jan, 29, 1736-7. 1 
HAMILTON (HUGH), bishop of Ossory, and an emi- 
nent mathematician, was born in the county of Dublin, 
March 26, 1729. He entered of Trinity-college, Dublin, 
Dublin, Nov. 17, 1742, and in 1751 was elected a fellow 
that college. In 1758 he published his treatise on conic 
ions, < De Sectionibus Conicis," and in 1759 was 

1 Birch's Lives. Scotch Peerage. 


elected Erasmus Smith's professor of natural philosophy. 
In 1764 he resigned his fellowship, having accepted a col- 
lege living ; and in 1767 obtained the living of St. Anne's, 
Dublin, which in the following year he resigned at the 
proposal of the primate Robinson, for the deanery of Ar- 
magh. In 1772 he married an Irish lady of good family 
of the name of Wood. In 1796 he was consecrated 'bishop 
of Clonfert, having been recommended to that dignity 
without his solicitation or knowledge ; and in 1799 was 
removed to the see of Ossory, where he continued till his 
death, Dec. 1, 1805. 

Dr. Hamilton's works have lately been collected and 
published by his son, in 1809, 2 vols. 8vo. The first con- 
tains his treatise on conic sections already mentioned ; the 
second, " An Essay on the existence and attributes of the 
Supreme Being;" u An Essay on the permission of Evil;" 
three philosophical essays on the ascent of vapours, the 
aurora borealis, and the principles of mechanics ; " Re- 
marks and hints on the improvement of Barometers ;" " On 
the power of fixed alkaline salts to preserve flesh from pu- 
trefaction ;" and " Four introductory Lectures on Natural 
Philosophy,'" written originally in discharge of his duty as 
professor of natural philosophy ; and received at their first 
publication, as the work of an acute and sound philosopher. 
In every office, whether ecclesiastical or otherwise, he 
seems to have been anxious to perform all the duties it 
imposed with fidelity and care. 1 

HAMILTON (PATRICK), usually reckoned the first 
Scotch reformer, is said by all the Scotch ecclesiastical 
writers to have been of royal descent, as by his father, he 
was nephew to James Hamilton, earl of Arran, and by 
his mother, nephew to John Stewart, duke of Albany : 
Mackenzie, however, who cannot be suspected of any 
wish to degrade his countryman, maintains that his fa- 
ther was only a bastard brother of the earl of Arran, and 
his mother a bastard sister of the duke of Albany. What- 
ever truth there may be in this, it appears that he had 
great family interest, and being possessed of uncommon 
abilities, was intended for the higher offices in the church, 
had he not become its decided enemy. He was born in 
1503, and after completing the usual course of studies at 
the university of St. Andrew's, went to Germany, where 

1 Life prefixed to his Works. 

9* H A M I L T O N. 

he was, according to Dempster, made a professor in the 
university of Marpurg, which was newly erected by Phi- 
lip, Landgrave of Hesse. During his residence abroad he 
imbibed the opinions of Luther, Melanchthon, and other 
reformers ; and on his return to his own country, where he 
had been made abbot of Ferme, or Feme, in Ross-shire, 
he spared no pains in exposing what he considered as the 
corruptions of the Church of Rome, and the many errors, 
both in doctrine and practice, that had crept into the Chris- 
tian religion. 

In this employment he was both zealous and successful^ 
for he was a young man of great learning, of a courteous 
disposition, and unblameable in private life. This alarmed 
the clergy, who, under pretence of conferring with him, 
enticed him to St. Andrew's, at that time the principal 
seat of the dignified clergy, where after repeated disputa- 
tion, in which some of the clergy appeared to lean to his 
opinions, he was one night suddenly apprehended in his 
bed, and carried prisoner to the castle. The next day he 
was presented before the archbishop of St. Andrew's, James 
Beton, assisted by the archbishop of Glasgow, the bishops 
of Brechin, Dunkeld, and Dumblaine, with a number of 
abbots, priors, and doctors, before whom he was accused of 
the following articles: 1. That the corruption of sin re- 
mains in children after baptism. 2. That no man by the 
power of his free-will can do any thing that is truly good. 
3. That no man is without sin altogether, so long as he 
liveth. 4. That every true Christian may know himself 
to be in a state of grace. 5. That a man is not justified 
by works, but by faith only. 6. That good works make 
not a good man, but that a good man doeth good works, 
as it is the good tree which bringeth forth good fruit, not 
the fruit that maketh the tree good. 7. That faith, hope, 
and charity, are so linked together, that he who hath one 
hath all, and he who lacketh one lacketh all. 8, That 
remission of sin is not purchased by any actual penance. 

9. That auricular confession is not necessary to salvation. 

10. That there is no purgatory. H. That the holy pa- 
triarchs were in heaven before Christ's passion. 12. That 
the pope is Antichrist, and that every priest has as much 
power as the pope. 

In his defence he maintained the first seven of these ar- 

:les to be undoubtedly true, and sound doctrine, and as 

such they appear to have been afterwards adopted by Cal- 


vin, and, in substance, make part of that system known by 
his name, and incorporated in the national creed of Scot- 
land. The rest of the articles, Mr. Hamilton allowed, were 
disputable points, but such as he could not condemn, un- 
less he saw better reasons than had been offered. They 
were all condemned, however, as heretical, and on the 
1st of March, 1527, sentence was pronounced against him, 
declaring him a heretic, and giving him over to the se- 
cular power, to suffer the punishment due to heretics, 
which was burning alive. On the same day the secular 
power pronounced its sentence, which was immediately 
executed with every circumstance of savage barbarity, 
which, all historians agree, he bore with firmness and in- 
vincible constancy to the principles he had professed. The 
place of execution was the gate of St. Salvador's college. 

A circumstance accompanied his execution which made 
a deep impression on the people. One friar Campbell, 
who had often conferred with him, and appeared to be 
convinced by his arguments, now molested him much when 
tied to the stake. Hamilton exclaimed " Wicked man, 
thou knowest that I am not an heretic, and that it is the 
truth of God for which I suffer. So much thou didst con- 
fess to me in private, and thereupon I appeal thee to an- 
swer before the judgment-seat of Christ." This Campbell 
died raving mad a short time after, when the people be- 
gan to compare his end with that of the martyr's, and 
upon inquiring more closely into the cause of the latter's 
death, became many of them converts to his doctrines. 
One Lindsay, an intimate friend of the archbishop, said, 
" My lord, if ye burn any more, except ye follow my 
counsel, ye will utterly destroy yourselves ; if ye will burn 
them, let them be burned in hollow cellars, for the smoke 
of Mr. Patrick Hamilton hath infected as many as it blew 
upon." It is certain that his unjust and precipitate exe- 
cution raised a general clamour against the churchmen, 
for condemning such a man because he maintained doc- 
trines some of which they could not prove to be heretical, 
and others of them were proposed only as theological 
problems to be disputed among divines. He was only 
twenty-three years of age when he suffered, and his youth 
and excellent character undoubtedly weighed much with 
the people. 

A treatise of his, entitled " Patrick's Places," or " Com- 
mon Places," was translated into English by John Firth, 


and is published in Fox's " Acts and Monuments." It is 
a very ingenious explanation and defence of the doctrines 
of justification, free-will, election, &c. and has not in 
closeness of reasoning and aptness of quotation been ex- 
ceeded by any divines of the Calvinistic persuasion in later 
times. If we consider his extreme youth and the age in 
which he wrote, it will yet appear a more extraordinary 
composition. 1 

HAMILTON (ROBERT), "a skilful physician, was born 
at Edinburgh, Dec. 6, 1721, and educated at the high 
school there. He was afterwards apprenticed to Mr. Wil- 
liam Edmonston, a surgeon and apothecary at Leith, and 
after continuing in that station three years, studied* medi- 
cine at the university of Edinburgh. In 1741, he went as 
surgeon's mate on board the Somerset, and for some time 
had the care of the military hospital at Port Mahon. In 
1744, he was appointed surgeon to the Wolf sloop of war. 
The four following years were divided between his occu- 
pations at sea, and his attendance upon the lectures of 
Drs. Hunter and Smellie in London. In 1748, he went 
to Lynn in Norfolk, invited thither by his brother, a mer- 
chant in that town. He afterwards accepted an offer of 
settling at Lynn ; and in 1766, having received the degree 
of M. D. from the university of St. Andrew's, he succeeded 
to the practice of Dr. Lidderdale, who died about that time. 
In this situation he continued to the time of his death, 
which happened Nov. 9, 1793. As he was of an inquisi- 
tive and industrious turn of mind, the time that could be 
spared from his practice he employed in endeavouring to 
make improvements in his profession, and of his success 
several valuable monuments remain. He was a frequent, 
correspondent of the royal societies of London and Edin- 
burgh. In 1791, he published a " Treatise on the Scro- 
fula," which has been well received. He invented a ma- 
chine for reducing dislocated shoulders, and an apparatus 
for keepiug the ends of fractured bones together, to pre- 
vent lameness and deformity from those accidents. In 
801, was published a posthumous work, entitled " Ob- 
servations on the marsh remittent fever ; also on the water 
canker, or cancer aquaticus of Van Swieten, with some re- 
marks on the leprosy," 8vo. Prefixed to this volume is an 

Keith's, Spottiswood's, and Knox's Histories. Cook's Hist, of the Reforma- 
tion. Mackenzie's Scots Writers. Fox, &c. 


account of the author, from which we have extracted the 
preceding sketch. 1 

HAMILTON (WILLIAM), of Bangour, an ingenious 
poet, was the son of a man of fortune and family in Airshire, 
where he was born in 1704. He received a liberal educa- 
tion, to which he joined the accomplishments of the man 
of the world, and amidst the lighter dissipations of society, 
cultivated a taste for poetry, of which he exhibited fre- 
quent specimens for the amusement of his friends. In 
1745 he joined the unfortunate cause of the Pretender, 
and conceived great hopes from the temporary success of 
the rebels at Preston-pans ; but after the battle of Culloden, 
which terminated the struggle, was obliged to provide for 
his safety in flight, and after many narrow escapes, reached 
the continent, where he remained until he received a par- 
don, and was enabled to visit his native land. To recruit 
his health, however, he was obliged to return to the more 
genial climate of France, where he died in 1754. 

Among the revivers of his fame, professor Richardson, 
and lord Woodhouslee, are entitled to the highest respect. 
The latter, in his elaborate life of lord Kames, says, "With 
the elegant and accomplished William Hamilton of Ban- 
gour, whose amiable manners were long remembered with 
the tenderest recollection by all who knew him, Mr. Home 
(lord Kames) lived in the closest habits of friendship. The 
writer of these memoirs has heard him dwell with delight 
on the scenes of their youthful days ; and he has to regret, 
that many an anecdote to which he listened with pleasure, 
was not committed to a better record than a treacherous 
memory. Hamilton's mind is pictured in his verses. They 
are the easy and careless effusions of an elegant, fancy and 
a chastened taste ; and the sentiments they convey are the 
genuine feelings of a tender and susceptible heart, which 
perpetually owned the dominion of some favourite mistress ; 
but whose passion generally evaporated in song, and made 
no serious or permanent impression. His poems had an 
additional charm to his contemporaries, from being com- 
monly addressed to his familiar friends of either sex, by 

It appears from Hamilton's letters, that he communi- 
cated his poems to his friends for their critical remarks, and 
was easily induced to alter or amend them by their advice. 

* Life a? above. 



He had sent the piece entitled " Contemplation*" one of 
the most laboured of his productions, to Mr. Home, who 
suggested some alterations. In a letter from Hamilton, in 
July 1739, he says, " I have made the corrections on the 
moral part of Contemplation, and in a post will send it to 
Will. Crawford, who has the rest, and will transmit it to 
you. I shall write to him fully on the subject." It is 
pleasing ^to remark, that the Will. Crawford here men- 
tioned, was the author of the beautiful pastoral ballad of 
Tweed-side, which, with the aid of its charming melody, 
will probably live as long as the language is understood. 
Hamilton may be reckoned among the earliest of the Scotch 
poets who wrote English verse with propriety and taste, 
and with any considerable portion of the poetic spirit. 
Thomson, Mallet, and he, were contemporaries. " The 
poems of Hamilton," says professor Richardson, " display 
regular design, just sentiments, fanciful invention, pleas- 
ing sensibility, elegant diction, and smooth versification, 
His genius was aided by taste, and his taste was improved 
by knowledge. He was not only well acquainted with the 
most elegant modern writers, but with those of antiquity. 
Of these remarks, his poem entitled c Contemplation, or 
the Triumph of Love,' affords sufficient illustration." 

Some of Hamilton's poems were first published at Glas- 
gow in 1748, and afterwards reprinted, not only without 
the author's name, but without his consent, and even with- 
out his knowledge. He corrected, however, many errors 
of that copy, and enlarged some of the poems, though he 
did not live to make a new and complete publication. The 
improvements he made were carefully inserted in the edi- 
tion published at Edinburgh in 1760, with the addition of 
many pieces taken from his original manuscripts. Since 
that time, although they have been inserted in the new 
edition of the English Poets, there has been no demand 
for a separate edition. It would be of importance, but it 
is seldom easy, to account for the various fates of poets. 
Hamilton, if not of the first class, and in whom we find only 
those secondary qualities which professor Richardson has 
so ably pointed out in the " Lounger," surely excels some 
whose works are better known and more current. The 
neglect which he has experienced naay be partly attributed 
to his political principles, and partly to the local interest 
which his effusions excited, and to which they were long 
confined. Verses of compliment and personal addresses 


tnust have extraordinary merit, if they attract the notice of 
distant strangers. Prejudice, however, is now at an end, 
ami the friends of Scottish genius, who have lately called 
the attention of the puhlic to this writer, have proved that 
he deserves a higher rank than has yet been assigned to 
him. He is perhaps very unequal, and the blemishes in 
his verse and diction to which professor Richardson has 
alluded are frequent, yet it is no inconsiderable merit to 
have been one of the first of his countrymen who culti- 
vated the purity and harmony of the English language, 
and exhibited a variety of composition and fertility of sen- 
timent that are rarely to be found in the writings of those 
whose poetical genius is of the second degree. 1 

HAMILTON (WILLIAM GERARD), a statesman of some 
note, was the only son of William Hamilton, esq. an advo- 
cate of the court of session in Scotland, who after the union 
came to London, and was admitted to the English bar. 
His son was born in Lincoln's-inn Jan. 28, 1728-9, and 
was educated at Winchester school, and at Oriel college, 
Oxford, where he was admitted a gentleman commoner, 
March 1, 1744-5. During his residence at Oxford, it is 
supposed he wrote those poems which were printed in 
1750, 4to> for private distribution only, but have lately 
been published by Mr. Malone. On leaving Oxford, he 
became a member of Lincoln's-inn, with a view to study 
the law ; but on his father's death in 1754, he betook hifn- 
self to a political life, and in the same year was chosen, 
member of parliament for Petersfield in Hampshire. Hi$ 
first effort at parliamentary eloquence was made Nov. 1 3, 
1755, when, to use the words of Waller respecting Den- 
ham, " he broke out, like the Irish rebellion, threescore 
thousand strong-, when nobody was aware, or in the least 
suspected it." Certainly no first speech in parliament 
ever produced such an effect, or acquired such eulogies, 
both within and without the house of commons. Of this 
speech, however, no copy remains. For many years it was 
supposed to have been his only attempt, and hence the 
familiar name of Single -speech was fixed upon him ; but he 
spoke a second time, Feb. 1756, and such was the admira- 
tion which followed this display of his talents, that Mr, 
P\>jc, then one of the principal secretaries of state, pro- 
cured him to be appointed, in April of the same year, one 

1 Johnson and Chalmers's English Poet?. Lor4 Woodhouslee's Lif f 
Kaaics. The Louoger. 

H 2 


of the lords of trade. At this board he sat five years with- 
out ever exerting his oratorical talents; and in 1761 ac- 
cepted the office of principal secretary to George earl of 
Halifax, then appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland. In the 
Irish parliament, as he filled an office of responsibility, it 
was necessary for him to support the measures of adminis- 
tration ; and accordingly in 1761 and 1762, he made five 
speeches on various occasions, which fully gratified the 
expectations of his auditors. Mr. Hamilton continued se- 
cretary to the succeeding lord lieutenant, Hugh earl of 
Northumberland, in 1763, but it is believed his exertions 
in that session were less splendid and less frequent; and 
before it concluded, on some disgust he resigned his office. 
On his return to England, and for a long time after- 
wards, he meditated taking an active part in the political 
warfare of the house of commons, but he never again ad- 
dressed the chair, though he was chosen into every new 
parliament that was summoned from that time till May 1796, 
a little before his death. In this period, the only office hg 
filled was that of chancellor of the exchequer in Ireland, 
which he held from Sept. 1763 to April 1784. During 
this interval he was one of those on whom common rumour 
bestowed the authorship of Junius's letters, and perhaps 
never was any rumour so completely devoid of a probable 
foundation. He died at his house in Upper Brook-street, 
July 16, 1796, and was buried in the chancel vault of the 
church of St. Martin in the Fields. In 1803, Mr. Malona 
published his works under the title of " Parliamentary 
Logic ; to which are subjoined two Speeches delivered in 
the House of Commons in Ireland, and other pieces,*' 8vo f 
with a life of the author prefixed. These speeches give 
us but a faint idea of the splendid abilities which once so 
enraptured his hearers, nor does his poetry entitle him to 
rank above the elegant versifiers of his time. His Par^ 
liamentary Logic" is a performance of a more singular cast. 
It consists of a string of maxims, or rules, for managing a 
debate in parliament, in which the author appears serious, 
else we should have supposed parliamentary logic" to 
imply a ridicule on the language of that house. These 
maxims, however, seem admirably qualified to make a par- 
tizan; although we much doubt whether they have a ten- 
dency to make that more valuable character, an honest man. 1 

th6 ab Ve ** Bosw.ll'g Life of Johnson.- 
. Lord Orford' Works, vol. V. pp. 42, 47. 


HAMILTON (Sir WILLIAM), a gentleman of great emi- 
nence in the literary and political world, was born in Scot- 
land in 1730. He was of a branch of the family of Hamil- 
ton, which was considerably reduced in circumstances at 
the time of his birth ; he himself having repeatedly de- 
clared to his friends in Naples, that " he was condemned 
to make his way in the world with an illustrious name and 
a thousand pounds." He was not, however, doomed to 
spend many years of his youth in such narrow circum- 
stances ; as in 1755 he married a young lady of amiable 
character, with whom he received a fortune of 5000/. a 
year. The active and important part of his life began 
from the moment in which he entered the diplomatic line ; 
and we may consider it as a circumstance peculiarly for- 
tunate for the literary world, that he was destined to re- 
main nearly the rest of his life in a country truly classical, 
in regard to the fine arts and natural history ; pursuits for 
which he had early evinced the greatest predilection. 

Mr. Hamilton was appointed ambassador to the court of 
Naples in 1764; and from that time to 1800, in which he 
was recalled, it may be said, with the strictest justice, that 
he did much more for the advancementof the fine arts, natural 
history, and antiquities, than any individual or corporation 
in that metropolis ; perhaps, or even the government it- 
self. In Naples the state of those branches of knowledge, 
which constituted Mr. Hamilton's pursuits, was at this time 
very low, and as far as early and intense application may 
be considered proofs of a predominant passion, it appears 
that the objects of natural history chiefly engaged his at- 
tention. In a short period from his arrival, he had already 
collected a vast number of articles connected with this 
science, and had thus formed a valuable cabinet, of which, 
according to the expression of one of his friends, " he 
could be himself the ablest demonstrator." Between 1764, 
and the middle of 1767, he visited Vesuvius no less than 
twenty-two times, and had as often observed the different 
spots around Naples affected by volcanic eruptions; and 
it was universally remarked by those who had the pleasure, 
to accompany him in these excursions, that he was the* 
best and most instructive " Cicerone 1 * that could possibly' 
be found for such occasions. He also visited Mount Etua, ; 
and the Eolian islands, places which had not been exa- 
mined with such attention before. The phenomena which 
their surface presented to his view did not satisfy his cu- 


riosity : he observed the interior parts of the soil, and every 
minute circumstance that attended the operations of na- 
ture : not one of the different substances which had ever 
issued from these volcanoes was left unnoticed. In all his 
excursions he was constantly accompanied by an artist of 
great merit, Mr. Fabris, who drew plans and delineated 
such objects as were most interesting and striking. 

These observations, though since reduced to systematic, 
works, were first communicated in partial letters to the 
royal society, from 1766 to 1779; in whose Transactions 
for the above years, and also in the Annual Register, these 
letters are preserved ; the perusal of which will amply 
gratify those who are fond of curious incidents, and per- 
sonal anecdotes relating to the subject of this memoir, 
The works themselves were two : viz. " Observations on 
Mount Vesuvius, Mount Etna, and other Volcanoes of the 
Two Sicilies," which appeared in 1772, London, 8vo, and 
the " Campi PhJegraei," published at Naples in 1776, in 
2 vols folio. In the former his chief position was, "that 
volcanoes lie dormant for several years, nay even for cen- 
turies." " When 1 arrived," says he, " at Naples, Vesu- 
vius was quiet, very seldom was smoke visible on its top ; in 
the year 1766, it seemed to take fire, and has never since been, 
three months without either throwing up red hot stones, or 
disgorging streams of lava ; nor has its crater been ever 
free from smoke. At Naples, when a lava appears, and 
not till then, it is styled an eruption; whereas I look upon 
the five nominal eruptions I have been witness to, from 
March 1766 to May 1771, as in effect but one continued 
eruption. It is certain, that by constant attention to the 
smoke that issues from the crater, a very good guess may 
be given as to the degree of fermentation within the vol- 
cano. By this alone 1 foretold the two last eruptions ; and 
by another very simple observation, I pointed out, some 
time before, the very spot from whence the lava has is- 
sued. When the cone of Vesuvius was covered with snow, 
I remarked a spot on which it would not lie." 

The " Campi Phlegraei" were chiefly calculated to ex- 
hibit the view of the several spots already described. The 
drawings, by Mr. Fabris, were coloured with surprising 
art and great force of expression, and represented nature 
with the utmost accuracy and truth. Each plate was ac- 
companied by concise and perspicuous explanations in 
English, and French. In the first volume, a large map was 


Also exhibited of the gulph of Naples and the country 
contiguous, which is unrivalled for its beauty and splen- 
dour. And in the author's letter to sir John Pringle, dated 
Naples, May 2, 1776 (which may be considered as a dedi- 
cation of the \Vork to the royal society), some additional 
observations on the subject were communicated, which had 
not been inserted either in the partial letters to the late 
Mr. Maty, or in the 8vo edition of them in 1772. In short, 
the publication was so accurate, so splendid, and so mag- 
nificent, as to have excited a surprise how such an invalu- 
able performance could make its appearance in the south 
of Italy. 

A new phenomenon, however, occurred after this pub- 
lication, which was too striking not to excite a peculiar 
attention in our ingenious naturalist, and not to engage 
him in a new work. We allude to the great eruption of 
Mount Vesuvius, on the 8th of August, 1779, and to the 
" Supplement" to the " Campi Phiegraei," to which it 
gave rise. As was his custom, Mr. Hamilton had commu- 
nicated a description of that wonderful event to the royal 
society, which was printed in the first part of the Philoso- 
phical Transactions for the year 1780. He afterwards, 
however, as he had done with his former ones, collected 
these observations, and formed of them a regular work. In 
the year of the great eruption, he published in Naples, a 
fine edition of the above-mentioned book, beautifully il- 
lustrated by coloured prints, from the drawings of the 
same artist, Peter Fabris ; the drawings and illuminations 
being likewise copied from nature, under his own inspection. 

In the science of antiquities, so early as 1765, he had 
promoted the publication of the magnificent and elegant 
ttrork, "Antiquites Etrusques, Grecques,etRomaines, tire*es 
du Cabinet de Mr. Hamilton ;" a fine collection of designs 
from Etruscan, Greek, and Roman vases, which was received 
with the greatest satisfaction by the lovers of antiquity and 
the arts. The design of this work was professedly the ad- 
vancement of the arts. It was intended to shew on what 
system the ancients gave their vases that elegance so gene- 
rally acknowledged and admired, and how they were able 
to assign the exact measures of their proportion ; and to 
establish certain principles for the artist who would per- 
form something in the same way. It was, in short, a most 
valuable present to the learned and to artists, and above 
all to manufacturers of earthen ware and china, and of vase 



in silver, glass, &c. who found here an infinite variety of 
beautiful models, most of which had been until then un- 
known ; and indeed it may be observed, that since that 
period our articles of the above description are universally 
formed with more beauty, taste, and elegance; qualities in 
which we as yet remain unequalled by any other country. 

We are informed in the abbe Winkelman's Letters, that 
the above-mentioned work was intended to be comprised 
in four large folio volumes. Of these, the two former only 
appeared at the stated time. The two latter volumes (as we 
are informed by a note in the last edition of the Letters of 
Winkelnian) were published in Naples in 1775; but the 
writer of this article has never been able to procure a sight 
of them, or even to gain the least information on the sub- 
ject. The two former volumes were reduced to a smaller 
size, and republished at Paris, by Mr. David, in 1787, in 
five 8vo volumes. The adventurer D'Hancarville, editor 
of the work, as we are told by Winkelman, expected, by 
that publication, to acquire a fortune of twenty thousand 
pounds. It is not probable that he ever realized this ex- 
pectation, but we know from D'Hancarville himself, that 
Mr. Hamilton allowed him to reap the emolument which 
might arise from the work. Of the particulars of which, 
he himself says, that " long since Mr. Hamilton had taken 
pleasure in collecting those precious monuments, and had 
afterwards trusted them to him for publication, requiring 
only some elegance in the execution ; and the condition, 
that the work should appear under the auspices of his Bri- 
tannic majesty." " It answers no purpose to have of the 
ancient vases that general and vague idea which is given 
of them by the books of Caylus, or Montfaucon. There 
are few antiquaries and scholars who have not entertained 
a wish to see such a collection executed with care and 
precision. They can now compare the present with that 
of cardinal Gualtieri, reported by Montfaucon, and with 
all the others which have hitherto appeared. Mr. Hamil- 
ton, justly apprehensive that the vases, already destined 
for England, might be damaged in their way, has resolved 
to have them engraved at Naples." 

Part of the vases which gave rise to D'Hancarville's 
work, is that precious collection which is now seen in one 
of the rooms of the British Museum, and which formerly 
belonged to the senatorial house of Porcinari, in Naples. 
Mr. Hamilton purchased it from the proprietors in. 1765, 


and it still is a matter of surprise with the greatest of our 
artists, that it was ever suffered to go out of its native land. 
In Naples, however, it never occasioned any surprise ; as 
it is there known, that full rive years before the purchase, 
the same valuable property, through the means of the 
famous Theatin lather Paciaudi, had been offered to the 
count of Caylus; and, in fact, the best-informed Neapo- 
litans were fully convinced that it was much better that 
such precious monuments should be in the power of some 
active nation, in which they might be put to the best use, 
than to remain in their own country, where they would 
have been forever useless. About the same time (in 1767), 
the British Museum received from Mr. Hamilton two other 
valuable presents: 1st. A complete collection of every 
sort of matter produced by Mount Vesuvius, by which he 
thought it might be proved that " many variegated marbles 
and many precious stones are the produce of volcanos, 
and that there have been volcanos in many parts of the 
world, where at present there are no traces of them visible." 
2. Two very scarce and interesting books, respecting the 
formation of the celebrated new mountain at Pozzuolt, 
published at Naples, a few months after the event, in 1538: 
the one written by Marc Antony delli Falconi ; and the 
other by Peter James di Toledo. 

Among the several persons whom Mr. Hamilton honour- 
ed with his patronage at Naples, we shall only mention the 
celebrated engraver, Morghen ; as it was owing to his en- 
couragement that this eminent artist, in 1769, published 
that elegant collection of views at Pozzuoli and other spots 
in the neighbourhood of Naples. It is pleasing to say that 
Mr. Morghen soon evinced his gratitude towards his patron, 
and the nation to which the latter belonged : the collection 
was dedicated to the Society of arts in London ; and the 
greatest part of the views were inscribed to some indivi- 
duals of our nobility who then happened to be in Naples. 
Ever since the year 1770, Mr. Hamilton had established a 
regular correspondence with various intelligent persons 4n 
the several provinces of the kingdom, concerning such mo- 
numents of arts or antiquities as might happen to be found 
near their respective residences, and which might answer 
his further purposes. This correspondence was carried on 
with a peculiar activity in the province of Campania, that 
province being indeed the spot in which the greatest num- 
ber of ancient vases .has been found, and which for this 

106 H A M I L T O N. 

reason is thought to have possessed the chief manufactures 
/. ihat article. 

Whilst at this period Mr. Hamilton so successfully in- 
dulged in scientific and literary pursuits, he had no op- 
portunity of exerting himself to any advantage in his pub- 
lic and diplomatic capacity, nothing of importance being 
then in agitation in the political world ; and, with regard 
to private connexions, it is still in the remembrance of his 
old friends, that, till he became acquainted with some con- 
genial characters, he found himself, in the midst of an 
immense metropolis, as insulated as if he had been in a 
village. Of his domestic life, about this period, we fortu- 
nately have an account from the celebrated secretary of 
the French academy, Duclos, from which we shall here 
give an extract, the more properly, as, with the alteration 
of time and place, it is his characteristic picture in every 
part of his life. " Mr. Hamilton," says he, " was in the 
habit of taking his dinner at home with a select number of 
friends, among whom I had the honour of being admitted. 
He had also a weekly party of the most distinguished per- 
sons of Naples. In these parties, a concert was sometimes 
given, in which Miss Hamilton played on the harpsichord 
so eminently, that her talents were acknowledged in a town 
decidedly superior in musical science to the rest of Italy. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton are the happiest couple I ever saw. 
Both still in the vigour of youth, with good hearts and 
cultivated minds, and tenderly attached to each other, they 
presented to me the image of a patriarchal life. The lady, 
mistress of a considerable fortune, enjoys the pleasure of 
making that of her husband, who had nothing of his own 
but an illustrious name. The gentleman, duly sensible of 
what he owes to a beloved wife, is highly pleased to ac- 
knowledge it, and the sentiment of his gratitude increases 
the happiness of his situation." 

The twelve years which elapsed from 1772 to 1784, 
formed a remarkable epoch in Mr. Hamilton's life, with 
respect to his advancement and domestic affairs. On the 
S AU f Januar >"> 1772 > he was created knight of the bath. 
About 1775, he lost his only daughter. In 1782, he like- 
wise lost his lady. And in 1784, after twenty years' ab- 
sence, he visited his native country. He had been made 
a tellow of the royal society in 1766. 

This time, however, was equally well employed in the 
service of the sciences; for, in 1779, he repeated his 


visits to Mount Vesuvius, and published the Supplement 
already mentioned; in February 1783, he undertook the 
journey to Calabria, to observe the phenomena produced 
by the dreadful earthquake which just before had desolated 
that beautiful province, and of which he subsequently gave 
an account, in a letter to sir Joseph Banks, inserted in the 
Transactions of the Royal Society ;" and, so early as 
1777, he wrote an excellent memoir on the discoveries 
until then made in Pompeii ; which memoir, accompanied 
with 13 beautiful plates, was inserted in the fourth volume 
of the " Archaeologia," and by which we are informed, 
** that the city was supposed to have been a mile in length, 
and about three miles and a half round ; that only one hun- 
dred yards of a principal street, supposed to run through 
the whole city, had then been cleared ; that the width of 
the horse-way was said to be in general ten feet eight 
inches English, and the elevated foot- way on each side, 
about three feet wide ; that the plan of most of the houses 
was a square court, with a fountain in the middle, and 
small rooms round, communicating with that court ; and 
that fragments of large panes of glass were found there, 
shewing that the ancients of this period knew well the use 
of glass for windows." 

His most truly meritorious labours, however, at the close 
of the above mentioned period, were those which had in 
view the unrivalled museum of Portici ; an object which 
lad not yet been accessible to his researches. The history 
of the discovery of Herculaneum, and of the Royal mu- 
seum to which it gave rise, is too well known to require any 
detailed notice in this place : it is equally alien to our pur- 
pose to relate the several tardy and unsuccessful measures 
which the government took to illustrate that unrivalled 
establishment ; and we shall only notice the ancient manu- 
scripts in the Museum, which are immediately connected 
with our subject. It is known that about eight hundred 
objects of this kind had been found in the several excava- 
tions of Herculaneum ; and that on application being made 
to Mr. Assemanni of the Vatican, on the subject, this 
learned man had recommended an able, industrious, and 
indefatigable Piarist monk, named Father Anthony Piaggi, 
who possessed the art of completely unfolding the'deca3ed 
manuscripts. Some successful trials were made : a work 
on the philosophy of Epicurus, another on morals, a third 
>a rhetoric, and a fourth on music, were brought to light ; 

log H A M I L T O N. 

and of the last, the author of which was a Greek named 
Philodemus, thirty-eight full columns were happily copied. 
Father Anthony's services were still more beneficial ; he 
instructed in his art a pupil named Merli, afterwards as 
able as himself. Neither of them, however, persevered 
in their tasks : they complained of the supineness of the 
ministry, and of their own scanty allowance. 

Among the papers left by sir William at his death, are 
found more than fifty memoirs directed by Father Anthony 
to the marquis of Sambuca, soliciting his patronage for the 
great work of the manuscripts, to which solicitations that 
minister seemed to be deaf. Numberless other memoirs of 
the kind were also presented to several persons in the 
royal service, and they met with no better success. The 
consequence was, that Father Anthony at last put himself 
under the protection of sir William, and tendered his ser- 
vices for any information which the latter might wish con- 
cerning the Museum. The propriety of accepting this 
offer may be questioned. It was considered, however, by 
one who was not particularly acquainted with the adminis- 
tration of the establishment, as too important not to meet 
with an immediate compliance: a treaty was concluded, 
that sir William should grant to Father Anthony a pension 
of 600 ducats a year (100/.), and the latter should regu- 
larly send to him every week a sheet of original informa- 
tion; and in order to elude any ministerial inquisition, it 
was also agreed that the correspondence should be carried 
on in cyphers. This correspondence lasted till the death 
of Father Anthony in 1798; and, if we except a want of 
delicacy, and perhaps also a breach of trust in the monk, 
we may presume that, in the main object, it proved satis- 
factory to both parties: sir William was indeed so satisfied, 
that, some years after the commencement of the treaty, 
he procured for Father Anthony an additional pension, of 
the same sum of 600 ducats a year (100/.), from his royal 
highness the Prince of Wales ; and Father Anthony, on 
his side, seemed also so sensible of the favours he had re- 
ceived, that on his death, he bequeathed all his manuscripts 
and papers of every kind to his patron. 

In 1791, sir William was appointed a privy counsellor; 
and in the same year he married Miss Harte, the present 
lady Hamilton. About the same time also, in order to 
give a further illustration to his favourite doctrine respect- 
ing the constant state of eruption of Mount Vesuvius, he 


charged a Dominican friar at Resina, to compile for hit 
use, a daily calendar of the several phenomena of that 
mountain ; a compilation which, most probably, will also 
be found among his papers. 

In December 1798, when the French attacked the king- 
dom of Naples, he accompanied his Sicilian majesty to 
Palermo, from whence, towards the close of 1800, he was 
recalled to England: where he died April 6, 1803, in the 
72d year of his age. 

During the short interval between his arrival in England 
and his death, this respectable philosopher and naturalist 
was occupied in ordering and classifying his numerous 
manuscripts, which had been conveyed from Naples to 
Palermo, at the time of his removal ; and from the latter 
place to London, on his return to England. These manu- 
scripts consisted of eight large boxes ; four of which con- 
tained his correspondence with Father Anthony, and the 
other four, the valuable papers which the latter had be- 
queathed to him. Jt was his intention, alter a due ar- 
rangement, to favour the public with two works collected 
from their contents, one of which was to exhibit a series 
of original observations on the best monuments of art in 
the Museum of Portici ; and the other, a series of histori- 
cal anecdotes concerning its literary and economical ad- 
ministration, from its first establishment, of both which 
there is a prospect of publication. 

With regard to his diplomatic exertions, which naturally 
constituted the immediate duties of his station, we may 
notice, 1. the explanations, which, in 1772, he had with 
the first minister, marquis Tanucci, on account of Michael 
Torcia, who, in his performance, "The Political Sketch 
of Europe," had used some improper expressions : 2. the 
negotiations whichjbe successfully concluded for the neu- 
trality of his Sicilian majesty in the American war: 3. his 
excellent conduct during the family misunderstanding be- 
tween Spain and Naples, from 1784 to 1786: but these 
are matters which belong to political history. The fame 
of sir William Hamilton will ultimately rest on his talents, 
learning, and patriotic spirit. l 

HAMILTON (WILLIAM), an historical painter, the son 
of a Scotch gentleman who resided many years at Chelsea, 
4s deputy to Mr. Robert Adams, the celebrated architect, 

1 Baldwin's Literary Journal for 180i. 

110 H A M I L t O N. 

when clerk of the works to that college, was born in 1750*, 
and sent to Italy, when very young, under the patronage 
of Mr. Adams. He was there some time under the tuition 
of Zucchi, the painter of arabesque ornaments at Rome, 
and although Mr. Edwards thinks he was then too young to 
receive any material benefit from this tour, it served at 
least to increase his early taste for the art, and he caught 
a pleasant manner of painting, much in the style of his 
master. When he returned to England he became a pupil 
in the royal academy, and by attention to his studies, ac- 
quired considerable employment. He practised in many 
different ways, mostly history, and frequently arabesque, 
of which latter kind he executed some decorations at the 
seat of the late earl of Bute at High Cliff, Hampshire. He 
sometimes painted portraits, but his manner was not well 
adapted to that branch, yet his portrait of Mrs. Siddons in 
the character of lady Randolph (now in the possession of 
Samuel Whitbread, esq.) was allowed to have great merit. 
He was much employed by the late alderman Boydell, for 
his Shakspeare, and by Macklin for his edition of the Bible 
and of the Poets. In the former his " Woman of Samaria 7 ' 
deserves much praise. One of his most capital works was 
a picture of the "Queen of Sheba entertained at a banquet 
by Solomon," a design for a window in Arundel castle. 
His manner of painting was light, airy, and pleasant, and 
he excelled in ornaments to which he gave a propriety, 
richness, and a classic air. His coloured drawings imitate 
the fulness of his oil-paintings with more freshness, and, 
without much labour, are finished with taste. He was 
elected associate of the royal academy Nov. 8, 1784, and 
royal academician, February 10, 1789. He died in the 
vigour though not in the bloom of life, Dec. 2, 1801, of a 
violent fever of only three days 1 duration, deeply lamented 
by his friends, and regretted by the public. He was a 
man of great affability and gentle manners ; his politeness 
covered no insincerity, nor his emulation envy. He was 
one of the few artists we have personally known who spoke 
with high respect of his brethren, and was equally re- 
spected by them for his amiable temper. * 

HAMMOND (ANTHONY, esq.), descended from a family 
long situated at Somersham-place, in Huntingdonshire, 
was born in 16u3, and educated at St. John's college, 

1 Edwards's Supplement to Lord Orford. Pilkington by Fuseli. 


Cambridge. He was a commissioner of the navy, a good 
speaker in parliament, had the name of " silver-tongued 
Hammond" given him by lord Bolingbroke, and was a 
man of note among the wits, poets, and parliamentary 
writers, in the beginning of the last century. A volume of 
" Miscellany Poems," was inscribed to him, in 1694, by 
his friend Mr. Hopkins; and in 1720 he was the editor of 
" A new Miscellany of Original Poems," in which he had 
himself no small share. His own pieces, he observes in 
his preface, " were written at very different times, and 
were owned by him, lest in a future day they should be 
ascribed to other persons to their prejudice, as the ' Ode 
on Solitude' has been, in wrong, to the earl of Roscom- 
mon, and as some of the rest have been to others." He 
was the intimate friend of Mr. Moyle, and wrote the "Ac- 
count of his Life and Writings," prefixed to his works in 
1727. Their acquaintance began, through sir Robert 
Marsham, in the latter end of 1690, soon after Hammond's 
return from a short tour into Holland and some parts of 
Flanders. The places of resort for wits at that period were 
May n waring' s coifee-house in Fleet-street, and the Grecian 
near the Temple; where Moyle, having taken a disgust 
against the clergy, had several friendly disputes with Ham- 
mond, and at the same place had a share with Trenchard 
in writing the argument against a standing army. In 
Moyle's works are three valuable letters to Hammond; a 
copy of verses, by Hammond, to Moyle ; another, by 
Hopkins, to the same; and a third, by Hopkins, to Ham- 
mond. Mr. Hammond is said to have married Susanna, a 
sister of Mr. Walpole, afterwards the celebrated minister 
of state ; but that Mr. Hammond was a different person. 
Our author married a Miss Clarges, and died in 1738, as 
Winston informs us, in the Fleet-prison, where he was con- 
fined for debt, and so preserved what he had not spent of 
his estate for his eldest son. His second son is the subject 
of the following article. 1 

HAMMOND (JAMES), well remembered as a man 
esteemed and caressed by the elegant and great, was the 
second son of Anthony Hammond mentioned above: he was 
born about 1710, and educated at Westminster-school; 
but it does not appear that he was of any university, ai- 

1 Gibber's Lives. Gent. Mag. LXI. 1090, LXXIX. 1 1?!. Nichols's Poems. 
Chesterfield's Meflaairs, p. 47, Whiiton'a MS notes on a copy of this Did 

112 H A M M O N D. 

though Mr. Cole claims him for Cambridge, but without 
specifying his college. When about eighteen, he was in- 
troduced to the earl of Chesterfield, and from a con- 
formity of character, manners, and inclinations, soon be- 
came particularly attached to his lordship. He was equerry 
to the prince of Wales, and seems to ha\ne come very early 
into public notice, and to have been distinguished by those 
whose patronage and friendship prejudiced mankind at that 
time in favour of those on whom they were bestowed ; for 
he was the companion of Cobham, Lyttelton, and Chester- 
field. He is said to have divided his life between pleasure 
and books; in his retirement forgetting the town, and in 
his gaiety losing the student. Of his literary hours all the 
effects are exhibited in his memorable " Love Elegies," 
which were written very early, and his " Prologue" not 
long before his death. In 1733, he obtained an income of 
400/. a year by the will of Nicholas Hammond, esq. a near 
relation. In 1741 he was chosen into parliament for Truro 
in Cornwall, probably one of those who were elected by 
the prince's influence; and died June 2, 1742, at Stowe, 
the famous seat of the lord Cobham. His mistress long 
outlived him, and, in 177D, died unmarried, bed-chamber 
woman to the queen. The character which her lover be- 
queathed her was, indeed, not likely to attract courtship, 
yet it was her own fault that she remained single, having 
had another very honourable offer. The " Elegies" were 
published after his death ; and while the writer's name was 
remembered with fondness, they were read with a resolu- 
tion to admire them. The recommendatory preface of the 
editor, who was then believed, and is affirmed by Dr. 
Maty, to be the earl of Chesterfield, raised strong preju- 
dices in their favour ; but Dr. Johnson is of opinion that 
they have neither passion, nature, nor manners, and Dr. 
Beattie was informed on very good authority that Hammond 
was not in love when he wrote his " Elegies." 

HAMMOND (Dr. HENRY), a learned English divine, 
was born at Chertsey in Surrey, August 18, 1605; and 
was the youngest son of Dr. John Hammond, physician to 
Henry prince of Wales, svho was his godfather, and gave 
him his own name. In his infancy he was remarkable for 
sweetness of temper, the love of privacy, and a devotional 
turn. He was educated at Eton-school, and sent to Mag- 

1 Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets. Gent. Mag. LVII. LXV. and 
LXV I. Seattle's Dissertations, p. 554, 4to. 


dalen-college, Oxford, in 1618; of which, after taking his 
degrees in a regular way, he was elected fellow in July 
1625. During the whole of his residence here, he gene- 
rally spent thirteen hours every day in study ; in the course 
of which he not only went through the usual academic 
studies, but read almost all the classics, writing emenda- 
tions, critical remarks, &c. as he proceeded. Having ap- 
plied himself also with great diligence to the study of di- 
vinity, he was admitted to holy orders in 1629, and soon, 
after took the degree of bachelor of divinity. In 1633 he 
was presented to the rectory of Penshurst in Kent, by 
Robert Sidney earl of Leicester. That nobleman, happen- 
ing to be one of his auditors while he was supplying a turn 
at court for Dr. Frewen, the president of his college, and 
one of his majesty's chaplains, was-so deeply affected with 
the sermon, and conceived so high an opinion of the 
preacher's merit, that he conferred on him this living, then 
void, and in his gift. Upon this he quitted his college, 
and went to his cure, where he resided as long as the times 
permitted him, punctually performing every branch of the 
ministerial function in the most diligent and exemplary 
manner. In 1639 he took the degree of D. D. ; in 1640, 
was chosen one of the members of the convocation, called 
with the long parliament, which began that year ; and, in. 
1643, made archdeacon of Chichester by the unsolicited 
favour of Dr. Brian Duppa, then bishop of Chichester, and 
afterwards of Winchester. The same year also he was 
named one of the assembly of divines, but never sat 
amongst them. 

In the beginning of the national troubles he continued 
undisturbed at his living till the middle of July 1643 ; but, 
joining in the fruitless attempt then made atTunbridge in 
favour of the king, and a reward of 100/. being soon after 
promised to the person that should produce him, he was 
forced to retire privily and in disguise to Oxford. Having 
procured an apartment in his owu college, he sought that 
peace in retirement and study which was no where else to 
be found. Among the few friends he conversed with was 
Dr. Christopher Potter, provost of Queen's college ; by 
whose persuasion it was, that he published his " Practical 
Catechism," in 1644. This was one of the most valuable 
books published at that time ; but great objections were 
raised against it by fifty-two ministers within the provincQ, 
of London ; and especially by the famous Francis Chey- 



iiell, on account of its containing Arminian tenets. Ham- 
mond, however, defended his book, and the same year 
and the following, published several useful pieces, adapted 
to the times. In December of the same year he attended 
as chaplain the duke of Richmond and earl of Southamp- 
ton ; who were sent to London by Charles I. with terms of 
peace and accommodation to the parliament; and when 
a treaty was appointed at Uxbridge, he appeared there as 
one of the divines on the king's side, where he managed, 
greatly to his honour, a dispute with Richard Vines, one 
of the presbyterian ministers sent by the parliament. 

A few days after the breaking of this treaty, a canonry 
of Christ Church in Oxford becoming vacant, the king 
bestowed it upon him about March 1645 ; and the univer- 
sity chose him their public orator. His majesty also, 
coming to reside in that city, made him one of his chap- 
lains in ordinary : notwithstanding all which employments, 
he did not remit from his studies, or cease to publish books, 
principally contrived to do service in the times when they 
were written. When Oxford surrendered, his attendance 
as cbaplain was superseded; but when the king came into 
the power of the army, he was permitted to attend him 
again, in his several confinements and removes of Woburn, 
Caversham, Hampton-court, and the Isle of Wight : at 
which last place he continued till Christmas, 1647, when all 
his majesty's servants were removed from him. He then 
returned again to Oxford, where he was chosen sub- dean 
of Christ Church ; in which office he continued till March 
30, 1648, and was then forcibly turned out of it by the 
parliamentary visitors. The accusations against him were, 
his refusing to submit to the visitors' power; his being 
concerned in drawing up the reasons which were presented 
to the convocation against the authority of that visitation ; 
and his refusing to publish the visitors' orders for the ex- 
pulsion of several of the members of Christ Church. In- 
stead, however, of being commanded immediately to quit 
Oxford, as others were, a committee of parliament voted 
him and Dr. Sheldon to be prisoners in that place, where 
they continued in restraint for about ten weeks. During 
this confinement he began his " Paraphrase and Annota- 
tions on the New Testament;" the ground- work of which 
is said to be this. Having written in Latin two large vo- 
lumes of the way of interpreting the New Testament, with 
inference to the customs of the Jews, and of the first here- 


tics in the Christian church, and also of the heathens, 
especially in the Grecian games ; and, above all, of the 
importance of the Hellenistical dialect ; he began to con- 
sider, that it might be more useful to the English render, 
to write in our vulgar language, and set every observation 
in its natural order, according to the direction of the text. 
And having some years before collated several Greek copies 
of the New Testament, and observed the variation of our 
English from the original, and made an entire translation 
of the whole for his own private use, he cast his work into 
that form in which it now appears. It came out first in 
1653; in 1656, with additions and alterations; and, in 
1698, Le Clerc put out a Latin translation of it, viz. of 
the " Paraphrase and Annotations," with the text of the 
Vulgate, in which he has intermixed many of his own ani- 
madversions, explained those points which Dr. Hammond 
had but slightly touched, and corrected many of his 

From Oxford he was removed to the house of sir Philip 
Warwick at Clapham in Bedford shire. The trial of king 
Charles drawing on, and Dr. Hammond being in no other 
capacity to interpose than by writing, he drew up an ad- 
dress to the general and council of officers, which he pub- 
lished under this title : " To the right honourable the lord 
Fairfax, and his council of war, the humble Address of 
Henry Hammond. 1 ' It is unnecessary to add that this pro- 
duced no effect, as his majesty's doom was fixed. Dr. 
Hammond's grief for the death of his royal master was 
extreme ; but, as soon as he had in some measure recovered 
his spirits, he resumed his studies, and published several 
pieces. The rigour of his restraint being taken off in the 
beginning of 1649, he removed to Westwood in Worces- 
tershire, the seat of the loyal sir John Packington, from 
whom he received a kind invitation ; and here spent the 
remainder of his days. In 1651, when Charles II. came 
into those parts, he waited upon him, and received a letter 
from his own hand of great importance, to satisfy his loyal 
subjects concerning his adherence to the religion of the 
church of England. In 1653 he published, as already ob- 
served, his great work on the New Testament, and went 
on applying antidotes to the distempers of the church and 
state, and opposing the absurd tenets of the sectaries, 
particularly those of the anabaptists. Afterwards he un- 
dertook a "Paraphrase and Commentary on all the books 

I 2 


of the Old Testament;" of which he published the Psalms, 
and went through a third part of the book of Proverbs. 
His want of health only hindered him from .proceeding 
farther: for that strength of body which had hitherto 
attended his indefatigable mind, beginning to fail him 
about 1654, he was attacked by a complication of disor- 
ders, the stone, the gout, the colic, and the cramp ; but 
the stone put an end to his life. While Charles II. was 
designing him for the bishopric of Worcester, and he was 
preparing to go to London, whither he had been invited 
by the most eminent divines, he was seized with a sharp fit 
of the stone the 4th of April, of which he died the 25th of 
the same month, 1660. 

Dr. Hammond was a very handsome man, well-made, 
and of a strong and vigorous constitution ; of a clear and 
florid complexion, his eye remarkably quick and sprightly, 
and in his countenance there was a mixture of sweetness and 
dignity. He had a free, graceful, and commanding elo- 
quenee. King Charles I. said of him, that he was the most 
natural orator he ever heard. He had not, however, a 
technical memory, and used to complain that it was harder 
for him to get ope sermon by heart than to pen twenty. He 
was of a very kind, social, benevolent, and friendly dis- 
position ; extremely liberal to the poor, to whom he ren- 
dered his bounty more valuable by his manner of bestow- 
ing it. " Misery and want,' 7 says his excellent biographer, 
" wherever Dr. Hammond met with them, sufficiently en- 
deared the object. His alms were as exuberant as his love; 
and in calamities, to the exigence he never was a stranger, 
whatever he might be to the man that suffered." Among 
other evidences which Hammond gave of his benevolence, 
Dr. Fell informs us, that, when he saw a man honest and 
industrious, he would trust him with a sum, and let him pay 
it again at such times and in such proportions as he found 
himself able ; all this accompanied by an inquiry into his 
condition, and advice as to the better disposal of the mo- 
ney, closing his discourse with prayer, and dismissing the 
object of his benevolence with the utmost kindness. To 
persons of rank and fortune his advice was, to " treat their 
poor neighbours with such a cheerfulness, that they may 
be glad to have met with them." 

Dr. Hammond was a man of great temperance; his diet 
was of the plainest kind, and he frequently practised fast- 
ng. He seldom went to bed until midnight, or remained 


in it beyond five or six o'clock. By these means he was 
enabled to endure cold and fatigue, and in the severest 
weather sat at a distance from a fire. His studious in- 
dustry was unceasing. He not only avoided, but had a 
strong aversion to idleness. " To be always furnished with 
somewhat to do" he considered as the best expedient both 
for innocence and pleasure, saying, that no burthen was 
more heavy, or temptation more dangerous, than to have 
time lie on one's hand." His piety was fervent, and from 
his youth he spent much of his time in secret devotion. 
Bishop Burnet says of him, that " his death was an un- 
speakable loss to the church ; for as he was a man of great 
learning, and of most eminent merit, he having been the 
person that during the bad times had maintained the cause 
of the church in a very singular manner ; so he was a very 
moderate man in his temper, though with a high principle, 
and would probably have fallen into healing counsels. He 
was also much set on reforming abuses, and for raising the 
clergy to a due sense of the obligations they lay under." 

He published a great many controversial and practical 
tracts and sermons, commentaries, &c. in his life-time, 
which, with many posthumous pieces, were collected to- 
gether by his amanuensis, the learned Mr. William Fulman, 
and published in 4 vols. fol. 1684 ; and in 1739 Mr. Peck 
published a collection of his letters, amounting to nineteen. 1 

HAMPDEN (JOHN, esq.), of Hamden, in Buckingham- 
shire, a celebrated political character in the reign of Charles 
I. was born at London in 1594. He was of as ancient 
(Whitlocke says the ancientest) extraction as any gentle- 
man in his county; and cousin-german to Oliver Crom- 
well, his father having married the protector's aunt. In. 
1609 he was sent to Magdalen college in Oxford ; whence, 
without taking any degree, be removed to the inns of 
court, and made a considerable progress in the study of the 
law. Sir Philip Warwick observes, that " he had great 
knowledge both in scholarship and the law." In his en- 
trance into the world, he is said to have indulged himself 
in all the licence of sports, and exercises, and company, 
such as were used by men of the most jovial conversation; 
but afterwards to have retired to a more reserved and 

1 Life by bishop Fell, 1601, 12mo, lately reprinted at Oxford, 1806. Biog. 
Brit. Wordsworth's Eccl. Biography, Berwick's Life. Lloyd's Memoirs, fol. 
Ath. Ox. vol. II. Peck's Desiderata, vol. II. Chm ton's Life of Nowell. 
Wsher's Life, and Letters, p. 541543. 

118 H A M P D-E N. 

austere society, preserving, however, his natural cheer- 
fulness and vivacity. In the second parliament of king 
Charles, which met at Westminster, February 1625-6, he 
obtained a seat in the house of commons, as he also did in 
two succeeding parliaments; but made no figure till 1636, 
when he became universally known, by a solemn trial at 
the king's bench, on his refusing to pay the ship-money. 
He carried himself, as Clarendon tells us, through this 
whole suit with such singular temper and modesty, that he 
obtained more credit and advantage by losing it, than the 
king did service by gaining it. From this time he soon 
grew to be one of the most popular men in the nation, and 
a leading member in the long parliament. " The eyes of 
all men," says the same writer, " were fixed upon him as 
their pater patrite, and the pilot that must steer the vessel 
through the tempests and rocks which threatened it." 
After he had held the chief direction of his party in the 
house of commons against the king, he took up arms in 
the same cause, and was one of the first who opened the 
war by an action at a place called Brill, a garrison of the 
king's, on the edge of Buckinghamshire, about five miles 
from Oxford. He took the command of a regiment of foot 
under the earl of Essex, and shewed such skill and bravery, 
that, had he lived, he would; probably, soon have been 
raised to the post of a general. But he was cut off early 
by a mortal wound, which he received in a skirmish with 
prince Rupert, at Chalgrove-field, in Oxfordshire, where, 
it is generally reported, he was shot in the shoulder with a 
brace of bullets, which broke the bone, June 18, 1643; 
and, after suffering much pain and misery, he died the 
24th, an event which affected his party nearly as much as 
if their whole army had been defeated *. " Many men 
observed," says Clarendon, " that the field in which this 
skirmish was, and upon which Hampden received his death- 
wound, namely, Chalgrove-field, was the same place in 
which he had first executed the ordinance of the militia, 
and engaged that county, in which his reputation was very 
great, in this rebellion : and it was confessed by the pri- 
soners that were taken that day, and acknowledged by all, 

* So little is known of Hampden, See Noble's Memoirs of Cromwell, vol. 
n T^ / W death h&S IL P " 70 ' where there is a ]on S "count 


of one of hia own pistols.-^. 

H A M P D E N. H9 

that upon the alarm that morning, after their quarters were 
beaten up, he was exceeding solicitous to draw forces to- 
gether to pursue the enemy; and, being a colonel of foot, 
put himself amongst those horse as a volunteer, who were 
first ready, and that, when the prince made a stand, all 
the officers were of opinion to stay till their body came up, 
and he alone persuaded and prevailed with them to ad- 
vance : so violently did his fate carry him to pay the mulct 
in the place where he had committed the transgression 
about a year before. This was an observation made at that 
time ;" but lord Clarendon does not adopt it as an opinion 
of his own. 

Hampden, if we form our judgment of him only from 
the account of those who were engaged in the opposite 
party to him, was, perhaps, one of the most extraordinary 
men that ever lived ; and is thus delineated by the noble 
historian already quoted. " He was a man of much greater 
cunning, and it may be of the most discerning spirit, and 
of the greatest address and insinuation to bring any thing 
to pass which he desired, of any man of that time, and who 
laid the design deepest. He was not a man of many words, 
and rarely began the discourse, or made the first entrance 
upon any business that was assumed, but a very weighty 
speaker; and after he had heard a full debate, and ob- 
served how the house was like to be inclined, took up the 
argument, and shortly, and clearly, and craftily, so stated 
it, that he commonly conducted it to the conclusion he 
desired. He was of that rare affability and temper in de- 
bate, and of thatseeming humility and submission of judg- 
ment, as if he brought no opinion of his own with him, 
but a desire of information and instruction ; yet he had so 
subtle a way, and under the notion of doubts insinuating 
his objections, that he infused his own opinions into those 
from whom he pretended to learn and receive them. And 
even with them who were able to preserve themselves from 
his infusions, and discerned those opinions to be fixed in 
him with which they could not comply, he always left the 
character of an ingenuous and conscientious person. He 
was, indeed, a very wise man, and of great parts, and 
possessed with the most absolute spirit of popularity, and 
the most absolute faculties to govern the people, of any 
man I ever knew. For the first year of the parliament he 
seemed rather to moderate and soften the violent and 
distempered humours than to inflame them. But wise and 

120 H A M P D E N. 

dispassionate men plainly discerned, that that moderation 
proceeded from prudence, and observation that the season 
was not ripe, rather than that he approved of the modera- 
tion ; and that he begot many opinions and notions, the 
education whereof he committed to other men ; so far dis- 
guising his own designs, that he seemed seldom to wish 
more than was concluded. And in many gross conclusions, 
which would hereafter contribute to designs not yet set on 
foot, when he found them sufficiently backed by a majo- 
rity of voices, he would withdraw himself before the ques- 
tion, that he might seem not to consent to so much visible 
unreasonableness ; which produced as great a doubt in 
some as it did approbation in others of his integrity. After 
he was among those members accused by the king of high 
treason, he was much altered ; his nature and carriage 
seeming much fiercer than it did before: and without 
.question, when he first drew his sword, he threw away the 
scabbard. He was very temperate in diet, and a supreme 
governor over all his passions and affections ; and had 
thereby a great power over other men's. He was of an 
industry and vigilance not to be tired out or wearied by 
the most laborious ; and of parts not to be imposed upon 
by the most subtle and sharp ; and of a personal courage 
equal to his best parts : so that he was an enemy not to be 
wished wherever he might have been made a friend ; and 
as much to be apprehended where he was so, as any .man 
could deserve to be. And therefore his death was no less 
pleasing to the one party than it was condoled in the other. 
In a word, what was said of Cinna might well be applied to 
him : he had ahead to contrive, a tongue to persuade, and 
a hand to execute, any mischief, or,'-' as the historian says 
elsewhere, " any good." Thus is Hampden described by 
Clarendon, agreeably to the notions usually formed of his 
character after the restoration ; which was that of a great, 
rather than a good man. But as the characters of states- 
men, commanders, or men acting in a public capacity, 
always vary with the times and fashions of politics, at the 
revolution, and since, he has been esteemed a good man 
as well as a great. l 

HANDEL (GEORGE FREDERIC), the greatest musical 

ser of his time, or perhaps of any time or country, 

Halle, in the duchy of Magdeburgh, February 

Cromwell. Brlt "~ Hume a " d Ra * in ' s Hist.-Claremlon.-Noble' S Memoirs of 


4, 1684, by a second wife of his father, who was an emi- 
nent physician and surgeon of the same place, and then 
above sixty years of age. From his very childhood he dis- 
covered such a propensity to music, that his father, who 
always intended him for the civil law, took every method 
to oppose this inclination, by keeping him out of the way 
of, and strictly forbidding him to meddle with, musical in- 
struments of any kind. The son, however, found means 
to get a little clavicord privately conveyed to a room at 
the top of the house ; and with this he used to amuse him- 
self when the family was asleep. While he was yet under 
seven years of age, he went with his father to the duke of 
Saxe Weisenfels, where it was impossible to keep him 
from harpsichords, and other musical instruments. One 
morning, while he was playing on the organ, after the 
service was over, the duke was in the church ; and some- 
thing in his manner of playing affected his highness so 
strongly, that he asked his valet-de-chambre (who was 
Handel's brother-in-law) who it was that he heard at the 
organ? The valet replied, that it was his brother. The 
duke demanded to see him ; and after making proper in- 
quiries about him, expostulated very seriously with his 
father, who still retained his prepossessions in favour of 
the civil law. He allowed that every father had certainly 
a right to dispose of his children as he should think most 
expedient; but that in the present instance he could not 
but consider it as a sort of crime against the public and 
posterity to rob the world of such a rising genius. The 
issue of this conversation was, not only a toleration for mu- 
sic, but consent also that a master should be called in to 
forward and assist him. 

The first thing his father did at his return to Halle, was 
to place him under one Zackau, organist to the cathedral 
church, a person of great abilities in his profession, and 
not more qualified than inclined to do justice to any 
pupil of promising hopes. Handel pleased him so much, 
that he never thought he could do enough for him. He 
was proud of a pupil who already began to attract the at- 
tention of the public ; and glad of an assistant who by his 
extraordinary talents was capable of supplying his place 
whenever he had a mind to be absent. If it seem strange 
to talk of an assistant at seven years of age, it will appear 
stranger that at nine Handel began to compose the church 
service for voices and instruments, and from that time was 



accustomed to compose a service every week for three 
years successively. Having far surpassed his master, the 
master himself confessing it, and made all the improve- 
ment he could at Halle, it was agreed he should go to 
Berlin in 1698, where the opera was in a flourishing con- 
dition under the encouragement of the elector of Bran- 
denburg, afterwards king of Prussia. Handel had not 
been long at this court before his abilities became known 
to the sovereign, who frequently sent for him, and made 
him large presents. He farther offered to send him to 
Italy, where he might be formed under the best masters, 
and have opportunities of hearing and seeing all that was 
excellent in the kind ; but his father refused this offer 
from a spirit of independence. During his stay at Berlin, 
he became acquainted with two Italian composers, Buo- 
noncini and Attilio ; the same who afterwards came to 
England while Handel was here, and were at the head of 
a formidable opposition against him. 

Next to the opera of Berlin, that of Hamburgh was in the 
highest request ; and thither it was resolved to send him, 
with a view to improvement ; but his father's death hap- 
pening soon after, and his mother being left in narrow 
circumstances, he thought it necessary to procure scholars, 
and obtain some employment in the orchestra; and by this 
means was enabled to prove a great relief to her. He had 
a dispute at Hamburgh with one of the masters, in oppo- 
sition to whom he laid claim to the first harpsichord, which 
was determined in his favour. The honour, however, had 
like to have cost him dear ; for his antagonist so resented 
his being constrained to yield to such a stripling compe- 
titor, that, as they were coming out of the orchestra, he 
made a push at him with a sword, which had infallibly 
pierced his heart, but for the friendly score which he 
carried accidentally in his bosom. " Had this happened," 
says his historian, "in the early ages, not a mortal but 
would have been persuaded that Apollo himself interposed 
to preserve him in the form of a music-book." Dr. Bur- 
ney, however, has subdued this flourish a little, by in- 
forming us that the sword broke against a metal button. t 

From conducting the performance he became composer 
to the Chouse ; and " Almeria," his first opera, was com- 
posed when he was not much above fourteen years of age. 
The success of it was so great, that it ran for thirty nights 
without interruption ; and this encouraged him to com- 

HANDEL. 123 

pose others, as lie did also a considerable number of so- 
natas during his stay at Hamburgh, which was about four 
or five years. He contracted an acquaintance at this place 
with many persons of note, among whom was the prince 
of Tuscany, brother to the grand duke. The prince, who 
was a great lover of the art for which his country was fa- 
mous, would often lament Handel's not being acquainted 
with the Italian music ; shewed him a large collection of 
it,; and was very desirous he should return with him to 
Florence. Handel plainly answered, that he could see 
nothing in the music answerable to the prince's character 
of it ; but, on the contrary, thought it so very indifferent, 
that the singers, he said, must be angels to recommend it. 
The prince smiled at the severity of his censure, yet 
pressed him to return with him, and intimated that no con- 
venience should be wanting. Handel thanked him for 
the offer of a favour which he did not chuse to accept ; for 
he resolved to go to Italy on a speculation of his own, as 
soon as he could raise a sum sufficient for the purpose. 
He had in him from his childhood a strong spirit of inde- 
pendence, which was never known to forsake him in the 
most distressful seasons of his life ; and it is remarkable 
that he refused the greatest offers from persons of the first 
distinction, because he would not be cramped or confined 
by particular attachments. 

Soon after, he went to Italy, and Florence was his first 
destination ; where at the age of eighteen, he composed 
the opera of " Rodrigo," for which he was presented with 
100 sequins, and a service of plate. This may serve to 
shew what a reception he met with at a place where the 
highest notions were conceived of him before he arrived. 
Vittoria, a celebrated actress and singer, bore a principal 
part in this opera. She was a fine woman, and had been 
some time in the good graces of his serene highness; yet 
Handel's youth and comeliness, joined with his fame and 
abilities in music, had raised emotions in her heart, which, 
however, we do not find that Handel in the least encou- 
raged. After about a year's stay at Florence, he went to 
Venice, where he was first discovered at a masquerade, 
while he was playing on a harpsichord in his vizor. Scar- 
latti happened to be there, and affirmed it could be no 
one but the famous Saxon or the devil. Being earnestly 
importuned to compose an opera, he finished his " Agrip- 
jpina" in three weeks; which was performed twenty-seven 

124 HANDEL. 

nights successively, and with which the audience were en- 
raptured. From Venice he went to Rome, where his ar- 
rival was no sooner known than he received polite mes- 
sages from persons of the first distinction. Among his 
greatest admirers was the cardinal Ottoboni, a man of re- 
iined taste and princely magnificence ; at whose court he 
met with the famous Corelli, with whom he became well 
acquainted. Attempts were made at Rome to convert him 
to Popery; but he declared himself resolved to die a mem- 
ber of that communion, whether true or false, in which he 
had been born and bred. From Rome he went to Naples ; 
and after he quitted Naples, made a second visit to Flo- 
rence, Rome, and Venice. The whole time of his abode 
in Italy was six years ; during which he had composed a 
great deal of music, and some in almost every species of 
composition. These early fruits of his studies would doubt- 
less be great curiosities, could they be met with. 

He now returned to his native country, but could not 
prevail on himself to settle while there was any musical 
court which he had not seen. He accordingly visited Ha- 
nover, where he met with Steffani, with whom he had 
been acquainted at Venice; and who was then master of 
the chapel to George I. when elector of Hanover. There 
also was a nobleman who had taken notice of him in Italy, 
and who afterwards did him great service when he came to 
Kngland for the second time, baron Kilmansegge, who 
now introduced him at court, and so well recommended 
him to his electoral highness, that he immediately offered 
him a pension of 1 500 crowns per annum, as an induce- 
ment to stay. Handel excused his not accepting this high 
favour, because he had promised the court of the elector 
palatine, and had also thoughts of going to England, whi- 
ther he had received strong invitations from the duke of Man- 
chester. On this he obtained leave to be absent for a twelve- 
month or more at a time, and to go whithersoever he 
pleased ; and on these conditions he thankfully accepted 
the pension. 

After paying a visit to his mother, who was now ex- 
tremely old and blind, and to his old master Zackau, he 
set out for Dusseldorp. The elector was highly pleased 
with him, and at parting made him a present of a fine set 
of wrought plate for a dessert. From Dusseldorp he made 
the best of his way through Holland; and embarking for 
England, he arrived at London in the winter of 1710, 

H A N D E L. 125 

where he was soon introduced at court, and honoured with 
marks of the queen's favour. Many of the nobility were 
impatient for an opera from him ; on which he composed 
" Rinaldo," which succeeded so wonderfully, that his 
engagements at Hanover became the subject of much 
concern. He returned however thither in about a twelve- 
month ; for besides his pension, Steffani had resigned to 
him the mastership of the chapel; but in 17 12 he obtained 
leave of the elector to visit England again, on condition 
that he returned within a reasonable time. The poor state 
of music here, and the wretched proceedings at the Hay- 
market, made the nobility desirous that he might be em- 
ployed in composing for the theatre. To their applica- 
tions the queen added her own authority ; and as an en- 
couragement, settled on him for life a pension of 20O/, 
per annum. All this induced Handel to forget his obli- 
gations to Hanover ; so that when George I. came over at 
the death of the queen, in 1714, conscious how ill he had 
deserved at his hands, he durst not appear at court. It 
happened, however, that his noble friend baron Kilman- 
segge was here ; and he, with others of the nobility, con- 
trived the following scheme for reinstating him in his ma- 
jesty's favour. The king was persuaded to form a party 
on the water; and Handel was desired to prepare some 
music for that occasion. This, which has since been so 
justly celebrated under the title of the " Water Music/* 
was performed and conducted by himself, unknown to his 
majesty, whose pleasure on hearing it was equal to hig 
surprize. Upon his inquiring whose it was, the baron 
produced the delinquent, and presented him to his ma- 
jesty, as one that was too conscious of his fault to attempt 
an excuse for it. Thus Handel was restored to favour, 
and his music honoured with the highest approbation; and 
as a token of it, the king was pleased* to add a pension foe 
life of 200/. a year to that which queen Anne had before 
given him. Some years after, when he was employed to 
teach the young princesses, another pension was added to 
the former by her late majesty. 

Handel was now settled in England, and well provided 
for. The first three years he was chiefly, if not constantly, 
at the earl of Burlington's, where he frequently met Pope. 
The poet one day asked his friend Arbuthnot, of whose 
knowledge'in music he had an high idea, what was his real 
opinion of Handel, as a master of that science? who re-, 

126 HANDEL. 

plied, " Conceive the highest you can of his abilities, and 
they are much beyond any thing that you can conceive." 
Pope nevertheless declared, that Handel's finest things, 
so untoward were his ears, gave him no more pleasure 
than the airs of a common ballad. The two next years 
Handel spent at Cannons, then in its glory, and composed 
music for the chapel there. About this time a project was 
formed by the nobility for erecting an academy in the 
Haymarket; the intention of which was to secure a con- 
stant supply of operas, to be composed by Handel, and 
to be performed under his direction. For this purpose 
the sum of 50,000^. was subscribed, the king subscribing 
lOOOl. and a society was formed called " the Royal Aca- 
demy.'* Handel immediately was commissioned to go to 
Dresden in quest of singers, whence he brought Senesino 
and Duristanti. At this time Buononcini and Attilto, 
whom we have mentioned before, composed for the opera,, 
and had a strong party in their favour, which produced 
a violent opposition, ridiculed by Swift and the other wits 
of the time, although of great importance to the fashion- 
able world ; but at last the rival composers and performers 
were all united, and each was to have his particular part. 

The academy being now firmly established, and Handel 
appointed principal composer, all things went on pros- 
perously for a course of ten years. Handel maintained an 
absolute authority over the singers and the band, or rather 
kept them in total subjection. What, however, they re- 
garded for some time as legal government, at length ap- 
peared to be downright tyranny; on which a rebellion 
commenced, with Senesino at the head of it, and all be- 
came tumult and civil war. Handel perceiving that Se- 
nesino was grown less tractable and obsequious, resolved 
to subdue him. To manage him by gentle means he dis- 
dained ; yet to controul him by force he could not, Se- 
nesino's interest and party being too powerful. The one, 
therefore, was quite refractory, the other quite outrageous. 
The merits of the quarrel are not known ; but, whatever 
they were, the nobility would not consent to his design of 
parting with Senesino, and Handel had resolved to have 
no farther concerns with him. And thus the academy, 
after it had gone on in a flourishing state for above nine 
years, was at once dissolved. 

Handel still continued at the Haymarket, but his audi- 
ence gradually sunk away. New singers must be sought, 

HANDEL. 127 

and could not be had any nearer than Italy, to which, how- 
ever, he was obliged to go, and returning with several 
singers, he carried on the opera for three or four years 
without success. Many of the nobility raised a new sub- 
scription for another opera at Lincoln's-inn-fields, and 
sent for Farinelli and others ; and in short, the opposition 
was so strong, that in spite of his great abilities, his affairs 
declined, and his fortune was not more impaired than his 
health and his understanding. His right arm was become 
useless to him from a stroke of the palsy ; and his senses 
were greatly disordered at intervals for a long time. In 
this unhappy state, it was thought necessary that he should 
go to the vapour-baths at Aix-la-Chapelle ; and thence he 
received a cure, which from the manner, as well as quick- 
ness of it, passed with the nuns for a miracle. 

Soon after his return to London, in 1736, his " Alex- 
ander's Feast" was performed at Covent-garden, and ap- 
plauded ; and several other attempts were made to reinstate 
him, but they did not prevail; the Italian party were too 
powerful; so that in 174-1 he went to Dublin, where he 
was well received, and began to repair his fortune. At 
his return to London in 1741-2, the minds of most men 
were disposed in his favour, and the aera of his prosperity 
returned. He immediately began his oratorios in Covent- 
garden, which he continued with uninterrupted success 
and unrivalled glory, till within eight days of his death. 
The last was performed on the 6th, and he expired on the 
13th of April, 1759. He was buried in Westminster- abbey, 
where by his own order, and at his own expence, a monu- 
ment is erected to his memory. 

As a composer, it would be affectation to attempt any 
character of Handel after what Dr. Burney has given. 
" That Handel was superior in the strength and boldness 
of his style, the richness of his harmony, and complication 
of parts, to every composer who has been most admired 
for such excellencies, cannot be disputed ; and while 
fugue, contrivance, and a full score were more generally- 
reverenced than at present, he remained wholly unrivalled. 
We know it has been said that Handel was not the original 
3-nd immediate inventor of several species of music for which 
his name has been celebrated ; but with respect to origi- 
nality, it is a term to which proper limits should be set 
before it is applied to the productions of any artist. Every 
invention is clumsy in its beginning j and Shakspeare was 

128 HANDEL. 

not the first writer of plays, or Corelli the first composer 
of violin solos, sonatas, and concertos, though those which 
he produced were the best of his time ; nor was Milton the 
inventor of epic poetry. The scale, harmony, and ca- 
dence of music being settled, it is impossible for any com- 
poser to invent a genus of composition that is wholly and 
rigorously new, any more than for a poet to form a lan- 
guage, idiom, and phraseology for himself. All that the 
o-reatest and boldest musical inventor can do, is to avail 
himself of the best effusions, combinations, and effects of 
his predecessors ; to arrange and apply them in a new 
manner; and to add from his own source, whatever he can 
draw, that is grand, graceful, gay, pathetic, or in any 
other way pleasing. This Handel did in a most ample and 
superior manner ; being possessed in his middle age and 
full vigour, of every refinement and perfection of his time; 
uniting the depth and elaborate contrivance of his own 
country with Italian elegance and facility ; as he seems 
while he resided south of the Alps, to have listened atten- 
tively in the church, theatre, and chamber, to the most 
exquisite compositions and performers of every kind that 
were then existing. We will not assert that his vocal me- 
Todies were more polished and graceful than those of his 
countryman and contemporary Hasse ; or his recitatives or 
musical declamation, superior to that of his rivals Buonon- 
cini and Porpora. But in his instrumental composition* 
there is a vigour, a spirit, a variety, a learning, and invention, 
superior to every other composer that can be named ; and 
in his organ fugues and organ playing, there is learning 
always free from pedantry; and in his choruses a grandeur 
and sublimity which we believe has never been equalled 
since the invention of counterpoint." 

The figure of Handel was large, and he was somewhat 
corpulent and unwieldy in his motions, and his general 
cast of countenance seemed rather heavy and sour ; yet, 
when animated in conversation, his visage was full of fire 
and dignity, and such as impressed ideas of superiority 
and genius; and when he smiled, there was an uncommon 
sudden flash of intelligence, wit, and good-humour beam- 
ing in his countenance. Though he was generally rough 
and peremptory in his manners and conversation, he was 
totally devoid of ill-nature or malevolence; indeed, there 
was an original humour and pleasantry in his most lively 
sallies of anger or impatience, which, with his broken 

ft A N D E L 

English, were extremely risible. His natural propensity 
to wit and humour, and happy manner of relating common 
occurrences in an uncommon way, enabled him to throw 
persons and things into very ridiculous attitudes. Had he 
been as great a master of the English language as Swift, 
his bon-mots would have been as frequent, and somewhat 
of the same kind. 

Handel, with many virtues, was addicted to no vice that 
was injurious to society. Nature, indeed, required a great 
supply of sustenance to support so huge a mass, and he 
was rather Epicurean in the choice of it ; but this seems 
to have been the only appetite which he allowed himself 
to gratify ; and though he was frequently rough in his 
language, and in the habit of swearing, a' vice then much 
more in fashion than at present, he became more regular 
during the last years of his life, and constantly attended 
public prayers twice a day, winter and summer, both in 
London and Tunbridge. 

It has been said of him, that out of his profession he was 
ignorant and dull, but, if the fact was as true as it is se- 
vere, it must be allowed in extenuation, that to possess a 
difficult art in the perfect manner in which he did, and to 
be possessed by it, seems a natural consequence, and all 
that the public had a right to expect, as he pretended to 
nothing more. So occupied and absorbed was Handel by 
the study and exercise of his profession, that he had little 
time to bestow, either on private amusements or the culti- 
vation of friendship. Indeed, the credit and reverence 
arising from these, had Handel possessed them, would 
have been transient, and confined to his own age and ac- 
quaintance ; whereas the fame acquired by silent and 
close application to his professional business is universal. 
Dr. Burney thinks it probable that his name, like that of 
many of his brethren, will long survive his works. The 
most learned man can give us no information concerning 
either the private life or compositions of Orpheus, Am- 
phion, Linus, Olympus, Terpander, or Timotheus, yet 
every school-boy can tell us that they were great musicians, 
the delight of their several ages, and many years after, 
of posterity. Though totally free from the sordid vices of 
meanness and avarice, and possessed of their opposite vir- 
tues, charity and generosity, in spite of temporary adver- 
sity, powerful enemies, and frequent maladies of body, 
which sometimes extended to intellect, Handel died worth 



upwards of 20,000/. ; which, except 1000/. to the fund for 
decayed musicians and their families, he chiefly bequeathed 
to his relations on the continent. 1 

HANCKIUS (MARTIN), a learned German professor, 
was born February 16, 1633, at Breslaw. Some theses 
which he maintained did him so much honour, that he 
was invited to Gotha, where he was made professor of 
morality, politics, and history ; and appointed afterwards 
professor of history, politics, and rhetoric, at Breslaw, 
1661 ; librarian of the Elizabeth library, in the same city, 
1670 - y patron of the college of Elizabeth, 1631 ; and in 
1688, teacher and inspector of all the schools of the Augs- 
burg confession in that country. He died at Breslaw, 
April 24, 1709. He wrote many works which established 
his reputation among his countrymen as an acute critic and 
profound scholar. His principal performance, and that 
for which he is most esteemed among scholars, is his book 
" De Romanarum rerum Scriptoribus," 2 vols. 4to, 1669, 
1675, to which was added another, " De By z an tin arum 
rerum Scriptoribus Grsecis," 1677, 4to. His other publi- 
cations, also on history and antiquities, are in considerable 
repute. 2 

HANMER (MEREDITH), an English divine of a very 
mixed character, was son to Thomas Hanmer of Porking- 
ton, in Shropshire, where he was born in 1543, though 
Fuller says he was born in Flintshire. He became chaplain 
of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, where he took a degree 
in arts in April 1567. He afterwards was presented to the 
living of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, during his holding of 
which his conduct was such as to bring great odium on him. 
Out of avarice he tore away the brass plates from the grave- 
stones and monuments, and sold them; and he also ap- 
pears by Fleetwood's Diary to have paid very little regard to 
his oath in a court of justice. In 1581 or 1582, betook 
his degrees in divinity, and in Nov. 4th, 1583, was pre- 
sented to the vicarage of Islington, which he resigned in 
1590. Two or three years afterwards he resigned Shore- 
ditch, went to Ireland, and at length became treasurer to 
the church of the holy Trinity, in Dublin, which he kept 
until his death in 1604. Weever says he committed sui- 
cide ; and there is still a tradition to this effect among the 

1 Barney's Hist, of Music, and article in Rees's Cyclopadia. urney' 
Hist, of the Commemoration of Handel. 
3 tfictron, rol. XXXVI 11,Chaufepie. Saxii 

H A N M E R. 131 

inhabitants of Shoreditch parish. Whatever his errors, he 
was esteemed an exact disputant, and a good preacher; an 
excellent Greek scholar, and well versed in ecclesiastical 
and civil history. Besides some tracts against the Jesuits, 
he published " A Chronography," &c. Lond. 1585, folio, 
which Harris says was added to his translation of " The 
Ancient Ecclesiastical Histories of the first 600 years after 
Christ, originally written by Eusebius, Socrates, and Eva- 
grius," 1576, folio, reprinted 1585. With this were printed 
the lives of the prophets and apostles, &c. by Dorotheus, 
bishop of Tyre ; the Ephemeris of the Saints of Ireland ; 
and " The Chronicle of Ireland, in two parts," the third 
part of which was published in 1633, at Dublin, fol. He 
published also, " A Sermon on the Baptising of a Turk,'* 
preached in the collegiate church of St. Katherine, 1586, 
Svo. 1 

HANMER (Slit THOMAS, Bart.) a distinguished states- 
man and polite writer, was born about 1676, and had hi* 
education at Westminster-school, and Christ-church, Ox- 
ford. When he arrived at years of maturity, he was chosen 
knight of the shire for the county of Suffolk, and sat in 
parliament near thirty years, either as a representative for 
that county, or for Flintshire, or for the borough of Thet- 
ford. In this venerable assembly he was soon distinguished ; 
and his powerful elocution and unbiassed integrity drew 
the attention of all parties. In 17 13 he was chosen speaker 
of the house of commons ; which office, difficult at all 
times, but at that time more particularly, he discharged 
with becoming dignity. All other honours and emolu- 
ments he declined. Having withdrawn himself by degrees 
from public business, he spent the remainder of his life in 
an honourable retirement amongst his books and friends ; 
and there prepared an elegant and correct edition of the 
works of Shakspeare. This he presented to the university 
of Oxford; and it was printed there 1744, in 6 vols. 4to, 
with elegant engravings, by Gravelot, at the expence of 
sir Thomas. He died at his seat in Suffolk, April 5, 
1746. 2 

HANNEKEN (MEMNON), a celebrated Lutheran divine, 
was born March 1, 1595, at Blaxen in the county of Olden- 
burg, into which county, and Delmenhorst, his ancestors 

1 Fuller's Worthies. -Ath. Ox. vol. I. Ellis's Hist, of Shoreditch. 

2 Biog. Brit. vol. VI. part II. Supplement, where there are many particulars 
f his quarrel with Warburton, &c. Swift's Works, see Index. 



had introduced Lutheranism. He was professor of mora- 
lity, afterwards of divinity and oriental languages at Mar- 
purg, and, lastly^ superintendant of the churches of Lu- 
bec, where he died February 17, 1671. His principal 
works are, " Scutum Catholic veritatis," against the Je- 
suit Thomas Henrici ; an " Examination of the Jesuit Be- 
can's Manual ;" a " Hebrew Grammar ;" " Expositio Epis- 
tolse Pauli ad Ephesios," Marpurg, 1631, 4to ; " Synopsis 
Theologiae ;" " Irenicum Catholico Evangelicum ;" " De 
Justificatione Hominis," &c. His son, PHILIP LEWIS 
Hanneken, who died professor of divinity at Wittemberg, 
June 16, 1706, has also left several works on the Scriptures. 1 
HANNEMAN (JOHN, or according to lord Orford, 
ADRIAN), an historical and portrait painter, was born at 
the Hague in 1611, and as some writers report, was a dis- 
ciple of Vandyke; But with more probability, was a dis- 
ciple of Hubert Kavestein. However, he formed his taste, 
and his manner of penciling, by studying and copying the 
works of Vandyke, observing particularly the airs of the 
heads, which he very happily imitated ; and in the tints of 
his carnations he had somewhat so extremely soft and de- 
licate, as to give them an appearance little inferior to those 
of Vandyke. Several of Hannetnan's copies after that il- 
lustrious painter's works shewed such exactness, and at 
the same time such a freedom of hand, that they are fre- 
quently mistaken for offegirials. Although he was usually 
employed in portrait- painting, yet he sometimes designed 
historical and allegorical subjects. Of the latter kind there 
is^a large picture in the hall of the States of Holland, re- 
presenting Peace, under the figure of a beautiful woman 
seated on a throne, holding a dove on her knees, and 
crowned with wreaths of laurel by two genii. The com- 
position is rich, and it is painted with a great deal of force; 
the carnations approaching very near to the tints of Van- 
dyke. He came to England in the reign of Charles I. and 
continued here for sixteen years, and, at his return to the 
Hague, became the favourite painter of the princess Mary 
of Orange. There is a picture of her, and the prince in 
armour, at lord Stratford's at Wentworth castle, painted, 
as lord Orford thinks, by him ; there are also portraits by 
him at Windsor, Worksop, and other places. He died 

ahmir 1 fin 2 * 

about 1680." 

1 Chaufepie. Moreri. Saxii Onomait. 
9 .-Walpole'i Anecdotes, 

H A N N O. 133 

IIANNO, a Carthaginian general, who was employed 
to sail round Africa, entered the ocean by what is now 
called the Strait of Gibraltar; discovered several countries, 
and would have continued his voyage, had he not been in 
want of provisions. The " Periplus of Hanno," ascribed 
to him, was published in Greek by Gelenius, 1533, and 
there is a good edition of it in Greek and Latin, with notes, 
Leyden, 1674, 12mo. It is also inserted in the " Geogra- 
phi Veteres," Oxford, 4 vols. 8vo, but some suppose this 
work is of much later date than the time of Hanno, there 
being reason to suppose he was the famous Carthaginian 
general who carried on the war against Agathocles, when 
Carthage was in its most flourishing state. It has been 
translated into Italian by Romusio, into Spanish by Cam- 
pomanes, into French by Bougainville, and in I7U7 into 
English by the learned Mr. Falconer of Corpus college, 
Oxford, who has ably defended the authenticity of the 
work against Dodwell and other writers. 1 

HANVILL (JOHN), a monk of St. Alban's, and a Latin 
poet of the twelfth century, was a native of this country, 
and educated at Oxford, where he took a master's degree. 
He is said to have travelled through a great part of Europe, 
and during a long residence at Paris, studied rhetoric, and 
was distinguished for his taste even among the numerous 
and polite scholars of that flourishing seminary. On his 
return to England, he became a Benedictine monk in the 
abbey of St. Alban's, where he died about the beginning 
of the thirteenth century. He wrote a long Latin poem in 
nine books, dedicated to Walter bishop of Rouen, entitled 
" Architrenius," which Warton, who has given a long spe- 
cimen of it, pronounces a learned, ingenious, and very en- 
tertaining performance, containing a mixture of satire and 
panegyric on public vice and virtue, with some historical 
digressions, but not enough to justify Simlerus's blunder 
in the epitome of Gesner's Bibliotheca, where he says the 
subject is *' de antiquitatibus Britannise." This work was 
printed at Paris, 1517, 4to, and is scarce; but there are 
two manuscripts of it in the Bodleian library, with some 
epistles, epigrams, and other poems by the same hand. 2 

HAN WAY (JONAS), a benevolent and amiable character, 
was born at Portsmouth in 1712. He was at a very early 

' Moreri. Saxii Onomast Falconer's translation. 

9 Leland. ]>ale. Pits, and Tanner. Walton's Hist, of Poetry. Fuller's 

13* H A N W A Y. 

age bound apprentice to a merchant at Lisbon, and after- 
wards connected himself with a mercantile house at Peters- 
burgh, in consequence of which he was induced to travel 
into Persia. On leaving Russia with an independent for- 
tune, he returned to his own country, and passed the re- 
mainder of his life as a private gentleman, honourably to 
himself and useful to the world. In 1753, he published 
an account of his travels through Russia into Persia, and 
back again through Russia, Germany, and Holland. To 
this work also was added an account of the revolutions of 
Persia during the present century. His other publications 
are very numerous; most of them were well received, and 
all of them calculated to prove him an excellent citizen 
and liberal-minded man. The institution of the Marine 
Society, justly attributed to his activity and benevolence, 
was the favourite object of Mr. Han way's care ; and in 
1758, he was also particularly instrumental in the esta- 
blishment of the Magdalen charity. His public spirit, and, 
above all, his disinterestedness, were so conspicuous, that 
a deputation of the principal merchants in London waited 
upon the earl of Bute, when prime minister, and repre- 
sented to him that an individual like Mr. Hanway, who had 
done so much public good to the injury of his private for- 
tune, was deserving of some signal mark of the public 
esteem. He was accordingly made a commissioner of the 
navy, a situation which he held more than twenty years, 
and, when he resigned, he was allowed to retain the salary 
for life, on account of his known exertions in the cause of 
universal chanty. To enumerate the various instances in 
which the benevolent character of his heart was success- 
fully exerted, would be no easy task. Sunday-schools in 
a great measure may look upon' Mr. Hanway as their fa- 
ther ; the chimney-sweepers' boys are much indebted to 
his humanity; and perhaps there never was any public 
calamity in any part of the British empire which he did 
not endeavour to alleviate. So greatly and so universally 
was he respected, that when he died, in 1786, a subscrip- 
tion of many hundred pounds was raised to erect a monu- 
ment to his memory. The great character of his numerous 
works is a strong masculine spirit of good sense, and a 
very chaste simplicity. In his private life he was remark- 
able for the strictest integrity of conduct, and for a frank- 
ness and candour which naturally inspired confidence. The 
number of his publications amounted to almost seventy, a 

H A R M U S. 135 

catalogue of which is annexed to his Life by Mr. Pugh, a 
work highly edifying and entertaining. 1 

HARjEUS (FRANCIS), a learned Dutch catholic divine, 
and called in that language Van der Haer, was born at 
Utrecht in 1550, and after the usual course of academical 
instruction, taught rhetoric at Douay, and travelled after- 
wards into Germany, Italy, and Muscovy. He accompa- 
nied father Pousse vin, who was sent there by the pope as 
nuncio. On his return, he was made canon of Bois-Ie-duc, 
then of Namur, and Louvain, at which last place he died, 
January 12, 1632. His principal works are, " Biblia sacra 
expositionibus priscorum Patrum litteralibus *t mysticis 
illustrata," Antwerp, 1630, folio; "Catena aurea in IV 
Evangelia," 1625, 8vo; " Annales Ducum Brabantiae, ac 
tumultuum Belgicorum ;" an abridgment of the " Lives of 
the Saints, 1 ' taken chiefly from Surius, 8vo ; and " A Chro- 
nology," Antwerp, 1614, 4to, &c. 2 

HARDI (ALEXANDER), a French dramatist of the se- 
venteenth century, remarkable for the fertility of his pen, 
wrote an incredible number of pieces for the theatre, som 
say six hundred, and some even more. Of these, however, 
no more remain than thirty-four, which were published by 
himself in six volumes, 8vo, Paris, 1625 1628. Among 
these the only tolerable piece is " Marianne," so good, in- 
deed, that his readers will wonder how it came there. All 
his boast was a remarkable facility in writing ; it was said 
that he would write two thousand lines in twenty-four 
hours : in three days his play was composed, and acted. 
He certainly had considerable talents, but, as he was very 
necessitous, and compelled to write against time, his abili- 
ties had not fair scope. He was the first French dramatist 
who introduced the custom of being paid for his pieces. 
He died at Paris in 1630. 3 

HARDING, or IIARDYNG (JOHN), one of our old 
English historians, descended from a reputable northern 
family, was born in 1 373, and at the age of twelve was ad- 
mitted into the family of sir Henry Percy, eldest son to 
the earl of Northumberland, familiarly known by the name 
of Harry Hotspur, on account of his impatient spirit. He 
was one of the most esteemed warriors of his time, active 

* Life by Pugh. Gent. Mag. vol. LXV. Johnson's Works by Hawkins. 
Boswell's Life of Johnson. 

2 Buruaan Traject, Erudit. Foppen Bibl. Belg. Clement Bibl. Cuiifuse.<- 
Saxii Ouoinast, 3 Diet. Hist. 


and enterprising, had a large vassalry, numerous partizans, 
and unlimited authority. His household, as lord of the 
east march of England, was constantly held at Berwick^ 
upon-Tweed. Harding, it appears, was with his patron, 
as a volunteer, in the battles of Homildon and Cokelawe. 
After the death of Percy, he enlisted under the banners 
of sir Robert Umfravile, with whom he had fought at Ho- 
roildon, and who was connected with the Percies by the 
ties of affinity as well as those of arms. In 1405, when 
king Henry IV. reduced the fortresses of lord Bardolph 
and the earl of Northumberland, sir Robert Umfravile's 
services in the expedition were rewarded with the castle 
of Warkworth, under whom Harding became the constable. 
How long he remained at Warkworth does not appear, but 
his knowledge of Scottish geography seems soon to have 
engaged him in the secret service of his country, In 1415 
we find him attendant on the king at Harfleur, and his 
journal of the march which preceded the memorable battle 
of Agincourt forms one of the most curious passages among 
the additions to the late reprint of his Chronicle. In 1416 
he appears to have accompanied the duke of Bedford to 
the sea-fight at the mouth of the Seine. In 1424 he was 
at Rome, and employed partly in inspecting " the great 
Chronicle of Trogus Pompeius ;" but soon after he was 
again employed in collecting documents for ascertaining 
the fealty due from the Scottish kings, which seems to 
have been attended with some personal danger. He has 
even been accused of forging deeds to answer his royal 
master's purpose ; but the truth of this charge cannot now 
be ascertained. 

Actively as Harding was engaged in public life, he 
found time to gather materials lor his " Chronicle,", and 
appears to have finished the first composition of it toward 
the latter en4 of the minority of king Henry VI. The 
Lansdowne manuscript closes with the life of sir Robert 
Umfravile, who died, according to Dugdale, Jan. 27, 1436, 
and under whom Harding seems to have lived in his latter 
years as constable of Kyme castle in Lincolnshire. Of 
the rewards which he received for his services, we find only 
a grant for life often pounds per annum out of the manor 
or alien preceptory of Wyloughton in the county of Lin- 
coln, in the eighteenth year of Henry VI.; and in 1457 he 
had a pension of twenty pounds a year for life by letters 
patent, charged upon the revenues of the county of Lin., 


coin. During his latter days he appears to have re-com- 
posed his " Chronicle" for Richard duke of York, father 
to king Edward IV. who was slain in the battle of Wake- 
field, Dec. 31, 1460. It was afterwards presented to king 
Edward IV. himself. The history comes no lower than 
the flight of Henry VI. to Scotland, but from " the excu- 
sacion" touching his " defaultes," in which the q'ueen'is 
mentioned, it is evident that Harding could not have 
finished his work before 1465. How long he survived its 
completion is unknown, but he must then have been at 
least eighty-seven years of age. His " Chronicle of Eng- 
land unto the reign of king Edward IV." is in verse, and as 
a metrical composition is beneath criticism, but, as a re- 
cord of facts, is highly interesting to the English historian 
and antiquary. It was first printed by Grafton in 1543, 
with a continuation by the same, to the thirty-fourth year 
of Henry VIII. This has been long ranked among the most 
rare and expensive of our Chronicles, but those who pre- 
fer use to mere antiquity, will set a higher value on the 
edition printed in 1812 by the booksellers of London, 
Henry Ellis, esq. the learned editor of this edition, has 
prefixed a biographical and literary preface, to which the 
preceding account is much indebted, and has carefully 
collated Harding' s part of the " Chronicle" with two manu- 
scripts of the author's own time, the Lansdowne and the 
Harleian, both which are in the British Museum ; and 
Grafton's addition has been collated with his duplicate 
edition.^ It is noticed by Mr. Ellis as a very singular fact, 
that there should be two editions of Harding, both printed 
by Grafton in the month of January 1543, differing in 
almost every page, and one, in Grafton's own portion of 
the work, containing (in the reign of Henry VIII.) no less 
than twenty-nine pages more than the other. 1 

HARDING (THOMAS), a popish divine of considerable 
note, and the antagonist of bishop Jewel, was born at 
Comb-Martin in Devonshire, 1512. His school education 
was first at Barhstaple, and afterwards at Winchester, 
whence he was removed to New-college, Oxford, and after 
two years' probation, was chosen fellow there in 1536. In 
1542, having completed his degrees in arts, he was chosen 
Hebrew professor of the university by Henry VIII. and, 
fcis religion probably kept pace with the king's, but Ed- 

> Mr. Ellis's Preface as above. 


ward no sooner ascended the throne, than Harding became 
a zealous protestant. He was afterwards chaplain to the 
duke of Suffolk, father of Jane Grey, and had the honour 
to instruct this young lady in the protestant religion ; but, 
on the accession of queen Mary, he immediately became 
a confirmed papist, and was chaplain and confessor to Gar- 
diner bishop of Winchester. There is a curious epistle 
preserved by Fox, said to be written by lady Jane to Har- 
ding on his apostacy, which, Burnet observes, " is full of 
Jife in the thought, and zeal in the expression." In 1554, 
he proceeded D. D. at Oxford, and was the year after 
made treasurer of the cathedral of Salisbury, as he had 
been a little before prebendary of Winchester. When 
Elizabeth came to the crown, being deprived of his pre- 
ferment, he left the kingdom ; and, having fixed his abode 
at Louvain in Flanders, he became, says Wood, " the tar- 
get of popery," in a warm controversy with bishop Jewel, 
respecting ordination, against whom, between 1554 and 
1567, he wrote seven pieces. He died at Louvain Sept. 
16, 1572, and was buried in the church of St. Gertrude, 
with an epitaph, given at length by Pits. He was un- 
doubtedly a man of parts and learning, and not an inele- 
gant writer. Humphrey, in his " Life of Jewel," com- 
paring him .with his adversary, says, " in multis pares 
sunt, & arnbo doctrinae & eloquentiae gloria praecellentes." 1 
HARD INGE (NICHOLAS), a polite and ingenious scho- 
lar, was the younger son of the rev. Gideon Hardinge, and 
grandson of sir Robert Hardinge, of King's Newton, a 
small hamlet in the parish of Melbourne in Derbyshire, 
who was knighted in the civil wars. He was born in 1700, 
and educated at Eton school, which he left in 17 IS for 
King's college, Cambridge, where he took his degree of 
B. A. in 1722, and that of M. A. in 1726. When he left 
the university, he studied law, and was called to the bar ; 
but obtained in 1731 the office of chief clerk of the house 
of commons, which he held until 1752, when he was ap- 
pointed joint secretary of the treasury, in which post he 
died April 9, 1758. 

At Eton and Cambridge, he had the fame of the most 
eminent scholar of his time, and wrote Latin verse with 
great elegance. When at Cambridge he was at the head 

i Ath. Ox. vol. I. new edit. Dodd's Ch. Hist. Prince's Worthies of Derort. 
Strype's Cranmer, p. 36'J Tanner, &c. 

H A R D I N G E. 139 

of the whig party, which happened to prevail in a contest 
respecting the expulsion of a student, who, in one of the 
college exercises had offended the tories. In this contest 
lie made himself master of the law and custom of visita- 
torial power, which he discussed in a very masterly essay; 
but this, although intended for publication, has not yet 
appeared. He was a very profound and judicious anti- 
quary, particularly in what concerned English law and his- 
tory. At the request of William duke of Cumberland (to 
whom he had been appointed, in Dec. 1732, law-reader, 
and was afterwards his attorney-general), he wrote a very 
learned memorial upon the regency (when that subject was 
agitated in the last reign), which lord Hardwicke called 
" an invaluable work." It was by Mr. Hardinge' s advice 
and encouragement that Mr. Stuart undertook his journey 
to Athens, with a view of illustrating the history of that 
city. His diligence, accuracy, knowledge, and skill, in the 
office of clerk to the House of commons, were never ex- 
ceeded. He put the " Journals" into their present form ; 
and drew up a very able report of the condition in which 
he found them. In his office of secretary he was laborious, 
able, and zealous ; and so honest, that he had many ene- 
mies. He was chosen representative for the borough of 
Eye in parliament in 1748 and 1754, and was a very useful 
member; but had no talents or courage for eloquence, 
though his taste in estimating it was exquisite. 

He had a rich vein of humour ; and his English muse, 
though never inelegant, had a peculiar turn for it. His 
" Denhill Iliad," a poem occasioned by the hounds running 
through lady Gray's gardens at Denhill, in East Kent, is 
very much in the manner of Pope ; and his " Dialogue in 
the Senate-house of Cambridge," written in 1750, was 
much admired for its poetry and humour : the former of 
these is in Mr. Nichols's " Select Collection of Poems," 
the latter in the " Poetical Calendar," vol. IX. In 1780, 
his son, the present George Hardinge, esq. solicitor-general 
to the queen, printed for private distribution, an octavo 
volume of his Latin verses, with a corrected copy of the 
ode in Mr. Nichols's collection. The Latin poems are of 
various dates ; some of them school exercises at Eton in 
1717 and 1718, and are remarkable specimens of classical 
taste at so early a period of life. 1 

1 Nichols's Bowyer, where are many particulars of Mr. Hardinge, and, par- 
ticularly in vol. VIII. much valuable correspondence communicated by hisSoa. 

140 H A R D I O N. 

HARD1ON (JAMES), a polite French writer, was born 
at Tours in 1686, and coming to Paris in 1704, devoted 
his time to the study of the belles lettres, and at the same 
time cultivated a critical knowledge of the Greek language 
under Boivin and Massieu, professors in the royal college. 
In 1711, he was admitted as a pupil into the academy of 
inscriptions, became an associate in 1715, and a pensionary 
in 172S. For their Memoirs he wrote a great many curious 
and interesting papers, and his general knowledge and re- 
putation procured him at length the office of keeper of the 
library and antiquities in the royal cabinet. In 1730 he 
was chosen a member of the French academy, and the 
following year began his " Histoire de 1'origine et des pro- 
gres de la Rhetorique dans la Grece." He had published 
twelve dissertations on this subject, when, in 1 748, the king 
honoured him with the appointment of preceptor in history 
and geography to madame Victoire, one of the princesses, 
and he afterwards taught other illustrious females of that 
family. It was for their use that he wrote his " Histoire 
Poetique," with two treatises, one on French poetry, and 
the other on rhetoric, Paris, 1751, 3 vols. 12mo, and his 
universal history, " Histoire Universelle," 18 vols. 12mo, 
to which Linguet added two others. All his works are 
valued for elegance of style and the accuracy of his re- 
searches, and his personal character was not less admired, 
as a man of integrity whom a court- life had not spoiled, 
and who preserved the dignity of the literary character 
amidst the cabals arrd intrigues by which he was surrounded. 
Hardion died at Paris in September 1766. His disserta- 
tions in the Memoirs of the academy of inscriptions display 
a profound knowledge of classical antiquities. 1 

HARDOUIN (JoiiN), a French Jesuit, eminent for his 
great parts, learning, and singularities of opinion, was 
born of obscure parents, at Kimper in Bretagne, in 1647. 
He entered young in the society of Jesuits, and devoted 
himself to the study of the belles lettres, the learned lan- 
guages, history, philosophy, and divinity. In 1684, he 
published in 4to, a work entitled " Nummi antiqui popu- 
lorum & urbium illustrati ;" in which he often gave expli- 
cations very singular, and as contrary to truth as to good 
sense. The same year he published, in conjunction with 
Petavius, Themistii Orationes xxxiii. cum notis," folio,; 

1 Plot. Ht, Saxii Onoraast. 

H A R D O U I N. 141 

and the year following, in 5 vols. 4to, for tlie use of the 
dauphin, " Plinii Historic Naturalis libri xxxvii, interpre- 
tatione & notis illustrati," of which a much improved edi- 
tion appeared at Paris in 1723, 3 vols. folio. Hitherto he 
confined himself to profane learning, where his whimsies 
were not supposed capable of doing much harm ; but now 
he began to tamper with religious subjects; and in 1687, 
he published his book entitled " De Baptismo qu<fistio tri- 
plex." Two years after appeared his 4< Antirrheticus de 
nummis antiquis colouiarum & municipiorum," in 4to; aud 
also " S. Joannis Chrysostorni Epistola ad Cacsarium Mo- 
nachum, notis ac clissertatione de sacramento altaris," in 
4to. Le Clerc having made some reflections upon '* St. 
Chrysostom's Letter to Cassarius," Hardouin replied, iu a 
piece printed in 1690, and entitled " Defence de la l.ettre 
de S. Jean Chrysostome, addressee a 1'Auteur cle la Biblio- 
theque Universelle :" to which Le Clerc returned an an- 
swer in the nineteenth volume of that work. 

In 1693, he printed at Paris, in 2 vols, 4to, u Chrono- 
logize ex nummis antiquis restitute prolusio, de nummis 
Herodiadum :" in which he opened more fully that strange 
paradoxical system, of which he had yet done little more 
than give hints. He undertakes to prove from medals, 
that the greater part of those writings which are considered 
as ancient, were forged by monks of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, who gave to them the several names of Homer, 
Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, &c. Tertullian, Origen, Basil, 
Augustin, &c. He excepts only out of this monkish ma- 
nufacture the works of Cicero, Pliny's " Natural History," 
Virgil's " Georgics," and Horace's " Satires and Epistles/' 
These he supposes the only genuine monuments of anti- 
quity remaining, except some few inscriptions and fasti : 
and with the assistance of these, he is of opinion that these 
monks drew np and published all the other ancient writings, 
as Terence's " Plays," Livy's and Tacitus's " Histories," 
Virgil's " Eneid," Horace's " Odes," &c. Nay, he car- 
ried this whim so far, that he fancied he could see plainly 
enough that /Eneas in Virgil was designed for Jesus Christ, 
and Horace's mistress Lalage for the Christian religion. 
Absurd as all this may seem, he appears to have seriously 
believed k himself, and was persuaded that his reasons for 
it were clear and evident; though he would not publish 
them to the world, nor explain his system, which he was 
frequently called upon to do. This work was suppressed 


by public authority at Paris. He afterwards published "A 
Letter upon three Samaritan Medals;" " An Essay towards 
the restoring Chronology by Medals of Constantino's age,' 7 
and "A Chronology of the Old Testament, conformable to 
the vulgar translation, illustrated by ancient Medals ;" all 
which were likewise suppressed, on account of the para- 
doxes contained in them. 

Still persisting in his opinion, in some letters, written to 
Mons. Ballanfaux, and printed at Luxemburg in 1700, he 
speaks of " an impious faction begun a long while ago, 
which still subsists, and which by forging an infinite num- 
ber of writings, that seem to breathe nothing but piety, 
appears to have no other design than to remove God out 
of the hearts of mankind, and to overturn all religion." 
Mr. La Croze refuted his notion concerning the forgery of 
the ancient writings, in a Dissertations historiques sur 
divers sujets, Rot. 1707;" and in " Vindiciae veterum 
Scriptorum contra J. Harduinum." La Croze imagined, 
that Hardouin advanced his notions in concert with the so- 
ciety of Jesuits, or at least with his superiors, in order to 
set aside the ancient Greek and Latin sacred and profane 
writers, and so leave all clear to infallibility and tradition 
only ; but Le Clerc was of opinion, that there was no ground 
for this supposition. In 1700 there was published at 4- 
sterdam a volume in folio, entitled " Joannis Harduini 
opera selecta," consisting of his " Nummi antiqui popu- 
lorum et urbium illustrati;" " De Baptismo quaestio tri- 
plex;" edition of" St. Chrysostom's Letter to Caesarius," 
with the dissertation " De Sacramento Altaris ;" " De num- 
mis Herodiadum;" his " Discourse on the Last Supper,'* 
which had been printed in 1693 ; a treatise in which he 
explains the medals of the age of Constantine ; " Chrono- 
logy of the Old Testament, adjusted by the Vulgate trans- 
lation, and illustrated by Medals ;" " Letters to M. de 
Ballanfaux ;" and other pieces. This volume made a great 
deal of noise before it was published. The author had 
corrected what he thought proper in the works he had al- 
ready published ; and then put them into the hands of a 
bookseller, who undertook to print them faithfully from 
the copy he had received. , He began the impressjon with 
the author's consent, and was considerably advanced in it, 
when the clamour raised against the paradoxes in those 
works obliged Hardouin to send an order to the bookseller 
to retrench the obnoxious passages. But the bookseller 

H A R D O U I N. . 143 

refused to do it, and wrote an answer to him, alleging the 
reasons of his refusal. This immediately produced " A 
Declaration of the father provincial of the Jesuits, and of 
the superiors of their houses at Paris, concerning a new 
edition of some works of father John Hardouin of the same 
society, which has been actually made contrary to their 
will hy the Sieur de Lorme, bookseller at Amsterdam,''' &c. 
At the bottom of this was Hardouin's recantation, which 
runs in these curious terms : " I subscribe sincerely to 
every thing contained in the preceding declaration ; I 
heartily condemn in my writings what it condemns in them, 
and particularly what I have said concerning an impious 
faction, which had forged some ages ago the greatest part 
of the ecclesiastical or profane writings, which have hi- 
therto been considered as ancient. I am extremely sorry 
that I did not open my eyes before in this point. I think 
myself greatly obliged to my superiors in this society, who 
have assisted me in divesting myself of my prejudices. I 
promise never to advance in word or writing any thing 
directly or indirectly contrary to my present recantation. 
And if hereafter I shall call in question the antiquity of any 
writing, either ecclesiastical or profane, which no person 
before shall have charged as supposititious, I will only do 
it by proposing my reasons in a writing published under 
my name, with the permission of my superiors, and the 
approbation of the public censors. In testimony of which 
I have signed, this 27th of December, 1708, J. Hardouin, 
of the society of Jesus.' 5 

But notwithstanding this solemn protestation, nothing 
can be more certain than that Hardouin industriously che- 
rished and propagated his opinions to the last moment of 
his life. Thus, in 1723, when he reprinted his edition of 
Pliny in three volumes folio, he greatly augmented it with, 
notes, in which were dispersed many paradoxical conceits, 
tending to support his general system, which Mr. Crevier 
and father Desmolets of the oratory thought themselves 
obliged to point out and refute. Yet, notwithstanding 
all these circumstances, and the clamour raised against 
him and his writings, he maintained his credit so well with 
the clergy of France, that they engaged him to undertake 
a new edition of" The Councils," and gave him a pension 
for that purpose. It was printed, 1715, in 12 vols. folio, 
at the royal printing-house; but the sale of it was pro- 
hibited by the parliament, who commissioned some doc- 

144 H A R D O U I N. 

tors, among whom was the celebrated Dupin, to examin^ 
it. These doctors gave in their report, that the edition! 
should either be suppressed, or at least corrected in a 
great number of places ; because it contained many max- 
ims injurious to the doctrines and discipline of the church 
in general, and to those of the Gallican church in particu- 
lar ; and because some very essential things were omitted, 
while others that were spurious were inserted. 

Father Hardouin died at Paris, Sept. 3, 1729, in his 
eighty-third year ; and after his death a volume of his 
" Opuscula," in folio, was published by an anonymous 
friend. The largest and most singular of these is entitled 
" Athei detecti ;" among whom are to be found Jansenius, 
Malbranche, Thomasin, Descartes, Regis, Arnaud, Nicole, 
Paschal, and Quesnel ; whose irreligion, no doubt, con- 
sisted chiefly in their being enemies to the Jesuits. The 
society, however, thought proper, in their " Memoires de 
Trevonx,' 7 to disown any concern in the publication of 
these " Opuscula ;" and affected to censure freely the 
errors contained in them. A posthumous work was pub- 
lished in 1766, under the title of " Joannis Harduini, Je- 
suitte, ad Censuram Scriptorum Veterum Prolegomena," 
with a valuable preface by Mr. Bowyer, to whom a curious 
Latin pamphlet was addressed on that occasion by his 
friend the rev. Caesar De Missy. 

We will conclude our account of this famous Jesuit with 
a characteristic epitaph by M. de Boze. 

" In expectatione judicii, hicjacet hominum paradoxotatos, na- 
tione Gallus, religione Romanus : orbis litterati portentum : ve- 
nerandae antiquitatis cultor et destructor. Docte febricitans, som- 
nia et inaudita commenta vigilans edidit. Scepticum pie egit, ere- 
dulitate puer, audacia juvenis, delhiis senex." l 

HARE (Dr. FRANCIS), an English bishop, was born in 
London, and educated at Eton, whence he was admitted 
of King's college, Cambridge, in 1688, and took his de- 
gree of A. B. in 1692, and of A. M. 1696. He afterwards 
became tutor in the college, and in that capacity super- 
intended the education of the celebrated Anthony Collins, 
who was fellow-commoner there. He had also the tuition 
of the marquis of Blandford, only son of the illustrious 
duke of Marlborough, who appointed him chaplain-general 

1 Gen. Diet Moreri. Memoirs of Literature, vols. IX. XI. and XII. 
Republic of Letters, vol. IV. Nichols's Bowyer. Saxii Onomast, 

HARE. 145 

to the army ; but this promising young nobleman died in 
1702, and was buried in King's college chapel. The in- 
scription on his monument is by our author. In 1708 Mr. 
Hare took his degree of D. D. obtained the deanery of 
Worcester, and in 1726 the deanery of St. Paul's. In 
Dec. 1727, he was consecrated bishop of St. Asaph, where 
he sat about four years, and was translated, Nov. 25, 1731, 
to the bishopric of Chichester, which he held with the 
deanery of St. Paul's to his death. He was dismissed from 
being chaplain to George I. in 1718, by the strength of 
party prejudices, in company with Dr. Moss and Dr. Sher-r 
lock, persons of distinguished rank for parts and learning. 
About the latter end of queen Anne's reign he published 
a remarkable pamphlet, entitled " The difficulties and 
discouragements which attend the Study of the Scriptures, 
in the way of private judgment;" in order to shew, that 
since such a study of the scriptures is an indispensable 
duty, it concerns all Christian societies to remove, as much 
as possible, those discouragements. This work was thought 
to have such a direct tendency to promote scepticism, and 
a loose way of thinking in matters of religious concern, 
that the convocation judged it right to pass a severe censure 
on it ; and Whiston says, that, finding this piece likely to 
hinder preferment, he aimed to conceal his being the au- 
thor. The same writer charges him with being strongly 
inclined to scepticism ; that he talked ludicrously of sacred 
matters ; and that he would offer to lay wagers about the 
fulfilling of scripture prophecies. The principal ground 
for these invidious insinuations some suppose to be, that, 
though he never denied the genuineness of the apostolical 
constitutions (of which he procured for Whiston the colla- 
tion of two Vienna MSS.), yet " he was not firm believer 
enough, nor serious enough in Christianity, to hazard any 
thing in this world for their reception." He published 
many pieces against bishop Hoadly, in the Bangorian con* 
troversy ; and also other learned works, which were col- 
lected after his death, and published in four volumes, 8yo. 
2. An edition of " Terence," with notes, in 4to. 3. '* The 
Book of Psalms, in the Hebrew, put into the original poe^ 
tical metre," 4to. In this last work he pretends to have 
Discovered the Hebrew metre, which was supposed to be 
irretrievably lost. But his hypothesis, though defended 
by some, yet has been confuted by several learned men, 
particularly by Dr. Lowtb in his " Metrics Hareaue brevis 
VcL. XVJ1, I- 


confutatio," annexed to his lectures " De Sacra Poesi He- 
breeorum." He was yet more unfortunate in the above- 
mentioned edition of Terence, which sunk under the re- 
putation of that of Dr. Bentley, of whom he was once the 
warm admirer, and afterwards the equally warm opponent. 
During their friendship the emendations on Menander and 
Philemon were transmitted through Hare, who was then 
chaplain-general to the army, to Burman, in 1710; and 
Bentley's " Remarks on the Essay on Freethinking" (sup- 
posed to be written by Collins) were inscribed to him in 
1713. As soon as the first part of these were published, 
Hare formally thanked Dr. Bentley by name for them, in 
a most flattering letter called " The Clergyman's Thanks 
to Phileleutherus," printed the same year ; but, in conse- 
quence of the rupture between them, not inserted in the 
collection of Hare's works. This rupture took place soon 
after the above-mentioned date, and Bentley in the sub- 
sequent editions of his " Remarks" withdrew the inscrip- 
tion. Hare was excessively piqued at the utter annihila- 
tion of his Terence and Phoedrus, the one soon after its 
birth, the other before its birth, by Bentley's edition of 
both together in 1726, who never once names Hare. 

Bishop Hare, about the time of his death, was preparing 
an edition of Plautus. He died at his house at Chalfont 
St. Giles's, Bucks, where he had bought an* estate and 
resided very much, April 26, 1740, and was buried in that 
parish church. He was twice married. His son, the rev. 
Robert Hare of Hurstmonceaux place, in Sussex, preben- 
dary of Winchester, died in March 1797. He was the 
father of James Hare, esq. late member of parliament for 
Knaresborough. 1 

HARE (HENRY, lord COLERANE), third and last baron 
of that name and family, descended from John, younger 
brother to sir Nicholas Hare, baronet, master of the rolls, 
and privy-counsellor to Henry VIII. (both sons to Nicho- 
las Hare of Homersfield, in the county of Suffolk, the 
elder branch being seated at Stow Bardolph, in Norfolk) 
was born at Blechingley, in Surrey, May 10, 1693; edu- 
cated at Enfield, under Dr. Uvedale, who had also the 
honour of educating, among many other eminent men, the 
late earl of Huntingdon, and sir Jeremy Sambrooke, bart. 

1 G-nt. M*g. see Index Swift's Works. Whiston's Life. Cole's MS 
in Uiit. Mus. 

HARE. 147 

After the death of his grandfather, Hugh lord Colerane, 
in 1708, he succeeded to the title, and was admitted a 
gentleman commoner of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, 
under the tuition of Dr. Rogers, who afterwards married 
Lydia, one of his lordship's sisters *. A lyric poem by 
lord Colerane appeared in the " Academiae Oxoniensis 
Comitia Philologica, 1713," and in the " Musaj Angli- 
canae," vol. III. p. 303, under the title of " Musaruin 
oblatio ad reginam." Dr. Basil Kennet, who succeeded 
Dr. Turner in the presidency of that society, inscribed 
to his lordship an epistolary poem on his predecessor's 
death. He was a great proficient in the learned lan- 
guages, particularly the Greek ; and eminently versed 
in history, both civil and ecclesiastical. He was grand 
master of the society of free-masons, and had made the 
tour of Italy three times ; the second time with Dr. 
Con yers Middle ton, about 1723, in which he made a no- 
ble collection of prints and drawings of all the antiquities, 
buildings, and pictures in Italy ; given after his decease 
to Corpus Christi college. The esteem in which he was 
held by the literati procured him admittance into the Re- 
publica Literaria di Arcadia, and the particular intimacy 
of the marquis Scipio Maffei ; who afterwards visited him 
at his ancient manor and seat at Tottenham, in Middlesex. 
His lordship died at Bath, Aug. 4, 1749 ; and was buried 
in the family vault at Tottenham, built, with the vestrv, 
by his grandfather. His very valuable collection of prints 
relative to English antiquities, with a portrait of him when 
a young man, by Richardson, were obtained after his 
death by Mr. Henry Baker for the Society of Antiquaries. 
His books were sold to T. Osborne, who detained some of 
the family papers, which were with difficulty recovered 
from him. The pictures, bronzes, marble, tables, urns, 
vases, and other antiquities, were sold by auction, March 
13 and 14, 1754, for 904/. 135. 6d. The coins, it is sup- 
posed, were disposed of privately. His lordship married 
in 1717, Anne, only daughter of John Hanger, esq. by 
whom he had a fortune of 100,000/. but she, having unac- 
countably left him within three years, and resisted every 

* See the account of Dr. Rogers pr- president, who died a single man, anJ 

fixed to his XIX Sermons, p. 23, 61. gave 20,000/. to the use of poor cler- 

In the introduction to the Archaeo- gymcn's widows. Another of lord Cole- 

Jogia, it is said by mistake that this ratio's sisters was manicd to Mr, 

lady was married to Dr. Turner, the Knight. 

L 2 

148 H A R E. 

effort of his to recall her, after twenty more years he 
formed a connexion with a foreign lady, Miss Duplessis, by 
whom he had a natural daughter, Henrietta Rosa Peve- 
grina, born in Italy, and afterwards naturalized. She was 
married in 1764 to James Townsend, esq. alderman of 
Bishopsgate ward, who in her right -enjoyed the exten- 
sive manor of Tottenham, and repaired the family seat, 
commonly called Bruce-castle, from having anciently be- 
longed to theBruces earls of Huntingdon, which had been 
considerably modernized in the close of the seventeenth 
century. It is now the property of William Curtis, esq. 
son to sir William Curtis, bart. l 

HARLEY (ROBERT), afterwards earl of Oxford and earl 
Mortimer, and lord high treasurer in the reign of queen 
Anne, was eldest son of sir Edward Harley, and born at 
London, in Bow-street, Covent Garden, December 5, 1661. 
He was educated under the rev. Mr. Birch, at Shilton, near 
Burford, Oxfordshire, which, though a private school, was 
remarkable for producing at the same time, a lord high 
treasurer, viz. lord Oxford ; a lord high chancellor, viz. 
lord Harcourt ; a lord chief justice of the common pleas, 
viz. lord Trevor ; and ten members of the house of com- 
mops, who were all contemporaries, as well at school as 
in parliament. Here he laid the foundation of that ex- 
tensive knowledge and learning, which rendered him after- 
wards so conspicuous in the world. At the revolution, sir 
Edward Harley, and this his eldest son, raised a troop of 
horse at their own expence ; and, after the accession of king 
William and queen Mary, he was first chosen member of 
parliament for Tregony in Cornwall, and afterwards served 
for the town of Radnor till he was called to the house of 
lords. In 1690 he was chosen by ballot one of the nine 
members of the house of commons, commissioners for 
stating the public accounts ; and also one of the arbitrators 
for uniting the two India companies. In 1694 the house 
of commons ordered Mr. Harley, November 19, to pre- 
pare and bring in a bill " For the frequent meeting and 
calling of parliaments ;" which he accordingly did upon the 
22d, and it was received and agreed to by both houses, 
without any alteration or amendment. On February 11, 
1701-2, he was chosen speaker of the house of commons; 
and that parliament being dissolved the same year by king 

> Nichols's Bowyer, Park's Royal and Noble Authors. 

H A R L E Y. 149 

William, and a new one called, he was again chosen 
speaker, December 31st following, as he was in the first 
parliament called by queen Anne. 

On April 17, 1704, he was sworn of her majesty's privy 
council; and, May 18th following, sworn in council one 
of the principal secretaries of state, being also speaker of 
the house of commons at the same time. In 1706 he was 
appointed one of the commissioners for the treaty of union 
with Scotland, which took effect; and resigned his place 
of principal secretary of state in February 1707-8. August 
10, 1710, he was constituted one of the commissioners of 
the treasury, also chancellor and under-treasurer of the 
exchequer. On the 8th of March following he was in great 
danger of his life ; the marquis of Guiscard, a French pa- 
pist, then under examination of a committee of the privy 
council at Whitehall, stabbing him with a penknife, which 
he took up in the clerk's room, where he waited before he 
was examined. Guiscard was imprisoned, and died in 
Newgate the 17th of the same month : and an act of par- 
liament passed, making it felony, without benefit of clergy, 
to attempt the life of a privy counsellor in the execution of 
his office ; and a clause was inserted " To justify and in- 
demnify all persons, who in assisting in defence of Mr. 
Harley, chancellor of the exchequer, when lie was stabbed 
by the sieur de Guiscard, and in securing him, did give 
any wound or bruise to the said sieur de Guiscard, whereby 
he received his death." The wound Mr. Harley had re- 
ceived confined him some weeks ; but the house being in- 
formed that it was almost healed, and that he would in a 
few days come abroad, resolved to congratulate his escape 
and recovery; and accordingly, upon his attending the 
house on the 26th of April, the speaker addressed him in 
a very respectful speech, to which Mr. Harley returned as 
respectful an answer. They had before addressed the 
queen on this alarming occasion. 

In 1711, queen Anne, to reward his many eminent ser- 
vices, was pleased to advance him to the peerage of Great 
Britain, by the style and titles of baron Harley of Wig- 
more, in the county of Hereford, earl of Oxford, and earl 
Mortimer, with remainder, for want of issue male of his 
own body, to the heirs male of sir Robert Harley, knight 
of the Bath, his grandfather. May 29, 1711, he was ap- 
pointed lord high treasurer of Great Britain ; and August 
15th following, at a general court of the South-sea com- 


H A R L E Y. 

pany he was chosen their governor, as he had been their 
founder and chief regulator. October 26, 1712, he was 
elected a knight companion of the most noble order of the 
garter. July 27, 1714, he resigned his staff of lord high 
treasurer of Great Britain, at Kensington, into the queen's 
hand, she dying upon the 1st of August following. June 
10, 1715, he was impeached by the House of commons 
of high-treason, and high crimes and misdemeanors ; and 
on July the 16th was committed to the Tower by the House 
of lords, where he suffered confinement till July 1, 1717, 
and then, after a public trial, was acquitted by his peers. 
He died in the 64th year of his age, May 21, 1724, after 
having been twice married. 

Hewas a great encourager of learning, and the greatest 
collector in his time of all curious books in print and ma- 
nuscript, especially those concerning the history of his own 
country, which were preserved and much augmented by 
the earl his son, -and afterwards purchased for the British 
Museum. The dispersion, however, of his printed books 
must ever be regretted. He was also a man of taste and 
letters himself ; and under this character we find a pro- 
posal addressed to him by Dr. Swift, " for correcting, im- 
proving, and ascertaining the English tongue." He wrote 
also " An Essay upon Public Credit," 1710, inserted 
in Somers's Tracts; where are also " An Essay upon 
Loans," and " A Vindication of the Rights of the Com- 
mons of England," said to be by him, but signed Hum- 
phrey Mackworth. Various letters by him are preserved 
among the Harleian MSS.; and a few jocular verses in the 
correspondence between Swift and his friends. 

Oxford, says Mr. archdeacon Coxe, was unimpeachable in 
his private character, never offending against morality either 
in conversation or action, a tender husband, and a good fa- 
ther ; highly disinterested and generous. He prided him- 
self in his high descent, was stiff and formal in his deport- 
ment, and forbidding in his manner. He was learned and 
pedantic ; embarrassed and inelegant both in speaking 
and writing. He was equally an enemy to pleasure and 
business ; extremely dilatory and fond of procrastination ; 
timid in public affairs, yet intrepid when his own person 
was concerned ; jealous of power, indefatigable in pro- 
moting the petty intrigues of the court, but negligent in 
things of importance ; a whig in his heart, and a tory from 
ambition ; too ready for temporary convenience to adopt 

H A R L E Y. 151 

measures he'disapproved, yet unwilling wholly to sacrifice 
his real sentiments to interest or party ; affecting the most 
profound secrecy in all political transactions, and myste- 
rious in the most trifling occurrences. He was liberal in 
making promises, yet breaking them without scruple, a 
defect which arose more from facility of temper, than from 
design. He corresponded at the same time with the de- 
throned family and the house of Hanover, and was there - 
fore neither trusted nor respected by either party. The 
only pojnt in which he and his colleague Bolingbroke 
agreed, was the love of literature and the patronage of 
learned men ; which rendered their administration emi- 
nently illustrious. 1 

HARMAR (JOHN), a learned Greek scholar and teacher, 
was the son of a father of the same name, who was warden 
of Winchester, and died in J613. He was also an able 
Greek scholar, was employed on the translation of the Bible, 
and published some of Chrysostom's homilies from MSS. in 
the library of New-college, Oxford. His son was born 
about 1594, at Churchdowne, near Gloucester, and edu- 
cated at Winchester-school. In 1611 he entered as a 
demy of Magdalen-college, Oxford, and completed his 
master's degree in 1617, the highest Wood says he took, 
" although he was in his latter days called Dr. Harmar." 
His first employment as a teacher was in Magdalen school, 
about which time he took orders. He was afterwards in 
succession chief master of the free-school at St. Alban's, and 
under-master of Westminster-school. In 1650, when the 
committee for reforming the university had ejected all the 
old professors, he was appointed by their authority, Greek 
professor, and in 1659 was presented to the rectory of 
Ewhurst, in Hampshire. On account of his connexions 
with the usurping powers, he was deprived of his profes- 
sorship and rectory at the restoration, and retired to Ste- 
venton, in Hampshire, .where he subsisted on his wife's 
jointure. He died there Nov. 1, 1670. As a nonconformist 
Calamy has nothing to say for him, and Neal says " he was 
an honest, weak man." He wrote Latin and Greek pane- 
gyrics on the leading men of all parties, and complimented 
Charles II. with as much sincerity as he had Cromwell, 
and Richard his successor. In the facility of Greek com- 

1 Collins's Peerage by Sir E. Brydges. Park's edit, of Royal and Nobl< 
Author*. swift's Works ; see Index, Coxe's Life of Wai pole. 

152 H A R M A R. 

position he appears to have excelled, and he translated 
some part of Butler's Hudibras into Latin, retaining much 
of the spirit of the original. While engaged as a teacher, 
he published a " Praxis Grammatica," Lond. 1622, 1623, 
8vo, and a " Janua Linguarum," of which there were six 
or seven editions before J 63 1 . He published also a " Lexi- 
con Etymologicon Graccum," which Wood says is " junctim 
cum Scapula,'* Lond. 1637, fol. His other principal works 
are, 1. " Eclogse sententiarum et similitudinum, e D. 
Chrysostomo decerptae," Gr. & Lah with notes, Lond. 
1622, 8vo. 2. " Protomartyr Britannus ; seu Elogia sacra 
in conversionem et rnartyrium S. Albani," ibid. 1630, 4to. 
3. " Epistola ad D. Lambertum Osbaldestonum, cui in- 
texitur Apologia pro honoratissimo &c. D. Johanne Wil- 
liams Arch. Eborac." ibid. 1649, 8vo. 4. " M. T. Cice- 
ronis vita, ex optimis quibusque scriptoribus delibata," 
Ox. 1662, 8vo. He translated from Latin into English, 
Daniel Heinsius's " Mirror of Humility ;" from English 
into Greek and Latin, the Assembly's " Shorter Cate- 
chism," ibid. 1659, 8vo ; and from English into Latin, 
HowelPs " Treatise concerning Ambassadors." 1 

HARMER (THOMAS), a learned dissenter, was born at 
Norwich in 1715. He received the elements of classical 
learning in the country, and discovering an inclination for 
the profession of a dissenting minister, was sent to London 
to study un'ler the tuition of Mr. Eames. When he had 
finished his studies, he settled with a small congregation 
at Wattsfield, in Suffolk, where he improved his acquain- 
tance with the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, in 
each of which he acquired much critical skill. The fa- 
vourite object of his pursuit was oriental history, which he 
applied to the illustration of the sacred writings. Ob- 
serving a striking conformity between the present customs 
of the eastern nations and those of the ancients, as men- 
tioned or alluded to in various passages of scripture, he 
conceived a design at a very early period, of making ex- 
tracts of such passages in books of travels and voyages, as 
appeared to him to furnish a key to many parts of holy 
writ. In 1764 he published a volume of "Observations 
on divers Passages of Scripture," &c. The favourable re- 
ception which this work met with, encouraged Mr. Harmer 
to proceed in it, and in 1776 he gave the public an en- 

and Life > 1772 ' 8vo > p - 135 - Bk * Brk 

H A R M E R. 153 

larged edition of it, in 2 vols. 8vo. By the preface to this 
impression we learn that Dr. Lowth bishop of London fur- 
nished him with some MS papers of sir John Chardin. In 
17S7 Mr. Haroier published two other volumes. A new 
e-tition of the whole of this most useful work has lately been 
published by the rev. Adam Clarke. He was author also 
of the ' Outlines of a new Commentary on Solomon's Song, 
drawn by the help of instructions from the East ;" an " Ac- 
count of the Jewish Doctrine of the Resurrection of the 
Dead," and some other tracts of less consequence. Mr. 
Harrner died without a struggle, in November 1788, 
having passed the preceding day in perfect health. 1 

HARPALUS, a great astronomer, who flourished about 
480 years before Christ, corrected the cycle of eight years 
invented by Cleostratus, and in its stead proposed a new 
one of nine years, in which he supposed that the sun and 
moon returned to the same point ; but this cycle of Har- 
palus was afterwards altered by Meton, about the year 444 
B. C. who added ten years to it, which cycle is still in use, 
and called "The Golden Number." 2 

HAKPE (JOHN FRANCIS DE LA), one of the ablest French 
writers of the last century, was born at Paris, Nov. 20, 
1739. His father, an officer of the artillery, died when 
he was very young, and left him in poverty. He obtained, 
however, the patronage of M. Asselin, principal of the 
college of Harcourt, who conceived an affection for him, 
received him among his pupils, and soon after obtained a 
pension for him. During his education he displayed a 
turn for poetry and satire, and was accused of writing a 
satirical poem on his benefactor. He protested his inno- 
cence and his reverence for M. Asselin; but this not ap- 
pearing satisfactory, he was confined for some months in a 
house of correction. One of his biographers says in the 
Bastille ; but, wherever it was, we are told that it made a 
deep impression on him. His first poetical productions 
after this affair, were of a species then very fashionable, 
and called Heroides, in which Colordeau, Ranee, and 
Dorat had distinguished themselves, and La Harpe was 
thought little inferior to Dorat. In 1763, when only in 
his twenty-fourth year, he wrote his tragedy of " War- 
wick," which met with deserved success, and still pre- 
serves its popularity on the stage. " Timoleon," which 

1 Gent. Mag. 1788 and 1789. Europ. Mag. 1792. 
Gen. Diet, Moreri. Fabric, Bibl. Grac. 

154 HARP E. 

he produced in 1764, and " Pharmond," in 1765, were 
much less applauded. They showed a laudable ambition 
to excel, but it was too much to expect three such trage- 
dies as " Warwick" within so short a space of time. 

Having, however, acquired notice by these productions, 
he had the courage to become a candidate for the aca- 
demic prizes; and few writers have been more successful. 
Among the " Eloges" which he wrote, that on Henry IV. 
was most admired, and scarcely less those on Fenelon, 
Racine, and Catinat, which excelled in an exact estimate 
of character and in elegance of style. His poetical pieces, 
however, even those which obtained the prizes, are more 
distinguished by purity of style, and elegance and facility 
of versification, than for genuine poetical spirit. In the 
mean time his enthusiasm for the stage produced in 1766 
" Gustavus Vasa," in 1776 " MenzikofT," and in 1778 
" The Barmicides," and afterwards various other dramas, 
none of which proved rivals to his " Warwick" in the pub- 
lic estimation, except his " Philoctete," a translation from 
Sophocles, represented for the first time in 1781, in which 
he is thought by his countrymen to have preserved all the 
beauties of the original. 

The reputation he had gained by his various prize es- 
says and poems, and by his " Warwick," at length opened 
the doors of the French academy, into which he was ad- 
mitted in 1776. In 1779 he wrote his " Muses Rivales" 
in compliment to Voltaire, and the year following an eloge 
on that celebrated writer, with whom he had been ac- 
quainted since 1765. He was not less a favourite, or 
less connected with the encyclopedists, and was at this 
time accounted an adept in that audacious philosophy 
which infected France, and finally dissolved her morals. 

About 1779 he undertook an abridgment of the abbe" 
Prevost's Histoire des Voyages," an employment so much 
beneath his talents, that it was generally considered rather 
as a bookseller's job than an effort of literary ambition. In 
the same year he printed his " Tangu et Felime," in four 
cantos, which was reckoned one of the best productions of 
the voluptuous kind. But that on which his fame is more 
honourably and solidly established, was his " Cour de 
Litterature, ancienne et moderne," which justly entitles 
him to the appellation of the French Quintilian. Being 
appointed a professor of literature in the Lyceum, the lec- 
tures he had delivered in it during many years were col- 

H A R P E. 155 

lected and properly arranged by him, and soon after pub- 
lished under the title of " Lyceum ; or, Course of Litera- 
ture," in 12 vols. 8vo. M. Petitot says of this work, that 
" he not only labours to give to persons of no great know- 
ledge competent information on the topics of his work, but 
arrests the attention of the most learned. In his plans, 
the outline of which alone announces an immense stock of 
science and learning, he embraces all ages in which lite- 
rature has flourished. Every celebrated work is analyzed 
and discussed. The beauties of the several writers are 
happily displayed, and their faults pointed out with all the 
ability of the most lively and sound criticism. That which 
distinguishes La Harpe from other moderns who have 
treated of literature is, that he always assumes the tone of 
the work he criticises, a merit which we find in none of the 
ancients except Cicero, Quintilian, and Longinus. If 
he speaks of the Iliad, we behold him borrow all the rich 
colours of the father of poetry to decorate his discourse. 
If he treats of Demosthenes and Cicero, all the great in- 
terests of Athens and Rome are re-produced under his pen. 
If Tacitus is his theme, we are instantly transported to the 
age of the emperors ; we enter into all the mystery of the 
dark policy of Tiberius, and tremble at the sight of Nero." 
The only regret on this subject is that the author did not 
live to finish his course of instruction ; only some fragments 
have been left of what he purposed as a continuation. 

Notwithstanding the multiplicity of his labours, La 
Harpe was much in company, and his visits were eagerly 
courted. Doubtless he owed the favour in which he was 
with polite circles to his early and brilliant success in 
letters, which at once balanced the prejudices created by 
the resentment often excited by the severity of his criti- 
cisms. From the first essay of his talents he was patronized 
by Voltaire and D'Alembert, who were at the head of 
literature and sciences ; and it is well known what influence 
those two celebrated men possessed over the public opi- 
nion. VoUaire accorded him the title of his favou- 
rite pupil. Married while yet very young, to a woman 
of wit and beauty, madame de la Harpe and he mutually 
shone with unusual brilliancy in the most fashionable as- 
semblies. They had been formed in the art of speaking 
and declamation under the eyes of Voltaire during a long 
stay they made at Ferney, where they were accustomed to 
perform the principal parts in the tragedies of that great 

156 HARPE. 

poet, got up by his direction at his own theatre. This 
practice was also of great importance to M. de la Harpe 
in the art of reading, which he possessed in a very supe- 
rior manner. The mode was still at the height of attending 
in crowds at the readings given by authors of their works 
previous to publication ; and M. de Ja Harpe, whose va- 
rious productions succeeded each other so rapidly, was in- 
vited to make his readings in so many circles, that he was 
soon compelled to be select in his choice of the circles he 
honoured with this gratification. 

At the beginning of the revolution he professed himself 
an advocate for the new order of things ; and most likely 
he continued in the same principles till the downfall of 
royalty, and till he himself fell a prey to the terrorism of 
Robespierre. It appears from the report of Gregoire to 
the national convention, that he was imprisoned from No- 
vember 1793 to August 1794; and this confinement was the 
cause of M. La Harpe's conversion, brought about by the ad- 
vice of the bishop of St. Brieux, who happened to be his fel- 
low-prisoner La Harpe soon after proved one of the greatest 
champions of the attempted counter-revolution ; and from 
the latter part of 1794, he devoted almost his whole time 
to royalist publications, among which were his dissertation 
on the war declared by the republican tyranny against good 
sense and morals, his Fanaticism of the Revolutionary 
Language, his Confutation of Helvetius, and his journal 
Le Memorial, which he edited conjointly with his friend 
Fontanes. This Memorial, however, involved La Harpe 
in the directorial proscription of the 14th September 1797, 
and he narrowly escaped being transported to Cayenne ; 
it was a twelvemonth before he was restored to his station 
in Paris. But confinement had injured his health, and he 
died in Feb. 1803, in the sixty-fifth year of his age. On 
the evening preceding his death, M. Fontanes called to 
see him ; he was listening to the Prayers for the Sick ; and 
as soon as they were concluded, he stretched his hand to 
M. Fontanes, and said, " I am grateful to divine mercy 
for having left me sufficient recollection to feel how con- 
soling these prayers are to the dying." His funeral was 
attended by his friends, and most of the distinguished lite- 
rary characters in France. A deputation from the institute 

ned the procession ; and M. Fontanes, one of the de- 
putation, pronounced a funeral oration over the crave, 

H A R P E. 157 

Of La Harpe's other works not noticed already, are, 
I. " Melanges Litteraires," 1765, 12mo. 2. Tiansla- 
tion of Suetonius into French, with notes, 1770, 2 vots. 
8vo. 3. Translation of the Lnsiad of Camoens, with notes 
and a life of the author, 1776, 2 vols, 8vo. 4. '' Corre- 
spondence Litteraire addressee a Paul I." emperor of 
Russia, 1801, 4 vols. Svo. 5. " Commentaire de trage- 
dies de Racine," Paris, 7 vols. Svo, printed since his death. 
6. " Refutation de L'Esprit de Helvetius." He left many 
manuscripts both in prose and verse. 1 

HARPOCRATION (VALERIUS), an ancient rhetorician 
of Alexandria, who flourished about the year 360, has left 
us an excellent "Lexicon upon the ten Orators of Greece,'* 
for that is the title usually given to it, though Meursius 
will have it, that the author inscribed it only XE|EI$; and he 
is followed in this opinion by James Gronovius. Harpo- 
cration speaks in this work, with much seeming exactness, 
of magistrates, pleadings at the bar, places in Attica, names 
of men who had the chief management of affairs in the re- 
public, and of every thing, in short, which has been said to 
the glory of this people by their orators. Aldus first pub- 
lished this Lexicon in Greek at Venice, 1603, in folio, and 
many other learned men, as Meursius, Maussac, Valesius, 
have laboured upon it; James Gronovius published an edi- 
tion of it at Leyden, 1696, in 4to. 2 

HARPSFELD (JOHN), dean of Norwich, and one of 
the bitterest persecutors under the reign of queen Mary, 
was born in the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish- 
street, London, and educated at Winchester school, whence 
he was sent to New college, Oxford, of which he was ad- 
mitted fellow in 1534. Having completed his degrees in 
arts, and taken orders, he became chaplain to bishop Bon- 
ner, whose whole spirit he imbibed. In 1554 he was col- 
lated to the church of St. Martin Ludgate, which he re- 
signed on being presented to the living of Layndon in Es- 
sex in May 1558. He had other preferments, and was 
created doctor of divinity. A few months before the death 
of queen Mary, he was preferred to the deanery of Nor- 
wich; but was deprived of it in 1560, and committed to 
the Fleet prison He remained here about a year, and was 
then set at liberty on giving security for his peaceable be- 
haviour. He died in London in 1578. Among his pre- 

1 Diet. Hist, and Supplement, &o. 2 Fahr. Bibl. Graec. Saxii Onomast. 

158 H A R P S F E L D. 

ferments was that of archdeacon of London, given to him 
because he would act with more cruelty to the martyrs than 
his predecessor. He appears, indeed, in every respect, a 
suitable assistant to Bonner. In learning, however, he 
does not appear to have been inferior to any of his contem- 
poraries. His published works are, 1. " Concio ad cle- 
rum," Lond. 1553, 8vo. 2. " Homilies," 1554, 1555, ibid. 
Among Bonner's Homilies, nine were written by Harps- 
feld. 3. " Disputations and Epistles," in Fox's Acts and 
Monuments. 4. " Supputatio temporum a diluvio ad A.D. 
1559," Lond. 1560. 1 

HARPSFELD (NICHOLAS), brother to the preceding, 
was born in London, and educated at Winchester school, 
after which he studied civil law at New college, Oxford, of 
which he was admitted a fellow in 1536. In 1543 he took 
the degree of bachelor of laws, and the year following was 
chosen principal of White-hall, which stood on the site of 
Jesus college. In 1546 he was appointed regius professor 
of Greek. He was the first who read this lecture before it 
was fully established by Henry VIII. and Leland charac- 
terizes him as " Atticae linguae interpres facilis, disertus, 
aptus." He appears to have resigned this office in 1548. 
In 1550, Pits says, he went abroad for conscience sake ; 
but in 1553 we find him resigning his fellowship, taking 
the degree of LL. D. and on Jan. 15, 1554, admitted a 
civilian in London. In the same year he was made arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, prebendary of St. Paul's, and also 
admitted to the living of Layndon, which in 1558 here- 
signed to his brother. In 1558 he acted as prolocutor for 
the province of Canterbury in convocation, and after queen 
Elizabeth came to the throne, was, as well as his brother, 
one of the seven popish disputants ; but his zeal for popery 
deprived him of all his preferments. He appears to have 
been afterwards imprisoned, some say for twenty-three 
years. But it is proved that he was for some years at least 
jnder the mild custody of archbishop Parker, who afforded 

n every help in compiling his ecclesiastical history. He 
died in 1583. He wrote, 1. Dialogi sex contra summi 
pontificatus, monastics vitae, sanctorum sacrorum imagi- 
num, oppugnatores et pseudo-martyres," Antwerp, 1566, 
1 573, 4to This was published under the name of Alan Cope, 
being then in prison. The initials at the end, 

' Ath. Ox. vol. I.-Dodd's Ch. HistFox's Acts and Monument s.-Tanner, 

H A R P S F E L D. 159 

A. H. L. N. H. E. V. E. A. C. Pits interprets thus, Auc- 
tor hujus libri Nicolaus Harpsfeldus ; edidit vero eum 
Alanus Copus." 2. " Historia Anglicana ecclesiastica," 
Doway, 1622. The original MS. is in the Cotton library, 
but differs in some passages from the printed book. It is 
a learned and laborious performance, according to Wood, 
but much impartiality cannot be expected. 3. " Historia 
haeresis Wickleffianae," published with the former. 4. 
" Chronicon a diluvio Noe ad annum 1559," MS. in verse, 
and 5. " A Treatise concerning Marriage," occasioned by 
king Henry VIII. 's divorce, a MS. in the library of New 
college. Other manuscripts are mentioned in our autho- 
rities. 1 

HARRINGTON (JAMES), an eminent political writer, 
was born in January 1611, being the eldest son of sir Sap- 
cote Harrington, and Jane the daughter of sir William 
Samuel of Upton, in Northamptonshire, the place of his 
nativity. When he had made a progress in classical learn* 
ing, he was admitted in 1629 a gentleman-commoner of 
Trinity college, in Oxford, and placed under Mr. Chilling- 
worth, who had lately been elected fellow of that college ; 
from whom he might possibly acquire some portion of that 
spirit of reasoning and thinking for himself, which af- 
terwards shone forth so conspicuously in his writings. 
About three years after, his father died ; upon which he 
left the university, and commenced travelling, having pre- 
viously furnished himself with the knowledge of several 
foreign languages. His first step was into Holland, then 
the principal school of martial discipline ; and, what may 
be supposed to have affected him more sensibly, a country 
wonderfully flourishing, under the auspices of liberty, 
commerce, strength, and grandeur. Here it is probable 
that he began to make government the subject of his me- 
ditations ; for, he was often heard to say, that, " before he 
left England, he knew no more of anarchy, monarchy, aris- 
tocracy, democracy, oligarchy, or the like, than as hard 
words, whose signification he found in his dictionary." On 
coming into the Netherlands, he entered a. volunteer, and 
remained in that capacity some months, in lord Craven's 
regiment; during which time, being much at the Hague, 
he had the farther opportunity of accomplishing himself in 
two courts, those of the prince of Orange, and of the queen 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. new edit, DoM's Ch. HKt - Tanner and Pits. 


of Bohemia, daughter of our James I. who was then a fu- 
gitive in Holland. He was taken into great favour by this 
princess, and also by the prince elector, whom he attended 
to Copenhagen, when his highness paid a visit to the king 
of Denmark ; and, after his return from travelling, was 
entrusted by him with the affairs of the Palatinate, so far 
as they were transacted at the British court. 

He stayed, however, but a short time in Holland ; no 
temptations or offers could divert or restrain him from the 
resolution he had formed to pursue his travels, and there- 
fore, taking Flanders in his way, he set out on a tour 
through part of Germany, France, and Italy. While he 
was at Rome, the pope performed the ceremony of conse- 
crating wax-lights on Candlemas-day. When his holiness 
had sanctified these torches, they were distributed among 
the people, who fought for them very eagerly. Harring- 
ton was desirous to have one of them ; but, perceiving that 
it was not to be obtained without kissing the pope's toe, 
he declined to accept it on such a condition. His compa- 
nions were not so scrupulous, and when they came home 
spoke of his squeamishness to the king. The king told 
him, " he might have done it only as a piece of respect to 
a temporal prince ;" but Harrington replied, that " since 
he had the honour to kiss his majesty's hand, he thought it 
beneath him to kiss any other prince's foot." He is said 
to have preferred Venice to all other places in Italy, as he 
did its government to that of the whole world ; it being, in 
his opinion, immutable by any external or internal causes, 
and to finish only with mankind. Here he cultivated an 
acquaintance with all the men of letters, and furnished 
himself with the most valuable books in the Italian tongue, 
such especially as were written upon politics and govern- 

After having thus seen Italy, France, the Low Countries, 
Denmark, and some parts of Germany, he returned home 
to England, and in the beginning of the civil war, 1642, 
he took a decided part with the parliament, and endea- 
voured to get a seat in the house, but could not. His in, 
clmation to letters kept him from seeking public employ- 
ments, so that we hear no more of him till 1646 ; when 
attending out of curiosity the commissioners appointed by 
parliament to Charles I. from Newcastle nearer to London, 
he was by some of them named to wait on his majesty, as 
a person known to him before, and engaged to no party or 


faction. The king approved the proposal, and Harrington, 
entered on the station of a domestic; but would never 
presume to come into his presence, except in public, till 
he was particularly commanded by the king, and made one 
of the grooms of the bed-chamber in May 1647. He had 
the good fortune to please the king much : " His majesty 
loved his company," says Wood, " and, finding him to be 
an ingenious man, chose rather to converse with him than, 
with others of his chamber. They had often;" says he, 
" discourses concerning government; but, when they hap- 
pened to talk of a commonwealth, the king seemed not to 
endure it." Harrington conceived a high notion of the 
king, finding him to be a different person from what he 
had been represented, as to parts, morals, religion, &c. ; 
and therefore, after the king was removed out of the Isle 
of Wight to Hurst-castle, in Hampshire, was forcibly 
turned out of his service, because he vindicated some of 
his majesty's arguments against the parliament commis- 
sioners at Newport, and thought his concessions more satis- 
factory than they did. There is no ground to imagine 
that he saw the king any more till the day he was brought 
to the scaffold ; whither Harrington found means to ac- 
company him, and where, or a little before, he received a 
token of hifcmajesty's affection. The king's execution af* 
fected him extremely. He often said, ft nothing ever 
went nearer him ; and that his grief on that account was 
so great as to bring a disorder upon him." 

After the king's death, he was observed to keep much 
in his library, and more retired than usual, which his 
friends attributed to discontent and melancholy. But, to 
convince them that this was not the cause of his retire- 
ment, he produced a copy of his " Oceana ;" which " he 
had been writing," he said, '* not only because it was 
agreeable to the studies which he pursued, but because, if 
ever it should be the fate of England to be, like Italy of 
old, overrun by a barbarous people, or to have its govern- 
ment and records destroyed by some merciless conqueror, 
they might not be then left to their own invention in, 
framing a new government." This " Oceana" is a kind of 
political romance, in imitation of Plato's " Atlantic Story," 
where, by Oceana, Harrington means England ; exhibiting 
a plan of republican government, which he would have had 
erected here, in case these kingdoms had formed them- 
selves into a genuine commonwealth. This work, how* 



ever, pleased no party, and as it reflected severely upon 
Oliver's usurpation, met with many difficulties in the pub- 
lishing ; for, it being known to some of the courtiers that 
it was printing, they hunted it from one press to another, 
till at last they found it, and carried it to Whitehall. AH 
the solicitations he could make were not able to retrieve 
his papers, till he bethought himself of applying to lady 
Claypole, who was a good-natured woman, and Oliver's 
favourite daughter ; and who, upon his declaring that they 
contained nothing prejudicial to her father's government, 
got them restored to him. He printed it in 1656, and de- 
dicated it, as he promised lady Claypole, to her father ; 
who, it is said, perused it, but declared, agreeable to his 
principles of policy, that " the gentleman must not think 
to cheat him of his power and authority ; for that what he 
had won by the sword, he would not suffer himself to be 
scribbled out of." 

This work was no sooner published, than many under- 
took a refutation of it. This occasioned him to reply, and 
to explain his scheme, in several successive pieces, which 
may be easily seen in the collection of his works. In the mean 
time, he not only endeavoured to propagate his republican' 
notions by writing, but, for the more effectually advancing 
a cause, of which he was enthusiastically enamoured, he 
formed a society of gentlemen, agreeing with him in prin- 
ciples, who met nightly at Miles's coffee-house, in New 
Palace-yard, Westminster, and were called the Rota. 
Wood has given a very particular account of this associa- 
tion, or gang, as he calls them. " Their discourses about 
government," says he, " and of ordering a commonwealth, 
were the most ingenious and smart that ever were heard ; 
for the arguments in the parliament-house were but flat to 
those. This gang had a balloting-box, and balloted how 
things should be carried by way of essay , which not being 
used, or known in England before on this account, the 
room was every evening very full. The doctrine there in- 
culcated was very taking ; and the more, because as to 
human foresight there was no possibility of the king's re- 
turn. The greatest part of the parliament-men hated this 
rotation and balloting, as being against their power : eight 
or ten were for it, who proposed it to the house, and made 
it out to the members, that, except they embraced that 
sjrt of government, they must be ruined. The model of 
it was, that the third part of the senate or house should 


rote out by ballot every year, not capable of being elected 
again for three years to come ; so that every ninth year 
the senate would be wholly altered. No magistrate was to 
continue above three years, and all to be chosen by the 
ballot, than which nothing could be invented more fair and 
impartial, as it was then thought, though opposed by many 
for several reasons. This club of commonwealthsmen, 
which began about Michaelmas 1659, lasted till about Feb. 
21 following; at which time, the secluded members being 
restored by general Monk, all their models vanished*/' 

After the restoration, he lived more privately than he 
had done before, but still was looked upon as a dangerous 
person, who maintained and propagated principles which 
could never be reconciled to monarchical government. He 
employed himself now in reducing his politics into short 
and easy aphorisms methodically digested, and freely com- 
municated his papers to all who visited him. While he 
was putting the last hand to his system, he was, by an 
order from the king, seized December 28, 1661, and com- 
mitted to the Tower of London for treasonable designs and 
practices. He was charged by lord chancellor Hyde, at a 
conference of the lords and commons, with being con- 
cerned in a plot, of which twenty-one persons were the 
chief managers : " that they all met in Bow-street, Covent- 
garden, and in other places ; that they were of seven dif- 
ferent parties or interests, as three for the commonwealth, 
three for the long-parliament, three for the city, three for 
the purchasers, three for the disbanded army, three for the 
independents, and three for the fifth-monarchy men ; that 
their first consideration was how to agree on the choice of 
parliament-men against the ensuing session ; and that a 
special care ought to be had about the members for the 
city of London, as a precedent for the rest of the kingdom 
to follow ; whereupon they nominated the four members 
after chosen, and then sitting in parliament. Their next 
care was to frame a petition to the parliament for a preach- 
ing ministry j and liberty of conscience; then they were to di- 
vide and subdivide themselves into several councils and com- 
mittees, for the better carrying on their business by them- 
selves or their agents and accomplices all over the king- 

* For this ami many other particu- ten by Eminent Persons, &c." 1813, 

Jars respecting Mr. Harrington, Wood 3 vols. 8vo. There is in tlu-se MSS. a 

appears to be indebted to the Aubrey more minute account of Harrington's 

MSS> now published in " Letter* writ- insanity. 

M 2 

164 H A R R I N G T O N. 

dom. In these meetings Harrington was said to be often 
in the chair ;. that they had taken an oath of secrecy, and 
concerted measures for levying men and money." The 
chancellor added, that though he had certain information 
of the times and places of their meetings, and particularly 
those of Harrington and Wildman, they were nevertheless 
so fixed in their nefarious design, that none of those they 
had taken would confess any thing, not so much as that 
they had seen and spoken to one another at those times or 

But, notwithstanding these declarations of the chancellor, 
it is certain, that this plot was never proved, and was pro- 
bahly imaginary. It is at least easy to account upon poli- 
tical principles, for Harrington's confinement, and the se- 
vere usage he met with, when we consider not only his no- 
tions of government, which he every where enforced with 
the greatest zeal ; but also how obnoxious he made him- 
self to the powers then in being, by his treatment of the 
Stuart family. Nothing can be viler than the picture he 
has drawn of Mary queen of Scotland ; he has also painted 
her son James I. in the most odious colours, suggesting at 
the same time, that he was not born of the queen, but was 
a supposititious impostor, and of course had no right to 
the crown he inherited. His portrait of Charles I. is an 
abominable figure t " never was man," says he, " so reso- 
lute and obstinate in tyranny. He was one of the most 
consummate in the arts of tyranny that ever was; and it 
could be no other than God's hand, that arrested him in 
the height of his designs and greatness, and cut off him 
and his family." Such a character very ill accorded with 
what he had himself observed of that unhappy monarch, 
and with the grief he felt at his death ; but Harrington 
seems in the latter end of his life to have grown fanatic in 
politics, and his keeping within no bounds might make 
it the more expedient to put him under confinement. 
Prom the Tower lie was conveyed very privately to St. 
Nicholas's island opposite to Plymouth; and thence, upon 
petition, to Plymouth, some relations- obliging themselves 
in a bond ot 5000/. for his safe imprisonment. At this 
place he became acquainted with one Dr. Dunstan, who 
advised him to take a preparation of guiacum in coffee, as 
a certain cure for the scurvy, with whi<& he was then trou- 
bled. He drank of this liquor in great quantities, which 
had probably a very pernicious effect, for he soon grew 


delirious ; upon which a rumour prevailed at Plymouth, 
that he had taken some drink which would make any man 
mad in a month ; and other circumstances made his rela- 
tions suspect, that he had foul play shewn him, lest he 
should write any more " Oceanas." It was near a month 
before he was able to bear the journey to London, whither, 
as nothing appeared against him, he had leave from the 
king to go. Here he was put under the care of physicians, 
who could afford little help to the weakness of his body, 
and none at all to the disorders of his mind. He would dis- 
course of other things rationally enough ; but, when his 
own distemper was touched upon, he would fancy and 
utter strange things about the operation of his animal spi- 
rits, which transpired from him, he said, in the shape of 
birds, flies, bees, or the like. He talked so much of good 
and evil spirits, that he even terrified those about him ; 
and to those who objected to him that these chimeras were 
the fruits of a disordered imagination, he would reply, that 
11 he was like Democritus, who, for his admirable discove- 
ries in anatom}*, was reckoned distracted by his fellow- 
citizens." In this crazy condition he married the daughter 
of sir Marmaduke Dprrel, in Buckinghamshire, a lady to 
whom he was formerly suitor, and with whom he spent the 
remainder of his life. Towards his latter end, he was sub- 
ject to the gout, and enjoyed little ease ; but, after drooping 
and languishing for some time, he was at last seized with a 
palsy, and died at Westminster, September 11, 1677, and 
lies buried there in St. Margaret's church, on the south 
side of the altar, next the grave of sir Walter Raleigh. 

His writings were first collected, methodized, reviewed, 
and published, by Toland, 1700, in one volume, folio ; but 
there was another edition, by Dr. Birch, published in 1737, 
which Contains several articles omitted in Toland's, and 
there was a third edition in 1747. He made some attempts 
in the poetical way, and in 1658 published an English 
translation of two eclogues of Virgil, and two books of the 
4< JEneis," under the title of " An Essay upon two of Vir- 
gil's Eclogues, and two of his JEne\s 9 towards the transla- 
tion of the whole;" and, in 1659, was printed his transla- 
tion of the four following books " of the ^Eneid ;" but his 
poetry gained him no reputation. 1 

i Bio, Brit. Ath, Ox. Tol. JJ. 


HARRINGTON (JAMES), a young lawyer of great pro- 
mise, was born probably at Waltham Abbey, where his 
father resided, in 1664. He was educated at Westminster 
school, whence he was elected student of Christ church, 
Oxford, in 1683, and soon after was entered a member of 
the Inner Temple. In 1690 he proceeded M. A. and was 
admitted to the bar, where he acquired very extensive 
practice. Some months before his death, he removed to 
Lincoln's-inn, where that event happened Nov. 23, 1693, 
in his twenty-ninth year. His body was conveyed to Ox- 
ford, and, according to Wood, buried under the north wall 
of the north transept joining to the body of the cathedral of 
Christ church, but we find no memorial of him in Wood's 
account of the monumental inscriptions. His death, it is 
said, was much deplored by those that knew him, " be^ 
cause, 1. That he was a prodigy, considering his age, in 
his knowledge of the common law. 2. That he was a per- 
son of excellent parts ; and 3. That he was very honest in 
his dealing, and of a good and generous nature." His 
writings, enumerated by Wood, are principally cases and 
memorials respecting certain local disputes, the rights of 
visitations, &c. at Oxford. He contributed some Latin 
poems to the " Musae Anglicans," and wrote the preface 
to the first volume of Wood's " Athenae," and the intro- 
duction to the second. He also edited the works of Dr. 
George Stradling, to which he added a preface and life. 1 

HARRINGTON (Sir JOHN), an ingenious English poet, 
was the son of John Harrington, esq. who was imprisoned 
in the Tower, under queen Mary, for holding a correspond- 
ence with the lady Elizabeth, with whom he continued 
in great favour to the time of his death. He also was 
somewhat of a poet and a translator. Sir John was born at 
Kelston, near Bath, in Somersetshire, in 1561, and had 
queen Elizabeth for his godmother. He was instructed in 
classical learning at Eton-school, and from thence removed 
to Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. A. In his 
thirtieth year, 159J, he published a translation of Ariosto's 
" Orlando Furioso," by which he gained a considerable 
reputation, and for which he is now principally known. 
Warton says, that although executed without spirit or ac- 
curacy, unanimated and incorrect, it enriched our poetry- 
by a communication of new stores of fiction and imagina- 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. II. Nichols's Atterbury, vol. I, 


tion, both of the romantic and comic species, of gothic 
machinery and familiar manners. Mr. Harrington was 
knighted in the field by the earl of Essex, which gave 
much offence to the queen, who was sparing of such 
honours, and chose to confer them herself. In the reign 
of James, he was created knight of the Bath ; and, being 
a courtier, presented a MS. to prince Henry, levelled 
chiefly against the married bishops, which was intended 
only for the private use of his royal highness ; but, being 
published afterwards, created great clamour, and made 
several of the clergy say, that his conduct was of a piece 
with his doctrines; since he, together with Robert earl of 
Leicester, supported sir Walter Raleigh in his suit to 
queen Elizabeth for the manor of Banvvell, belonging to 
the bishopric of Bath and Wells ; on a presumption that 
the right rev. incumbent bad incurred a pr&munire, by 
marrying a second wife. Wood's account of it is this : 
" That sir John Harrington, being minded to obtain the 
favour of prince Henry, wrote a discourse for his private 
use, entitled * A brief View of the State of the Church 
of England, as it stood in queen Elizabeth's and king 
James's reign, to the year 1608.' This book is no more 
than a character and history of the bishops of those times, 
and was written to the said prince Henry, as an additional 
supply to the catalogue of bishops of Dr. Francis Godwin, 
upon occasion of that proverb, 

Henry the eighth pulled down monks and their cells, 
Henry the ninth shall pull down bishops and their bells. 

" In the said book the author Harrington doth, by imi- 
tating his godmother, queen Elizabeth, shew himself a 
great enemy to married bishops, especially to such as had 
been married twice ; and many things therein are said of 
them, that were by no means fit to be published, being 
written only for private use. But so it was, that the book 
coming into the hands of one John Chetwind, grandson by 
a daughter to the author, a person deeply principled in 
presbyterian tenets, did, when the press was open, print 
it at London in 1653 ; and no sooner was it published, and 
came into the hands of many, but it was exceeding cla- 
moured at by the loyal and orthodox clergy, condemning 
him that published it." 

Sir John died in 1612. His lady, Mary, daughter of 
sir George Rogers, survived him till 1634. In his epi- 



grams are several to his mother-in-law lady Rogers. These 
Epigrams" were the most popular of his works, although 
they cannot now be allowed much poetical merit. They 
were first published in 1618, and afterwards in 1625, under 
the title of " The most elegant and witty epigrams of sir 
John Harrington, knt. digested into four bookes," 8vo. 
The " NugEe Antique," a miscellaneous collection of his 
works, and antiquary collections and letters in prose and 
verse, was published some years ago, by the rev. IJertry 
Harrington of Bath, in whose family the papers were; of 
these a'second edition was published in 1792, 3 vols. 12mo, 
and a third with most valuable additions and improve- 
ments, in 1804, 2 vols. 8vo, by Thomas Park, F. S. A. with 
illustrative notes and memoirs of the author. 1 

HARRIOT (THOMAS), an eminent mathematician, was 
born at Oxford, or, as Anthony Wood expresses it, " turn-; 
bled out of his mother's womb in the lap of the Oxonian 
Muses," in 1560. Having been instructed in grammar- 
learning in that city, he became a commoner of St. Mary- 
hall, where he took the degree of B. A. in 1579. He had 
then so distinguished himself, by his uncommon skill in 
mathematics, as to be recommended soon after to sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh as a proper preceptor to him in that science. 
Accordingly, that noble knight became his first patron, 
took him into his family, and allowed him a handsome pen- 
sion. In 1585 he was sent over by sir Walter with his 
first colony to Virginia ; where, being settled, he was em- 
ployed in discovering and surveying that country, in ob- 
serving what commodities it produced, together with the 
manners and customs of its inhabitants. He published an 
account of it under this title, " A brief and true Report of 
the Newfoundland of Virginia;" which was reprinted in 
the third voyage of Hakluyt's " Voyages." Upon his re- 
turn to England, he was introduced by his patron to the 
acquaintance of Henry earl of Northumberland ; who, 
" finding him," says Wood, " to be a gentleman of an 
affable and peaceable nature, and well read in the obscure 
pan of learning," allowed him a yearly pension of 120/. 
About the same time, Robert Hues, well known by his 
' Treatise upon the Globes," and Walter Warner, who is 

' ' Ath. Ox. vol. Il.-Warton's Hist, of Poetry. Phillips's Tbeatrum, nc* 
77 ' ednon. Ctinsura LUerarja, vol. IV.~Hutchinsoi's Cumberland, 
vol. II. tllis's Specimens, &c. 


said to have communicated to the famous Harvey the first 
hint concerning the circulation of the blood, being both of 
them mathematicians, received pensions from him of less 
value, ^o that in 1606, when the earl was committed to 
the Tower for life, Harriot, Hues, and Warner, were his 
constant companions, and were usually called the earl of 
Northumberland's Magi. They had a table at the earl's 
charge, who did constantly converse with them, to divert 
the melancholy of his confinement; as did also sir Walter 
Raleigh, who was then in the Tower. Harriot lived for 
some time at Sion-college, and died in London, July 2, 
1621, of a cancer in his lip. He was universally esteemed 
on account of his learning. When he was but a young 
man, he was styled by Mr. Hakluyt "Juvenis in disciplinis 
mathematicis excellens;" and by Camden, " Mathemati- 
cus insignis." A MS. of his, entitled " Ephemeris Chryro- 
metrica," is preserved in Sion-college library ; and his 
" Artis Analytic* Praxis" was printed after his death, in 
a thin folio, and dedicated to Henry earl of Northumber- 
land. Des Cartes is said to have been obliged to this 
book for a great many improvements in algebra, which he 
published to the world as his own, a fact that has been 
amply proved, in the astronomical ephemeris for 17vS8, 
by Dr. Zach, astronomer to the duke of Saxe Gotha, from 
manuscripts which he found in 1784 at the seat of the earl 
of Egremont at Petworth, a descendant of the above-men- 
tioned earl of Northumberland. These papers also show 
that Mr. Harriot was an astronomer as well as an algebraist, 
As to his religion, Wood says, that, " notwithstanding 
his great skill in mathematics, he had strange thoughts of 
the Scripture, always undervalued the old story of the 
Creation of the World, and could never believe that trite 
position, * Ex nihilo nihil fit.' He made a Philosophical 
Theology, wherein he cast off the Old Testament, so that 
consequently the New would have uo foundation. He was 
a deist; and his doctrine he did impart to the earl, and to 
sir Walter Raleigh, when he was compiling the ' History 
of the World,' and would controvert the matter with emi- 
nent divines of those times: who, therefore, having no 
good opinion of him, did look on the manner of his death, 
as a judgment upon him for those matters, and for nullify, 
ing the Scripture." Wood borrowed all this from Aubrey, 
without mentioning his authority; and it has been answered, 
that Harriot assures us himself, that when he was with the 


first colony settled in Virginia, in every town where he 
came, " he explained to them the contents of the Bible, 
&c. And though I told them," says he, " the book ma- 
terially and of itself was not of such virtue as I thought 
they did conceive, but only the doctrine therein contained ; 
yet would many be glad to touch it, to embrace it, to kiss 
it, to hold it to their breasts and heads, and stroke over 
all their bodies with it, to shew their hungry desires of 
that knowledge which was spoken of." To which we may 
add, that, if Harriot was reputed a deist, it is by no 
means probable that Dr. Corbet, an orthodox divine* and 
successively bishop of Oxford and Norwich, sending a 
poem, dated December 9, 1618, to sir Thomas Aylesbury, 
when the comet appeared, should speak of 

" Deep Harriot's mine, 

In which there is no dross, but all refine." 

Nor is it likely that his noble executors, sir Thomas 
Aylesbury and Robert Sidney, viscount Lisle, would have 
suffered an inscription to be engraved upon his monument 
in St. Christopher's church, which might have been con* 
tradicted by all the town, if it had been false, and which, 
upon the supposition of his being an infidel, would have 
been ridiculous : 

" Qui omnes scientias calluit, & in omnibus excelluit : 

Mathematicis, Philosophicis, Theologicis, 

Veritatis indagator studiosissimus, 

Dei Triniunius cultor piissimus." l 

HARRIS (GEORGE), an English civilian, chancellor of 
the dioceses of Durham, Hereford, and Llandaff, and 
commissary of Essex, Herts, and Surrey, was the son of 
Dr. John Harris, bishop of Llandaff, who died in 1738. 
The time of his son's birth we have not been able to ascer- 
tain. He was, however, a member of Oriel college, Ox- 
ford, where he took his degree of bachelor of laws in May 
1745, and that of doctor in the same faculty in May 1750, 
in which last year he was admitted into the college of ad- 
vocates. Here he proved himself an eminent pleader, al- 
though not a masterly orator, and enriched himself by 
very extensive practice. He died at his house in Doctors' 
Commons, April 19, 1796, leaving his very extensive pro- 
perty mostly to charitable uses. Among the very muni- 

1 Biop. Brit. GSeig's Suppl. to Encycl. Britannica. Button's Dictionary. 
Lcttert l.y emioent persons, 1812, 3 vols. 8vo. 


ficent items in his will, were 40,000/. to St. George's hos- 
pital ; 20,000/. to Hetherington's charity for the blind ; 
15,000/. to the Westminster lying-in hospital, and 5000/. 
to the Hereford infirmary. He also was in his life-time a 
benefactor to the funds of the society of advocates. In 
1752 he published a pamphlet, entitled " Observations 
upon the English Language, in a letter to a friend," 8vo, 
relating to the common mistakes in spelling, pronunciation, 
and accent. This was anonymous ; but he afterwards pub- 
lished with his name, " D. Justiniani Institutionum, Libri 
quatuor; and a translation of them into English, with 
notes," 1756, 4to, a work which did him great credit, and 
was thought peculiarly adapted for the improvement of 
young law students. A second edition appeared in 176 1. 1 

HARRIS (JAMES), esq. an English gentleman of very 
uncommon parts and learning, was the eldest son of James 
Harris, esq. of the Close of Salisbury, by his second wife 
the lady Elizabeth Ashley, who was third daughter of An- 
thony earl of Shaftesbury, and sister to the celebrated 
author of the Characteristics, as well as to the Hon. Mau- 
rice Ashley Cooper, the elegant translator of Xenophon's 
Cyropaedia. He was born July 20, 1709. The early part 
of his education was received at Salisbury, under the rev. 
Mr. Hele, master of the grammar-school, in the Close, 
who was long known and respected in the West of England 
as an instructor of youth. From Mr. Hele's school, at the 
age of sixteen, he was removed to Oxford, where he passed 
the usual number of years as a gentleman commoner of 
Wadham college. His father, as soon as he had finished 
his academical studies, entered him at Lincoln's-Inn, not 
intending him for the bar, but, as was then a common 
practice, meaning to make the study of the law a part of 
bis education. 

When he had attained his twenty-fourth year, his father 
died. This event, by rendering him independent in for- 
tune, and freeing him from ail controul, enabled him to 
exchange the study of the law for other pursuits that ac- 
corded better with his inclination. The strong and de- 
cided bent of his mind had always been towards the Greek 
and Latin classics. These he preferred to every other sort 
of reading; and to his favourite authors he now applied 

1 Gent. Ma. LXVI. Coot*'* Catalogue of Civilians. Monthly and Critical 

17 H A R R I S. 

himself with avidity, retiring from London to the house in 
which his family had very long resided in the Clo*e of 
Salisbury, for the sake of enjoying without interruption 
his own mode of living. 

His application during fourteen or fifteen years to the 
best writers of antiquity continued to be almost unremit- 
ting, and his industry was such as is not often exceeded. 
He rose always very early, frequently at four or five o'clock 
in the morning, especially during the winter, and by these 
means he was enabled to mix occasionally in the society of 
Salisbury and its neighbourhood, without too great a sacri- 
fice of his main object, the acquisition of ancient literature. 
But it was not until many years after his retirement from 
London, that he began to read Aristotle and his commen-? 
tators, or to inquire, so deeply as he afterwards did, into 
the Greek philosophy. He had imbibed a prejudice, very 
common at that time even among scholars, that Aristotle 
was an obscure and unprofitable author, whose philosophy 
had been deservedly superseded by that of Mr. Locke, a 
notion which his own writings have since contributed to 
correct, with no small evidence and authority. In the 
midst, however, of his literary labours he was not inattentive 
to the public good, but acted regularly and assiduously as 
a magistrate for the county of Wilts; giving,. in that capa- 
city, occasional proofs of a manly spirit and firmness, 
without which the mere formal discharge of magisterial 
duty is often useless and inefficient. 

The first fruit which appeared to the world of so many 
years spent in the pursuit of knowledge, was a volume 
published in 1744, containing "Three Treatises. The first 
concerning Art. The second concerning Music, Painting, 
and Poetry. The third concerning Happiness." These 
treatises, in addition to their merit as original compositions, 
are illustrated by a variety of learned notes and observa- 
tions, elucidating many difficult passages of ancient writers, 
the study and examination of whom it was his earnest wish 
to promote and to facilitate. Lord Monboddo, speaking 
>fr the dialogue upon Art, praises it, as containing " the 
best specimen of the dividing, or diaeretic manner, as the 
ancients called it, that is to be found in any modern book 
with which he is acquainted." 

In July 1745 he was married to miss Elizabeth Clarke, 

aughter and eventually heiress of John Clarke, esq of 

Sandford, near Bridgewater, in the county of Somerset, 

HARRIS. 173 

Five children were the issue of this marriage, of whom two 
daughters, and a son, the present lord Malmsbury, sur-> 
vived their father. This change in his state of life by no 
means withdrew his attention from those studies in which 
he had been used to take so great delight, and which he 
had cultivated with such advantage and reputation ; for in 
1751 he published another work, entitled " Hermes, or a 
philosophical inquiry concerning Universal Grammar," 8vo. 
Of this work, Dr. Lowth, the late bishop of London, says, 
" Those who would enter deeply into the subject (of uni- 
versal grammar) will find it fully and accurately handled, 
with the greatest acuteness of investigation, perspicuity of 
explication, and elegance of method, in a treatise entitled 
Hermes, by James Harris, esq. the most beautiful exam- 
ple of analysis that has been exhibited since the days of 
Aristotle." What first led Mr. Harris to a deep and ac- 
curate consideration of the principles of universal grammar, 
was a book which he held in high estimation, and has fre- 
quently quoted in his Hermes, the " Minerva" of Sanciius. 
To that writer he confessed himself indebted for abund- 
ance of, valuable information, of which it appears that he 
knew well how to profit, and to push his researches on the 
subject of grammar to a much greater length, by the help 
of his various and extensive erudition. Mr. Harris's sys- 
tem in this work still maintains its ground in the estima- 
tion of most men of taste, notwithstanding the coarse at- 
tack made on it by Home Tooke. 

. From the period of his marriage until 176-1, he conti- 
nued to live entirely at Salisbury, except in the summer, 
when he sometimes retired to his house at Darnford, near 
that city. It was there that he found himself most free 
from the interruption of business, and of company, and at 
leisure to compose the chief part of those works which were 
the result of his study at other seasons. His time was di- 
vided between the care of his family, in. which he placed 
his chief happiness, his literary pursuits, and the society 
of bis friends and neighbours, with whom he kept up a 
constant and cheerful intercourse. The superior taste and 
skill which he possessed in music, and his extreme fond- 
ness for hearing it, led him to attend to its cultivation in. 
his native place with uncommon pains and success; in- 
Somuch, that under his auspices, not only the annual mu- 
sical festival in Salisbury flourished beyond most institu- 
tions of the kind, but even the-ordinary subscription-con- 

174 H A R R I S. 

certs were carried on, by his assistance and directions, 
with a spirit and effect seldom equalled out of the metro- 
polis. Many of the beautiful selections made from the best 
Italian and German composers for these festivals and con- 
certs, and adapted by him, sometimes to words selected 
from Scripture, or from Milton's " Paradise Lost," some- 
times to compositions of his own, have survived the occa- 
sions on which they were first produced, and are still in 
great estimation. Two volumes of these selections have 
been lately published by Mr. Corfe, organist of Salisbury 
cathedral; the rest remain in manuscript in possession of 
lord Malmsbury. 

In 1761,. by the interest of his near relation, the late 
Edward Hooper, esq. of Hum court in Hampshire, he was 
chosen one of the representatives in parliament for the 
borough of Christ-church, which seat he retained to the 
day of his death. The year following he accepted the 
office of one of the lords of the admiralty, from whence he 
was promoted in 1763 to be a lord of the treasury. He 
remained in that situation until the ministry with which he 
was connected went out of office in 1 765 ; and after that 
time he did not hold any employment until 1774, when he 
became secretary and comptroller to the queen. This 
appointment was always valued by him exceedingly ; not 
only by reason of the handsome and flattering manner in 
which it was conferred upon him by her majesty, but also 
on account of the frequent occasions it afforded him of ex- 
periencing her majesty's gracious kindness and condescen- 
sion, of which he had a very high sense, and which were 
continued to him, without interruption, to the end of his 
life ; for in her service he died. 

Although assiduous in the discharge of his parliamentary 
duty, and occasionally taking a share in debates, he never 
contracted any violent spirit of party. He abhorred faction 
of every kind ; nor did he ever relinquish, for public busi- 
ness, those still more- interesting pursuits which had made 
the delight and occupation of his earlier years. If they 
were somewhat intermitted during the sitting of parliament, 
he renewed them with increased relish and satisfaction on 
his return into the country. In 1775 he published his 

Philosophical Arrangements," a part only of a larger 
work that he had meditated, but did not finish, upon the 
peripatetic logic. So far as relates to the Arrangement'* 
ot ideas it u complete; but it has other objects also ia 

HARRIS. 175 

view. It combats with great force and ability, the athe- 
istical doctrines of chance and materialism, doctrines which 
we have seen revived in France, under the specious garb 
of modern philosophy, and which issuing thence, over- 
spread a great part of Europe ; destroying the happiness 
of mankind, by subverting, in every part of their progress, 
the foundations of morality and religion. 

The last of Mr. Harris's productions was printed in 1780, 
by the name of " Philological Inquiries," but not pub- 
lished sooner than 1781. It is a more popular work than any 
of his former ones ; and contains rather a summary of the 
conclusions to which the philosophy of the ancients had 
conducted them in their critical inquiries, than a regular 
and perfect system. The principles on which those con- 
clusions depend are therefore omitted, as being of a more 
abstruse nature than was agreeable to his design, which 
was to teach by illustration and example, not by strict 
demonstration. " Indeed this publication," says his bio- 
grapher, " is not only a retrospective view of those studies 
which exercised his mind in the full vigour of his life, but 
likewise a monument of his affection towards many of his 
intimate friends. I cannot, therefore, but consider it as a 
pleasing proof of a mind retaining, at an advanced age, a 
considerable degree of its former energy and activity, to- 
gether with what is still more rarely to be found, an un- 
diminished portion of its candour and benevolence." 

Before this last volume was entirely concluded, his 
health began to be very much impaired. He never en- 
joyed a robust constitution ; but for some time, towards 
the end of his life, the infirmities under which he laboured 
had gradually increased. His family at length became 
apprehensive of a decline, symptoms of which were very 
apparent, and by none more clearly perceived than by 
himself. This was evident from a variety of little circum- 
stances, but by no means from any impatience or fretful- 
ness, nor yet from any dejection of spirits, such as are 
frequently incident to extreme weakness of body, espe- 
cially when it proves to be the forerunner of approaching 
dissolution. On the contrary, the same equable and placid 
temper which had distinguished him throughout his whole 
life, the same tender and affectionate attention to his sur- 
rounding family, which he had unceasingly manifested 
while in health, continued, without the smallest change 
or abatement, to the very last; displaying a mind tho- 

176 KAURIS. 

roughly at peace with itself, and able without disturbance 
or dismay to contemplate the awful prospect of futurity. 
After his strength had been quite exhausted by illness, he 
expired calmly on the 22d of December, 1780, in the 
$eventy-second year of his age. His remains were depo- 
sited in the north aile of the cathedral church of Salis- 
bury, near those of his ancestors, and a monument was- 
soon after erected to his memory. 

In 1801 his son, lord Malmsbury, published a magni- 
ficent edition of the works before mentioned in two volumes 
quarto, with two fine portraits and other plates. Prefixed 
is an affectionate biographical sketch, from which the pre- 
sent article has been taken. This is concluded by the 
noble author with the following general view of Mr. Har- 
ris's character, which, from every information, we have 
reason to think is just and impartial. 

" The distinction by which he was most generally known, 
and by which he is likely to survive to posterity, is that of 
a Man of Learning. His profound knowledge of Greek, 
which he applied more successfully, perhaps, than any 
modern writer has done, to the study and explanation of 
ancient philosophy, arose from an early and intimate ac- 
quaintance with the excellent poets and historians in that 
language. They, and the best writers in the Augustan 
age, were his constant and never-failing recreation. By 
his familiarity with them, he was enabled to enliven and to 
illustrate his deeper and more abstruse speculations, as 
every page almost (of his works) will abundantly testify. 
But his attainments were not confined to ancient philo- 
sophy and classical learning. He possessed likewise a ge- 
neral knowledge of modern history, with a very distin- 
guishing taste in the line arts, in one of which, as before 
observed, he was an eminent, proficient. His singular in- 
dustry empowered him to make these various acquisitions, 
without neglecting any of the duties which he owed to his 
family, his friends, or his country. I am in possession of 
such proofs, besides those already given to the public, of 
my father's laborious study and reflection, as I apprehend, 
are very rarely to be met with. Not only was he accus- 
tomed, through a long series of years, to make copious ex- 

cts from the different books which he read, and to write 
critical remarks and conjectures on many of the passages 
extracted, but he was also in the habit of regularly cam- 
muting to writing such reBections as arose out of his study, 

HARRIS. 177 

which evince a mind carefully disciplined, and anxiously 
bent on the attainment of self-knowledge and self-govern- 
ment. . And yet, though habituated to deep thinking and 
laborious reading, he was generally cheerful even to play- 
fulness. There was no pedantry in his manners or conver- 
sation, nor was he ever seen either to display his learning 
with ostentation, or to treat with slight or superciliousness 
those less informed than himself. He rather sought to 
make them appear partakers of what he knew, than to mor- 
tify tnern by a parade of his own superiority. Nor had he 
any of that miserable fastidiousness about him which too 
often disgraces men of learning, and prevents their being 
amused or interested, at least their choosing to appear so, 
by common performances and common events. 

" It was with him a maxim, that the most difficult, and 
infinitely the preferable, sort of criticism, both in litera- 
ture and the arts, was that which consists in finding out 
beauties rather than defects ; and although he certainly 
wanted not judgment to distinguish and to prefer superior 
excellence of any kind, he was too reasonable to expect id 
should very often occur, and too wise to allow himself to 
be disgusted at common weakness or imperfection. He 
thought, indeed, that the very attempt to please, however 
it might fall short of its aim, deserved some return of 
thanks, some degree of approbation ; and that to endea- 
vour at being pleased by such efforts, was due to justice, 
to good-nature, and to good sense. 

" Far at the same time from that presumptuous conceit 
which is solicitous about mending others, and that morose- 
iiess which feeds its own pride by dealing in general cen- 
sure, he cultivated to the utmost that great moral wisdom, 
by which we are made humane, gentle, and forgiving ; 
thankful for the blessings of life, acquiescent in the afflic- 
tions we endure, and submissive to all the dispensations of 
Providence. He detested the gloom of superstition, and 
the persecuting spirit by which it is so often accompanied ; 
but he abhorred still more the baneful and destructive sys- 
tem of modern philosophy ; and from his early solicitude 
to inspire me with a hatred of it, it would almost seem that 
he foresaw its alarming approach and fatal progress. 

" JVIy father's affection to every part of his family was 
exemplary and uniform. As a husband, a parent, a master, 
he was ever kind and indulgent ; and it deserves to be 
mentioned to his honour, that he thought it no interrup- 


173 H A R R I S. 

tion of his graver occupations, himself to instruct his 
daughters, by exercising them daily both in reading and 
composition, and writing essays for their improvement, 
during many of their younger years. No man was a better 
judge of what belonged to female education, and the ele- 
gant accomplishments of the sex, or more disposed to set 
a high value upon them. But he had infinitely more at 
heart, that his children should be early habituated to the 
practice of religion and morality, and deeply impressed 
with their true principles. To promote this desirable 
end, he was assiduous both by instruction and example ; 
being himself a constant attendant upon public worship, 
and enforcing that great duty upon every part of his fa- 
mily. The deep sense of moral and religious obligation 
which was habitual to him, and those benevolent feelings 
which were so great a happiness to his family and friends, 
had the same powerful influence over his public as his 
private life. He had an ardent zeal for the prosperity of 
his country, whose real interests he well understood ; and 
in his parliamentary conduct he proved himself a warm 
friend to the genuine principles of religious and civil 
liberty, as well as a firm supporter of every branch of our 
admirable constitution." 1 

HARRIS (.JOHN), the first compiler of a " Dictionary 
of Arts and Sciences 1 ' in this country, was born about 
1667, and received his education at St. John's college, in 
the university of Cambridge, where he took the degree of 
B. A. in 1687, and that of master in 1691. Having taken 
orders in the church, he obtained considerable preferments. 
He was first instituted into the rectory of Barming, which 
he resigned for St. Mildred, Bread-street, London ; he 
had also the perpetual curacy of Stroud, near Rochester, 
in Kent, and he was prebendary of Rochester cathedral. 
He was a fellow, secretary, and vice-president to the royal 
society. In 1698 he preached the course of Boyle's lec- 
tures, which was published (see Collection of Boyle's Lec- 
tures, Feb. 1739, vol. I. p. 356425) ; and in the next 
year he took the degree of D. D. Dr. Harris also pub- 
lished several single sermons, viz. a sermon on the Fast, 
1701, with another on the Fast, 1703, 4to; a sermon entitled 
< The Modest Christian's Duty as to indifferent things in 
the worship of. God," 1705, 4to ; another on "The law- 

' Life as above. 

HARRIS. 179 

fulness and use of Public Fasting," 1706, 4to ; " The 
evil and mischief of a Fiery Spirit," a sermon published in 
1710, 4to ; another on the Rebellion in 1715, 8vo; and a 
sermon on the Accession, 1715, 4-to. He also published a 
"Collection of Voyages and Travels, with a number of 
engravings," afterwards improved and republished by Dr. 
Campbell ; a " Treatise on the Theory of the Earth," in 
1697 ; a " Treatise on Algebra," in 1702 ; a " Translation 
of Pardie's Geometry into English," 2d edit. 1702. At 
this time it appears that Dr. Harris " lived and taught ma- 
thematics at his house in Amen-Corner." He published 
also, " Astronomical Dialogues," the third edition of which 
appeared in 1795; but the work for which he was most 
eminently distinguished, and which entitles him to ho- 
nourable notice, was his " Lexicon Technicum," or " An 
Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences," in 2 vols. fol. 
published in 1708; from which originated all the other 
dictionaries of science and cyclopaedias that have since ap- 
peared. He was followed, at a considerable interval of 
time, in this department of literature, by Mr. Ephrairn 
Chambers, whose Cyclopedia, with all the improvements 
it has received, has long maintained distinguished reputa- 
tion. We are concerned to be obliged to add, that though 
Dr. Harris was a man of unquestionable abilities and at- 
tainments, and of great literary application, he was charge- 
able with culpable imprudence in his conduct, and not- 
withstanding the preferments he enjoyed, he was generally 
in distress. He died Sept. 7, 1719, leaving unfinished the 
66 History of Kent," which was published in folio soon after 
his death, and which, though it had engaged his attention, 
more or less, for eight years, is extremely inaccurate. 
Mr. Gough says (British Topography, vol. I. p. 445), " Dr t 
Harris died an absolute pauper at Norton-court, and was 
buried in Norton church, at the expence of John God- 
frey, esq. who had been his very good friend and bene- 
factor." 1 

HARRIS (ROBERT), president of Trinity-college, Ox- 
ford, was born at Broad Campden, in Gloucestershire, in 
1578, and sent for education to the free-school of Chip* 
ping-Campden, where owing to irregular conduct of the 
masters and their frequent changes, he appears to have 

Rees's Cyclopaedia. Gent. Mag. LXXXIV.Cole's MS Athena 
Mus. Gouge's Topography, Nichols's Bowyer, 

180 H A R R I S. 

profited little. From thence he was removed to the city 
of Worcester, and lastly to Magdalen-hall, Oxford, which 
was preferred from his relationship to Mr. Robert Lyster, 
then principal, a man somewhat popishly inclined. Here, 
however, he had a tutor of a different stamp, a reputed 
puritan, under whom he studied with great assiduity. Al- 
though his parents designed him for the law, as soon as he 
took his bachelor's degree, he determined to make trial of 
his talents for the pulpit, and went to Chipping-Campden, 
where he preached a sermon which gave satisfaction. 
He afterwards officiated for a clergyman in Oxfordshire, 
and in both cases without being ordained. At length he 
was examined by bishop Barlow, who found him a very 
accomplished Greek, and Latin scholar, and he had the 
living of Hanweli given him, near Ban bury, in Oxford- 
shire. During his residence here he was often invited to 
London, and preached at St. Paul's cross, also before the 
parliament, and on other public occasions. He had also 
considerable offers of preferment in* London, but preserved 
his attachment to Hanweli, where he was extremely useful 
in confirming the people's minds, then much unsettled, in 
the reformed religion, as well as in attachment to the 
church of England, although he afterwards concurred with 
those who overthrew it so far as to accept preferment 
under them. On the commencement of the civil war, 
tjie tranquillity of his part of the country was much dis- 
turbed by the march of armies, and himself obliged at last 
to repair to London, after his premises were destroyed by 
the soldiery. On his arrival in London, he became a 
member of the assembly, but appears to have taken no 
active part in their proceedings. .or some time, Han- 
\vell having now been taken from him, he officiated at the 
parish-church of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate-street, until the 
rilling powers ordered him to Oxford, as one of the re- 
forming visitors. Here during the visitation of the earl of 
Pembroke, the chancellor of the university, he was ad- 
mitted ; D. D. and president of Trinity-college in April 
1,648, in the room of Dr. Hannibal Potter, who was ejected 
by the visitors. This situation he retained until his death, 
Uec. 11, 1658,. in his eightieth year. He was buried in^ 
Trinity-college chapel, with an inscription from the ele-" 
gant pen of Dr. Bathurst, one of his successors, and con- 
taming praises of his conduct as a president more than suf- 
ficient to answer the charges brought against him by others. 

HARRIS. 181 

The only words Dr. Bathurst is said to have struck out are 
these in Italics, " per decennium hujus collegii Prseses 
sternum cdebrandus" nor was this alteration made in the 
epitaph itself, but in Wood's MS. of the " Hist, et Anti- 
quitates Univ. Oxon." The only fault of which Dr. Harris 
can be accused, and which was very common with other 
heads of houses put in by the parliamentary visitors, was 
taking exorbitant fines for renewals of college leases, by 
which they almost sold out the whole interest of >the col- 
lege in such estates. On the other hand he appears to have 
made some liberal grants of money to the posterity of the 
founder, sir Thomas Pope. " One is surprized," says 
Warton, " at those donations, under the government of 
Dr. Robert Harris, Cromwell's presbytenan president. 
But Harris was a man of candour, and I believe a majority 
of the old loyal fellows still remained." Durham, the au- 
thor of Harris's life, gives him the character of " a man of 
admirable prudence, profound judgment, eminent gifts 
and graces, and furnished with all qualifications which 
might render him a complete man, a wise governor, a 
profitable preacher, and a good Christian." He appears 
to have very little relished some of the innovations of his 
time, particularly that easy and indiscriminate admission 
into the pulpits, which filled them with illiterate enthusiasts 
of every description. His works, consisting of sermons 
and pious treatises, were collected in 1 vol. fol. published 
in 1654. 1 

HARRIS, or HARRIES (WALTER), a learned English 
physician, the son of a tradesman at Gloucester, was born 
there about 164-7, and educated at Winchester school. In 
1666 he was admitted perpetual fellow of New-college; 
Oxford, without passing through the year's probation, in 
consequence of his being of the founder's kin. Having, 
however, embraced the Roman catholic religion, he re- 
signed his fellowship in 1673, and went to France, where, 
either at Doway or Paris, he took his doctor's degree. In 
1676 he returned to London, and began practice chiefly 
among the Roman catholics ; but when in consequence of 
Oates's plot, in 1678, all o.f that persuasion were ordered 
to leave the metropolis, he renounced the errors of popery, 
and wrote in 1679 a pamphlet entitled. "A Farewell to 

1 Ath. O?f. vol. II. Wood's Annals and Colleges and Halls. Wood's Life, 
1772, 8vo, p. 230. Harris's Life, by Durham, 1660, 12mo. Warton's Life of, 
Bathurst, p. 146, and of sir Thomas Pope, p. 446. 

182 H A R R I S. 

Popery," Lond. 4to, On the revolution, he was appointed 
physician to king William III. at the recommendation of 
the celebrated Tillotson. Of his attendance on the king, 
he himself informs us of this circumstance, that being in 
his majesty's chamber, he took the liberty, in the presence 
of the lords in waiting, to find fault with the custom of 
binding every morning the king's feet, which were very 
much swelled. He said that by this means the humours 
falling into the feet would be driven back into the viscera. 
Another anecdote he gives of himself, which perhaps would 
have come with a better grace from any one else, is, that 
Dr. Goodall, president of the college of physicians, told 
him one day that he envied him (Dr. Harris) more than he 
envied any body else, because he was always easy in his 
mind, and free from anxious cares. He appears to have 
had very considerable practice, and was a fellow of the 
college, and censor in 1689. The time of his death we 
have not been able to discover, but he was alive in 1725, 
when he published his " Dissertationes Medicae et Chirur- 
gicae, habitae in amphitheatre collegii regalis," in the title- 
page to which he styles himself " Praeses natus, et profes- 
sor Chirurgiae." His other publications were, 1. " Phar- 
macologia anti-empirica," Lond. 1683, 8vo. 2. " De 
morbis acutis infantum," 1689, 8vo, often reprinted, and 
translated into English by Cockburn, in 1693, and by 
IMartyn in 1742, and into French by Devaux. In his 
<l Dissertationes medicae" are some valuable papers on va- 
rious medical topics, and he is a strong advocate for inocu- 
lation for the small-pox. 1 

HARRIS (WILLIAM), a biographical compiler, was the 
son of a tradesman at Salisbury, who probably was a dis- 
senter. He was born in that city in 1720, and received 
his education at an academy kept at Taunton by messrs. 
Grove and Amory, men of learning and note, as dis- 
senting teachers. An early love of books, and a thirst for 
knowledge, rendered application easy and profitable ; and 
he was thought qualified to preach before he was nineteen 
years of age. He first officiated to a congregation at St. 
Loo, in Cornwall, and was afterwards invited to another in 
the city of Wells, where he was ordained in 1741. With- 
in a few years, his marriage to a Miss Bovet of Honiton, 

f h- A | h f* X< - To1 ' I v*""~" Diss r tationes Medic," in which are som particulars 
of bis life, written by himself. 

HARRIS. 183 

occasioned his removal to that town ; and his ministerial 
labours for the rest of his life, were confined to a very 
small congregation at Luppit, in the neighbourhood. To 
what denomination of dissenters he belonged we are not 
told. The strain of his discourses is said to have been 
plain and practical, but none of them have been published, 
and he appears to have soon courted fame in a different 

His political, if not his religious creed, led him to study 
the history of the seventeenth century, which in his time 
had received few of the lights that have since been thrown 
upon it ; and what he read, he read with the eager eye of 
a nonconformist, desirous to rescue his brethren from ob- 
loquy, and afford them a larger share in the merit of per- 
petuating the liberties of this kingdom. With this view, 
he resolved to become the biographer of the English branch 
of the Stuart family, and of Cromwell, and to assign to 
each their agency in the production of those great events 
in the seventeenth century, the rebellion, the restoration, 
and the revolution. 

His preliminary attempt was on a singular subject, the 
" Life of Hugh Peters," which, as he published it with- 
out his name, has escaped the notice of the collectors of 
his works, but is prefixed to the late edition of his " Lives" 
as the first in the order of time, and essentially connected 
with one of the subjects of his future inquiries. In this 
life he professed to follow " the manner of Bayle," and it 
might have been thought that its aukward appearance in 
print would have shown Dr. Harris that his choice was in- 
judicious ; but, for whatever reason, he followed the same 
in his subsequent works. The Life of Peters was published 
in 1751, and in 1753 appeared his Life of James I.; in 
1753, that of Charles I.; in 1761, that of Cromwell ; and 
in 1765, that of Charles II. ; this last in 2 vols. 8vo. It 
was his design to have completed this series with a Life of 
James II., but he was interrupted by an illness which ter- 
minated fatally in February 1770, in the fiftieth year of 
his age. His degree of D. D. was procured for him from 
the university or Glasgow, in 1765, by his friend Mr. 
Thomas Holiis, who had assisted him in his various un- 
dertakings, by many curious and interesting communi- 
cations, and the use of scarce books and pamphlets. Dr. 
Birch and other gentlemen in London seem also to have 
contributed liberally to his stock of historical materials. 

18* HARRIS. 

It is indeed as a collection of such, that these Lives have 
been principally valued, for Dr. Harris cannot be ranked 
among elegant writers, nor can it be gravely asserted that 
he is always impartial. His reasonings are strongly tinged 
with his early prejudices, but his facts are in general nar- 
rated with fidelity, and the evidence on both sides is given' 
without mutilation. 1 

HARRISON (JOHN), a most accurate mechanic, the 
celebrated inventor of the famous time-keeper for ascer- 
taining the longitude at sea, and also of the compound or 
gridiron-pendulum ; was born at Foulby, near Pontefract 
in Yorkshire, in 1693. His father was a carpenter, in 
which profession the son assisted ; occasionally also, ac- 
cording to the miscellaneous practice of country artists, 
surveying land, and repairing clocks and watches ; and 
young Harrison always was, from his early childhood, 
greatly attached to any machinery moving by wheels. In 
1700 he removed with his father to Barrow, in Lincoln- 
shire ; where, though his opportunities of acquiring know- 
ledge were very few, he eagerly improved every incident 
from which he might collect information ; frequently em- 
ploying all or great part of his nights in writing or drawing : 
and he always acknowledged his obligations to a clergy- 
man who came every Sunday to officiate in the neighbour- 
hood, who lent him a MS copy of professor Sanderson's 
lectures ; which he carefully and neatly transcribed, with 
all the diagrams. His native genius exerted itself superior 
to these solitary disadvantages; for, in 1726, he had con- 
structed two clocks, mostly of wood, in which he applied 
the escapement and compound pendulum of his own in- 
vention : these surpassed every thing then made, scarcely 
erring a second in a month. In 1728 he came up to Lon- 
don with the drawings of a machine for determining the 
longitude at sea, in expectation of being enabled to exe- 
cute one by the board of longitude. Upon application to 
Dr. Halley, the astronomer royal, he referred him to Mr. 
George Graham, who advised him to make his machine 
before applying to that board. He accordingly returned 
home to perform his task; and in 1735 came to London, 
again with his first machine, with which he was sent to 
Lisbon the next year to make trial of it. In this short 
voyage he corrected the dead reckoning about a degree 

1 Life prefixed to the edition of his Works, 1814, 5 vojs. 8vo,, 


and a half; a success which procured him both public and 
private encouragement. About 17 '69 he completed his 
second machine, of a construction much more simple than 
the former, and which answered much better : this, though 
not sent to sea, recommended Mr. Harrison yet stronger 
to the patronage of his friends and the public. His third 
machine, which he produced in 1749, was still less com- 
plicated than the second, and more accurate, as erring 
only 3 or 4 seconds in a week. This he conceived to be 
the ne plus ultra of his attempts ; but, by endeavouring to 
improve pocket-watches, he found the principles he ap- 
plied to surpass his expectations so much, as to encou- 
rage him to make his fourth time-keeper, which is in the 
form of a pocket-watch, about six inches diameter. With 
this time- keeper his son made two voyages, the one to 
Jamaica, and the other to Barbadoes ; in which experi- 
ments it corrected the longitude within the nearest limits 
required by the act of the 12th of queen Anne; and the 
inventor had, therefore, at different times, more than the 
proposed reward, receiving from the board of longitude at 
different times almost 24,000/. besides a few hundreds from 
the East India company, &c. These four machines were 
given up to the board of longitude. The three former were 
not of any use, as all the advantages gained by making 
them, were comprehended in the last : being worthy how- 
ever of preservation, as mechanical curiosities, they are 
deposited in the royal observatory at Greenwich. The 
fourth machine, emphatically distinguished by the name of 
The Time-keeper, was copied by the ingenious Mr. Kendal ; 
and that duplicate, during a three years circumnavigation 
of the globe in the southern hemisphere by captain Cook, 
answered as well as the original. 

The latter part of Mr. Harrison's life was employed in 
making a fifth improved time-keeper, o-n the same prin- 
ciples with the preceding one ; which, after a ten weeks 
trial, in 1772, at the king's private observatory at Rich- 
mond, erred only 4| seconds. Within a few years of his 
death, his constitution visibly declined ; and he had fre- 
quent fits of the gout, a disorder that never attacked him 
before his 77th year. His constitution at last yielding to 
the infirmities of old age, he died at his house in Red Lion 
square, March 24, 1776, at eighty-three years of age. 

Like many other mere mechanics, Mr. Harrison found a 
difficulty in delivering his sentiments in writing (at least in 


the latter periods of his life, when his faculties were much 
impaired) in which he adhered to a peculiar and uncouth 
phraseology. This was but too evident in his " Descrip- 
tion concerning such mechanism as will afford a nice or 
true Mensuration of Time," &c. 1775, 8vo. This small 
work includes also an account of his new musical scale ; 
being a mechanical division of the octave, according to the 
proportion which the radius and diameter of the circle have 
respectively to the circumference. He had in his youth 
been the leader of a band of church-singers ; had a very 
delicate ear for music ; and his experiments on sound, with 
a curious monochord of his own improvement, it has been 
said, were not less accurate than those he was engaged in 
for the mensuration of time. l 

HARRISON (WILLIAM), an English historian, was a 
native of London, and educated at Westminster school, 
under the celebrated Alexander Nowell. He afterwards 
studied at both universities, but in what colleges seems 
doubtful. Wood suspects Christ Church for Oxford, and 
Baker mentions one of this name a bachelor of arts of St. 
John's, Cambridge; but the date, 1571, is obviously too 
late for our Harrison. He says himself that both univer- 
sities " are so clear to him that he cannot readily tell to 
which of them he owes most good will." After leaving 
Cambridge he became domestic chaplain to sir William 
Brooke, knt. lord-warden of the Cinque Ports, and baron 
ot Cobham in Kent, who is supposed to have given him the 
living of Radwinter, in Essex, in Feb. 1558, which he held 
until his death in the end of 1592 or beginning of 1593. 
He wrote a " Historical Description of the Island of Bri- 
tain," published in Holiingshed's Chronicles; and "A 
Chronology" mentioned by Hollingshed. He translated 
also " The Description of Scotland," from Hector Boe- 
thius,^ which is prefixed to Hollingshed's " Hist, of Scot- 
land." Wood says he obtained a canonry of Windsor, and 
was buried there, leaving several children by his wife Ma- 
nan, daughter of Will. Isebrand, ofAnderne, in Picardy. 
His turn appears to have been more for compiling ancient 
history than topography ; for in his dedication to lord 
Cobham he says, " Indeed I must needs confess, that un- 
1 now of late, except it were from the parish where I 
dwell unto your honour in Kent, or out of London, where 
I was born, unto Oxford and Cambridge, where I have 

1 Ann. Register for 1777. Mutton's Dictionary. 


been brought up, I have never travelled forty miles forth 
right and at one journey in all my life." ] 

HARRISON (WILLIAM), a young gentleman high in 
esteem, and (as Swift expresses it) " a little pretty fellow, 
With a great deal of wit, good sense, and good nature," 
was educated at Winchester, and was afterwards of New 
college, Oxford, of which he became a fellow. He ap- 
pears to have been employed in private tuition, which was 
not a very profitable employment. He had no other in- 
come than 40l. a year as tutor to one of the duke of Queens- 
bury's sons. In this employment he fortunately attracted 
the favour of Dr. Swift, whose generous solicitations with 
Mr. St. John obtained for him the reputable employment 
of secretary to lord Raby, ambassador at the Hague, and 
afterwards earl of Stafford. A letter of his, whilst at 
Utrecht, dated December 16, 1712, printed inthedean's 
works, informs us that his office was attended with much 
vexation and little advantage. Even in Jan. 13, 1713, when 
he brought over the barrier treaty, and, as Swift says, was 
the queen's minister, entrusted in affairs of the greatest 
importance, he had not a shilling in his pocket to pay his 
hackney coach. He died soon after this, Feb. 14,1712-13. 
See the "Journal to Stella" of that and the following day, 
where Dr. Swift laments his loss with the most unaffected 
sincerity. Mr. Tickell has mentioned him with respect, 
in his "Prospect of Peace;" and Dr. Young, in the 
beautiful close of an " Epistle to lord Lansdown," most 
pathetically bewails his loss. Dr. Birch, who has given 
a curious note on Mr. Harrison's " Letter to Swift," 
has confounded him with Thomas Harrison, M. A. of 
Queen's college. In the " Select Collection," by Nichols, 
are some pleasing specimens of his poetry; which, 
with " Woodstock-Park" in Dodsley's " Collection," and 
an "Ode to the duke of Marlborough, 1707," in Dun- 
combe's " Horace," are all the poetical writings that are 
known of this excellent young man, who figured both as 
an humourist and a politician in the fifth volume of the 
" Tatler," of which (under the patronage of Bolingbroke, 
Henley, and Swift) he was professedly the editor. There 
was another William Harrison, author of " The Pilgrim, 
or the happy Convert, a pastoral tragedy," 1709.* 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. Bliss's edition. Tanner. Leland's Collectanea, Praef. p. 
55, 58, 77. 

Nichols's Poems, vol. IV. and VII. British Essayists, rol. I. Pref. Swift's 
Works, see Index. 

188 H A R S N E T. 

HARSNET (SAMUEL), a learned English prelate, suc- 
cessively bishop of Chichester and Norwich, and archbishop 
.of York, the son of William Harsnet, a baker at Colchester, 
was born in that town, and baptised June 20, 1561. He 
was probably sent to the free-school of Colchester, but was 
admitted Sept. 8, 1576, of King's college, Cambridge, 
whence he removed to Pembroke- hall, of which he became 
a scholar, and was elected fellow Nov. 27, 1583. He took 
his degree of B.A. in 1580, and that of M. A. in 15'84. 
Three years after, in March 1586-7, he was elected master 
of the free-school in Colchester, but, preferring the prose- 
cution of his studies at Cambridge, he resigned this office 
in November 1588, and returned to Pembrdke-hall, where 
he studied divinity, in which indeed he had made great 
progress before, and had been admitted into holy orders, 
as appears by a sermon preached by him at St. Paul's cross, 
Oct. 27, 1584, on the subject of predestination. In 1592 
he served the office of proctor, and five years after became 
chaplain to Dr. Bancroft, bishop of London, by whose fa- 
vour he obtained the rectory of St. Margaret Fish-street, 
London, which he resigned in 1604 ; and the vicarage of 
Chigwell in Essex, which he resigned in 1605, but conti- 
nued to reside at Chigwell, where he had purchased a 
house and estate, now the property and residence of his 
descendant Mrs. Fisher. In 1598 he was collated to the 
prebend of Mapesbury in St. Paul's, and Jan. 1602 to the 
archdeaconry of Essex, all in bishop Bancroft's disposal. 
In April 1604, sir Thomas Lucas of Colchester presented 
him to the rectory of Shenfield in that county. The year 
following, upon the resignation of bishop Andrews, he 
was chosen master of Pembroke-hall, which he held until 
1616, when he resigned in consequence of the society 
having exhibited to the king an accusation branching into 
fifty-seven articles. Many of these, Le Neve says, were 
scandalous, and the proof evident ; but, as Le Neve was 
iiot able to procure a sight of tHem, we are not enabled to 
judge. They do not, however, appear to have injured his 
interest at court. He had been consecrated bishop of 
Chichester in J609, and was now, in 1619, three years 
after he quitted Pembroke-hall, translated to Norwich, on 
the death of Dr. Overall. In 1624 we find him again ac- 
cused in the house of commons of " putting down preach- 
ing ; setting up images ; praying to the east;" and other 
articles which appear to have involved him with the puri- 

H A R S N E T. 189 

tans of his diocese, but which he answered to the satis- 
faction of the parliament as well as of the court. On the 
death of Dr. Montague, he was translated to the arch- 
bishopric of York in 1628, and in Nov. 1629, was sworn of 
the privy council. These dignities, however, he did not 
enjoy long, dying atMorton-on-the-marsh, Gloucestershire, 
while on a journey, May 25, 1631. He was buried at 
Chigwell church, agreeably to his own desire, where his 
effigies is still to be seen fixed on the north side of the 
chancel, against the wall. He left several charitable lega- 
cies ; and a year or two before his death founded and en- 
dowed a free school at Chigwell, and some alms-houses : 
the history of his school may be seen in Lysons's " Envi- 
rons." He bequeathed his library to the corporation of 
Colchester for the use of the clergy. Besides the ser- 
mon above noticed, the only other occasion on which Dr. 
Harsnet appeared as a writer, was in writing some pamph- 
lets to expose the impostures of one John Darrell, who 
pretended to have the power of casting out devils. Bishop 
Harsnet's character, from what we have related, appears to 
be equivocal ; it is said he was equally an enemy to puri- 
tanism and to popery ; and, according to Fuller, was the 
first who used the expression conformable puritans, i. e. 
those who conformed out of policy, and yet dissented in 
their judgments. 1 

HARTE (WALTER), an English poet and divine, was 
the son of a father of both his names, who was fellow of 
Pembroke college, Oxford, prebendary of Wales, canon, 
of Bristol, and vicar of St. Mary Magdalen, Taunton, So- 
mersetshire. Refusing to take the oaths after that revolu- 
tion which placed a new family on the throne, he relin- 
quished *all his preferments, in 1691, and retired to Kent- 
bury in Buckinghamshire, where he died Feb. 10, 1736, 
aged eighty-five. His son informs us, that when judge 
Jeffries came to Taunton -assizes in 1685, to execute his 
commission upon the unfortunate persons concerned in 
Monmouth's rebellion, Mr. Harte, then minister of St. 
Mary Magdalen's, waited on him in private, and remon- 
strated much against iiis severities. The judge listened 
to him calmly, and with some attention, and though he 

had never seen him before, advanced him in a few months 


1 Biog. Brit. Le Neve's Lives of the Archbishops. Fuller's Ch, Hist, book 
XI. Strype's Whitgift, p. 473, 494. Lysons's Environs. 

190 II A R T E. 

to a prebendal stall in the cathedral church of Bristol. Old 
Mr. Harte was so much respected for his piety and learn- 
ing, that the prelates Kidder, Hooper, and Wynne, who 
successively filled the see of Bath and Wells, contrived 
that he should receive the profits of his prebend of Wells 
as long as he lived ; and Mr. Simon Harcourt, afterwards 
lord chancellor, offered him a bishopric in queen Anne's 
time, which he declined with grateful acknowledgments. 
According to his son's account, he was a most laborious 
student, employing ten or twelve hours a day, without any 
interruption, but that of casual sickness, for fifty years 
successively. His principal business was in referring every 
difficult part of Scripture to those particular passages in 
the fathers and eminent modern divines who had explain- 
ed them expressly or occasionally. 

The time of our poet's birth has not been settled. A 
writer in the Gentleman's Magazine fixes it about 1707, 
but an earlier date will correspond better with circum- 
stances. If he was born in 1707, his lines to lady Hert- 
ford must have been written at eleven, which is highly 
improbable, yet there is some difficulty in adjusting the 
date of this poem. In Lintot's edition, it is subscribed 
Sept. 30, 1725; but Francis, the late marquis of Hertford, 
was born in 1719, a year after his father's marriage, and 
when Mr. Harte, according to the above account, could 
have been only eleven years of age. We have his own 
authority that all the poems published in this volume were 
written when he was under nineteen, consequently the 
date of 1725 must be an error, especially if Collins's ac- 
count of the Hertford family be correct But here, too, 
there is something that requires explanation, as the title of 
Beauchamp was not conferred on the family for many years 
after the publication of these poems. 

He received his education at Marlborough school, under 
the rev. Mr. Hildrop, to whom he dedicates the few divine 
poems in the volume published in 1727. At what time he 
went to Oxford does not appear, but he took his master's 
degree June 30, 1720, according to the last edition of the 
graduates of that university, a clear proof that he must 
have been born long before 1707. With Pope he ac- 
quired an early intimacy, and shared rather more of his 
friendship than that poet was wont to bestow on his bre- 
thren. Pope encouraged his poetical enthusiasm, and in- 
serted many lines in his poems ; and Harte repaid the in- 

HART E. 191 

structions of so distinguished a preceptor, by compliments 
introduced, not without elegance and propriety, in his Es- 
says on Painting and on Satire, and elsewhere. 

In 1727, he published the volume of poems, already 
mentioned, dedicated to the gallant and eccentric earl of 
Peterborough, who was, as the, author acknowledges, the 
first " who took notice of him." This volume was ushered 
in by a very numerous list of subscribers, among whom is 
the name of Alexander Pope, for four copies. An edition 
of these poems may be sometimes picked up, dated 1739, 
and printed for John Cecil, instead of Bernard Lintot, the 
original publisher. As the same list of subscribers is re- 
peated, it is probable that these were the remaining copies 
bought at Lintot's sale (who died in 1737), and published 
with a new title-page. 

In 1730 he published his " Essay on Satire," 8vo, and 
in 1735 the " Essay on Reason," folio, to which Pope con- 
tributed very considerably, although no part of his share 
can be exactly ascertained, except the first two lines. He 
afterwards published two sermons, the one entitled " The 
Union and Harmony of Reason, Morality, and Revealed 
Religion," preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, February 27, 
1736-7, which excited so much admiration, or curiosity, 
as to pass through five editions. The other was a " Fast- 
sermon," preached at the same place, Jan. 9, 1739-40. 
He was afterwards vice-principal of St. Mary-hall, and in 
so much reputation as a tutor, that lord Lyttelton, who 
was one of his earliest friends, recommended him to the earl 
of Chesterfield, as a private and travelling preceptor to his 
natural son. With this young man, to whom his lordship 
addressed those letters which have so much injured his 
reputation, Mr. Harte travelled from 1746 to 1750. Lord 
Chesterfield is said to have procured for him a canonry of 
Windsor, in 1751, " with much difficulty," arising from his 
college connections, St. Mary-hall, of which Dr. King 
was principal, being at that time noted for jacobitism. 

In 1759, he published his " History of Gustavus Adol- 
phus," 2 vols. 4to, a work on which he had bestowed much 
labour, and in which he has accumulated very valuable 
materials. An edition was soon published in German by 
George Henry Martini, with a preface, notes, and correc- 
tions from the pen of the translator John Gottlieb Bohme, 
Saxon historiographer, and professor of history in the uni- 
versity of Leipsic. Its success, however, at home was far 

192 H A R T E. 

inferior to his hopes, although sufficient to encourage him 
to publish an 8vo edition in 1763, corrected and improved. 
At this time he resided at Bath, dejected and dispirited 
between real and imaginary distempers. In November 
1766, a paralytic stroke deprived him of the use of his 
right leg, affected his speech, and in some degree his 
bead. He employed, however, his intervals of health, in 
preparing " The Amaranth" for the press, which was pub- 
lished in 1767. In the following year, he had entirely lost 
the use of his left side, and languished in this melancholy 
condition till March 1774, when he breathed his last, hav- 
ing just outlived the publication of the celebrated letters 
addressed to his pupil, Mr. Stanhope, but which, it is 
hoped, he did not see. At the time of his death he was 
vicar of St. Austel and St. Blazy in Cornwall. 

Dr. Maty expresses his wonder, that lord Chesterfield 
should not have chosen a tutor who understood a little bet- 
ter the external decorations which his lordship prized so 
highly. " Harte," says this biographer, " had none of the 
amiable connecting qualifications, which the earl wished 
in his son." " It was impossible he should succeed in 
finishing the polish of his education in the manner lord 
Chesterfield wished ; and it is a matter of astonishment 
that the earl should not have perceived how much the 
tutor's example must have defeated his precepts. The 
three principal articles he recommended to his son, were 
his appearance, his elocution, and his style. Mr. Harte, 
long accustomed to a college life, was too aukward both in 
his person and address to be able to familiarize the graces 
with his young pupil. An unhappy impediment in his 
speech, joined to his total want of ear, rendered him 
equally unfit to perceive as to correct any defects of pro- 
nunciation, a careful attention to which was so strongly 
recommended in all lord Chesterfield's letters, as abso- 
lutely necessary for an orator." 

All this, however, lord Chesterfield knew, and yet ap- 
pointed Mr. Harte, appears to have been perfectly satis-, 
fied with his conduct, and treated him with great kindness 
and condescending familiarity as long as he lived. Dr. 
Maty seems to have forgot that Harte left his pupil before 
his lordship had- fully developed that abominable plan of 
hypocrisy and profligacy, which, notwithstanding his bio- 
grapher's softenings, has irrecoverably disgraced his me- 
mory; and as it is acknowledged that Mr. Stanhope did 

H A R T E. 193 

not practise the system which his father so elegantly and 
artfully recommended, let us hope that he was preserved 
by the better foundation Mr. Harte had laid. 

His < Life of Gustavus Adolphus," it must be allow- 
ed, was a very unfortunate publication. He had learn- 
ing, industry, and the spirit of research ; and he had ac- 
quired a considerable degree of political and military 
knowledge. He had, besides, access to the most valuable 
materials, and his work may be considered as in many re- 
spects original. But either through affectation, or by 
means of oaie desultory course of reading in every lan- 
guage but his own, he was led to adopt a style peculiarly 
harsh and pedantic, and often unintelligible, by the irre- 
gular construction of his sentences, by new words of his 
own coinage, or by old words used in a new sense. The 
wonder is, that in all this he fancied himself " writing in 
a style less laboured and ornamental than is usually exhi- 
bited by the fluent writers of the present age." George 
Hawkins, his bookseller, we are told, sometimes objected 
to his uncouth words or phrases, while the work was in the 
press, but Harte refused to change them, and used to add 
with a complacent sneer, " George, that's what we call 
writing !" It is such writing, however, as we do not find 
in liis Sermons printed in 1737 and 1740, far less in his 
" Essays on Husbandry," which ought to have been men- 
tioned as printed in 1764, and which, with very few ex- 
ceptions, are distinguished for perspicuity of style, and 
far more elegance than that subject is generally supposed 
:o admit. 

The " Life of Gustavus" probably employed many of 
his years, at least the subject must have occupied his mind 
for a very considerable time before he began to collect his 
materials. The undertaking was suggested to him by lord 
Peterborow, with whom he could have had no communica- 
tion except previously to the year 1734, when his lord- 
ship's growing infirmities deprived him of the pleasures of 
society, and in the following year, of life, When travelling 
with Mr. Stanhope, our author procured access to various 
sources of information, and dwelt so long on his subject 
with a fond regard, that when he found how coolly his 
work was received by the world, and how harshly by the 
critics, he became uneasy, fretful, and, according to lord 
Chesterfield, seriously ill with disappointment. Dr. John- 
son was of opinion, that the defects of his history proceeded 


194 HART K. 

not from imbecility, but from foppery ; and it is certain 
that the critics* while they pointed out the defects in his 
style, paid due encomiums on the merit of the history in 
other respects. 

According to Boswell, Dr. Johnson said u he was exces- 
sively vain. He put copies of his book in manuscript into 
the hands of lord Chesterfield and lord Granville, that they 
might revise it. Now how absurd was it to suppose that 
two such noblemen would revise so big a manuscript. Poor 
man! he left London the day of the publication of his 
book, that he might be out of the way of the great praise 
he was to receive; and he was ashamed to return, when he, 
found how ill his book had succeeded. It .was unlucky in 
coming out the same day with Robertson's History of Scot- 
land." Not the same day, for Robertson's history was 
published a month sooner, but Hume's "House of Tudor 1 * 
came out the same week ; and after perusing these, poor 
Harte's style could not certainly be endured. It was not, 
however, so very absurd to submit his manuscript to lord 
Chesterfield or lord Granville, if they permitted him ; and 
the former certainly did peruse it, although he might think 
it too generally contaminated for a few friendly hints or 

With Pope, Harte appears to have been on very inti- 
mate terms, and we find his encomiastic lines among the 
testimonies of authors prefixed to the " Dunciad." He 
had even attained so much character both as a poet and a 
philosopher, that the " Essay on Man" was at first attri- 
buted to him. It may not be impertinent to introduce here 
an anecdote, related by Dr. Warton, who was very inti- 
mate with Harte. " Pope told Mr. Harte, that in order to 
disguise his being the author of the second epistle of the 
Essay on Man, he made, in the first edition, the following 
bad rhyme : 

" A cheat ! a whore ! that starts not at the name, 

Jn all the inns of court, or Drury-lane." 

And Harte remembered to have often heard it urged, in 
inquiries about the author, whilst he was unknown, that it 
was impossible it could be Pope's, on account of this very 
passage." Warton, it may be added, always spoke with 
respect of Harte's abilities. 

From every evidence, he appears to have been a man of 
extensive learning, and acquainted not only with the best 
authors of his time, but with the classics, the fathers of 

H A R T E. 195 

the church, and other eminent writers of antiquity, which 
Dr. Maty, rather inconsiderately, calls " Gothic erudition. 7 ' 
It is true that he often discovers that kind of reading which 
is seldom read, but the illustrations he has appended to 
the poems in " The Amaranth," from the fathers, &c. are 
generally apt and judicious. Towards the close of life, he 
cheered his painful and solitary hours by devotional read- 
ing, He died unmarried, and at one time seems to have 
considered the married state as unfavourable to the exer- 
tions of genius. In his " Essay on Painting," he very un- 
gallantly recommends that the artist should be 

" Untouch'd by cares, uncumber'd with a wife." 

Notwithstanding the unfortunate reception of his history, 
he projected another undertaking of the same kind. This 
we learn from the concluding passage of his Gustavus, in 
which he says his intention was to carry the history of 
Germany down to the peace of Munster, but that he was 
deterred by the magnitude of the undertaking. He adds, 
however, in a note, that he had completed the history of 
the thirty years' war, from the breaking out of the troubles 
in Bohemia in 1618, to the death of Gustavus in 1632. 
These papers, with whatever else he left, are supposed to 
have fallen into the hands of his servant Edward Dore, who 
afterwards kept an inn at Bath. Dore and his family are 
no more, and the manuscripts are probably irrecoverably 
lost. We have his own authority also, that he intended to 
have written a criticism on the poetry of Dryden, which 
he seems to have appreciated with just taste. The adver- 
tisement to " Religious Melancholy," from which this in- 
formation is taken, is inserted almost entire, by Dr. War- 
ton in his edition of Pope, as the result of a conference 
between Pope and Harte. 

Harte's poems, in general are entitled to considerable 
praise, although it may probably be thought that he was a 
better critic than a poet, and exhibited more taste than 
genius. His attachment to Pope led him to an imitation 
of that writer's manner, particularly in the " Essay on Rear 
son," and that on " Satire." His " Essay on Reason" has 
been somewhere called a fine philosophical poem. It might 
with more propriety be called a fine Christian poem, as it 
has more of religion than philosophy, and might be aptly 
entitled An Essay on Revelation. The " Essay on Satire" 
has some elegant passages, but is desultory, and appears 
to have been written as a compliment to the " Dunciad" of 

o 2 

196 HAUTE. 

Pope, whose opinions he followed as far as they respected 
the merits of the dunces whom Pope libelled. 

For his " Essay on Painting," he pleads that it was writ- 
ten at intervals, upon such remarks as casually occurred itv 
his reading, and is therefore deficient in connection. He 
adds that he had finished the whole before he saw Du 
Fresnoy, which may readily be believed. He discovers, 
however, a very correct notion of an art which was not at 
that time much studied in this country, and has laid down 
many precepts which, if insufficient to form a good painter, 
will at least prevent the student from falling into gross im- 
proprieties. So much knowledge of the art, and acquaint- 
ance with the works of the most eminent painters, argues a, 
taste surprizing at his early age. He had some turn for 
drawing, and made several sketches when abroad, which 
were afterwards engraved as head pieces for the poems in 
the " Amaranth." In this essay, he delights in images 
which, although in general pleasing and just, are perhaps 
too frequently, and as it were periodically, introduced. 
With all his admiration of Pope, he was not less attached 
to Dryden as a model ; and if he has less harmony than 
Pope, has at the same time less monotony. 

The " Amaranth" was written, as he informs us, te for 
his private consolation under a lingering and dangerous 
state of health.' 1 There is something so amiable, and we 
may add, so heroic in this, that it is impossible not to make 
every allowance for defects ; but this collection of poems does 
not upon the whole stand so much in need of indulgence 
as may be expected. Some of them were sketched when 
he was abroad, and now were revised and prepared, and 
others may perhaps be the effusions of a man in sickness 
and pain. Yet there are more animated passages of ge- 
nuine poetry scattered over this volume, than we find in 
his former works. The whole of the " Amaranth" is of 
the serious cast, such as became the situation of the au- 
thor. We have, indeed, heard of authors who have sported 
with unusual glee in their moments of debility and decay, 
and seemed resolved to meet death with an air of good hu- 
mour and levity. Such a state of mind, where it does 
really occur, and is not affectation, is rather to be won- 
dered at than envied. It is not the feeling of a rational 
and an immortal creature. 1 

1 Gent Mag. see Index. Chesterfield's Letters and Miscellanies Bowles's 
5<mion of Pope. Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 1810, 21 vais. 


HARTLEY (DAVID), an ingenious physician and phU 
losopher, the son of a clergyman at Armley, in York- 
shire, was born Aug. 30, 1705. After being for some 
time at a private school, he was admitted of Jesus-college 
Cambridge, in 1720, and was afterwards elected a fellow 
of that society. He took his degree of A. B. in 1725, and 
that of A. M. in 1729. He was originally intended for the 
church, but having some scruples as to subscription to the 
thirty-nine articles, gave up that design, although through- 
out the whole of his life he femained in communion with 
the church -of England. He now directed his studies to 
the medical profession, in which he became eminent for 
skill, integrity, and charitable compassion. His mind was 
formed to benevolence and universal philanthropy ; and 
he exercised the healing art with anxious and equal fidelity 
to the poor and to the rich. He commenced practice at 
Newark, in Nottinghamshire, whence he removed to 
Bury St. Edmund's, in Suffolk ; and after this he settled 
for some time in London. His last residence was at 

Dr. Hartley was industrious and indefatigable in the 
pursuit of all collateral branches of knowledge^ and lived 
in personal intimacy with the learned men of his age. 
The bishops Law, Butler, and Warburton, and Dr. Jortin, 
were his intimate friends, and he was much attached to 
bishop Hoadiy. Among his other friends or correspond- 
ents may be mentioned Dr. Hales, Mr. Hawkins Browne, 
Dr. Young, Dr. Byrom, and Mr. Hooke the Roman his- 
torian. Pope was also admired by him, not only as a man 
of genius, but as a moral poet ; yet he soon saw the hand 
of Bolingbroke in the " Essay on Man." Dr. Hartley's 
genius was penetrating and active ; his industry indefati- 
gable ; his philosophical observations and attentions un- 
remitting. From his earliest youth he was devoted to the 
sciences, particularly to logic and mathematics. He stu- 
died mathematics, together with natural and experimental 
philosophy, under the celebrated professor Saunderson. 
He was an enthusiastic admirer and disciple of sir Isaac 
Newton in every branch of literature and philosophy, na- 
tural and experimental, mathematical, historical, and re- 
ligious. His first principles of logic and metaphysics he 
derived from Locke. He took the first rudiments of his 
own work, the " Observations on Man,' 7 from Newton and 
Locke ; the doctrine of vibrations, as instrumental to sen- 


sation and motion, from the former, and the principle of 
association originally from the latter, further explained in 
a dissertation by the rev. Mr. Gay. He began this work 
when about twenty-five years of age, and published it in 
1749, when about forty-three years of age, under the title 
of " Observations on Man, his frame, his duty, and his 
expectations," 2 vols. 8vo. His biographer informs us 
that " he did not expect that it would meet with any ge- 
neral or immediate reception in the philosophical world, 
or even that it would be much read or understood ; neither 
did it happen otherwise than as he had expected. But at 
the same time he did entertain an expectation that at some 
distant period it would become the adopted system of fu- 
ture philosophers." In this, however, he appears to have 
been mistaken. We know of no " future" philosophers 
of any name, who have adopted his system. Dr. Priestley, 
indeed, published in 1775 " Hartley's Theory, &c. with 
Essays on the subject of it," but all he has done in this is 
to convince us of his own belief in materialism, and his 
earnest desire to prove Hartley a materialist, who dreaded 
nothing so much, although it must be confessed that hie 
doctrines have an apparent tendency to that conclusion. 
Since that time, Hartley's work was nearly forgotten, until 
1791, when an edition was published by his Son, in a hand- 
some 4to volume, with notes and additions, from the 
German of the rev. Herman Andrew Pistorius, rector of 
Poseritz, in the island of Rugen ; and a sketch of the life 
and character of Dr. Hartley. The doctrine of vibrations, 
upon which he attempts to explain the origin and propa- 
gation of sensation, although supported by much inge- 
nious reasoning, is .not only built upon a gratuitous 
assumption, but as Haller has shewn, it attributes properties 
to the medullary substance of the brain and nerves, which 
are totally incompatible with their nature. 

Dr. Hartley was the author of some medical tracts re- 
lative to the operation of Mrs. Stephens' s medicine for the 
stone, a disease with which he was himself afflicted ; he 
was, indeed, principally instrumental in procuring for Mrs. 
Stephens the five thousand pounds granted by parliament 
for discovering the composition of her medicine, which 
was published in the Gazette in June, 1739. In 1738 he 
published " Observations made on ten persons who have 
taken the Medicament of Mrs. Stephens;" and in 1739 his 
' View of the present Evidence for and against Mrs. Ste- 


phens's Medicine as a Solvent for the Stone, containing 
155 Cases, with some Experiments and Observations," 
and a " Supplement to the View of the present Evidence/' 
&c. His own case is the 123d in the above-mentioned 
" View ;" but, notwithstanding any temporary relief which 
he might receive from the medicine, he is said to have 
died of the stone, after having taken above two hundred 
pounds weight of soap, which is the principal ingredient 
in its composition. In the Gentleman's Magazine for Fe- 
bruary, 1746, Dr. Hartley published with his name, u Di- 
rections for preparing and administering Mrs. Stephens's 
Medicine in a solid Form." He is also said to have written 
in defence of inoculation for the small-pox, against the 
objections of Dr. Warren, of Bury St. Edmund's; and 
some papers of his are to be met with in the Philosophical 
Transactions. He died at Bath, August 28, 1757, aged 
fifty-two. He was twice married, and left issue by both 

The philosophical character of Dr. Hartley, says his Son, 
is delineated in his works. The features of his private and 
personal character were of the same complexion. It may 
with peculiar propriety be said of him, that the mind was 
the man. His thoughts were not immersed in worldly pur- 
suits or contentions, and therefore his life was not event- 
ful or turbulent, but placid, and undisturbed by passion or 
violent ambition. From his earliest youth his mental am- 
bition was pre-occupied by pursuits of science. His hours 
of amusement were likewise bestowed upon objects of taste 
and sentiment. Music, poetry, and history, were his fa- 
vourite recreations. His imagination was fertile and cor- 
rect, his language and expression fluent and forcible. His 
natu/al temper was gay, cheerful, and sociable. He was 
addicted to no vice in any part of his life, neither to pride, 
nor to sensuality, nor intemperance, nor ostentation, nor 
envy, nor to any sordid self-interest; but his heart was 
replete with every contrary virtue. The virtuous prin- 
ciples which are instilled in his works, were the invariable 
and decided principles of his life and doctrine. His per- 
son was of the middle size, and well proportioned. His 
complexion fair, his features regular and handsome. His 
countenance open, ingenuous, and animated. He was 
peculiarly neat in his person and attire. He was an early 
riser, and punctual in the employments of the day ; me- 
thodical iu the order and disposition gf his library,, papers. 


and writings, as the companions of his thoughts, but with- 
out any pedantry, either in these habits, or in any other 
part of his character. His behaviour was polite, easy, and 
graceful ; but that which made his address peculiarly en- 
gaging, was the benevolence of heart from which that po- 
liteness flowed. He never conversed with a fellow-creature 
without feeling a wish to do him good. He considered the 
moral end of our creation to consist in the performance of 
the duties of life attached to each particular station, to 
which all other considerations ought to be inferior and sub- 
ordinate; and consequently that the rule of life consists in 
training and adapting our faculties, through the means of 
moral habits and associations, to that end. In this he was 
the faithful disciple of his own theory; and by the obser- 
vance of it he avoided the tumult of worldly vanities and 
their disquietudes, and preserved his mind in sincerity and 
vigour, to perform the duties of life with fidelity, and 
without distraction. His whole character was eminently 
and uniformly marked by sincerity of heart, simplicity of 
manners, and manly innocence of mind. 1 

HARTLIB (SAMUEL), an ingenious writer on agricul- 
ture in the seventeenth century, was the son of a Polish 
merchant, who, when the Jesuits prevailed in that country, 
was obliged to remove himself into Prussia, where he settled 
and built the first house of credit at Elbing, and his grand- 
father, the deputy of the English company at Dantzick, 
brought the English company to Elbing; whence that 
town came by trade to the splendour and result which it 
afterwards attained. His family, indeed, was of a very 
ancient extraction in the German empire, there having- 
been ten brothers of the name cf Hartlib. Some of them 
were privy-counsellors to the emperor, some to other in- 
ferior princes ; some syndics of Ausperg and Norimberg. 

He was the issue of a third wife, his father having mar- 
ried two Polonian ladies of noble extraction. This third 
wife seems to have been an English woman, for she had 
two sisters very honourably married here ; one, first to 
Mr. Clark, son of a lord mayor, and afterwards to a " very- 
rich knight, sir Richard Smith, one of the king's privy- 
council, she bringing him a portion of 10,000/. ; after his 
death, she married a third time sir Edward Savage, and 

1 Life by bis Son, wbo died at Bath, but too recently for us to obtain an ac- 
count of him. Reid's Essays on the Intellectual Powers, p. 84, et seqq 

Munth. Rev. vols. LIU. LIV, aud LYI.WatsonVHist. of Halifax. 

H A R T LIB. 201 

was made one of the ladies of honour to the king's mother. 
Her daughter married sir Anthony Irby, at Boston, " a 
knight of 4 or 50001. sterling a year." The other sister 
married Mr. Peak, a younger brother. Warton says, 
Hartlib came over into England about 1640. In 1641 he 
published " A relation of that which hath been lately at- 
tempted, to procure ecclesiastical peace among Protes- 
tants," Lond. 1641. 

In 1645 he published "The Discourse of Flanders Hus- 
bandry," 4to, about 24 pages ; not then knowing who 
was the author; the " Legacy" to his sons, which relates 
also to the cultivation of their estates, consists of three 
4to pages, and was written on the author's death -bed, 
1645. The author was sir Richard Weston, whom Harte 
apprehends to be the sir Richard Weston " who was am- 
bassador from England to Frederick V. elector Palatine, 
and king of Bohemia, in 1619, and present at the famous 
battle of Prague, concerning which a curious relation of 
his, by way of letter, is still preserved in MS." It is re- 
marked in the Philosophical Transactions, that England 
has profited in agriculture to the amount of many millions, 
by following the directions laid down in this little treatise, 
which has always been looked upon as a capital performance 
in husbandry. 

About 1750, a piece was ignorantly published under sir 
R. Weston's name, entitled " A treatise concerning the 
Husbandry and Natural History of England," 8vo, which 
is a poor jejune abridgment of " Hartlib's Legacy." It 
seems that Hartlib afterwards, in order to enlarge and bet- 
ter explain this famous discourse, published another edi- 
tion, and annexed Dr. Beati's annotations to it. 

In 1652 Hartlib published " His Legacy, or an enlarge- 
ment of the discourse of Husbandry used in Brabant and 
Flanders," Lond. 4to. This work was only drawn up at 
Hartlib's request; and passing through his correction and 
revision, was published by him. It consists of one general 
answer to the following query, namely, u what are the 
actual defects and omissions, as also the possible improve- 
ments, in English husbandry ?" The real author was Ro- 
bert Child. To it are annexed various correspondences 
from persons eminent for skill in agriculture at this time ; 
as C. D. B. W. R. H. T. Underbill, Henry Cruttenden, W. 
Potter, &c. as also the " Mercurius Laetificans ;" and 
twenty large experiments by Gabriel Plattes ; together 

202 H A K T L I B. 

with annotations on the legacy by Dr. Arnold Beati, and 
replies to the animadversions by the author of the Legacy. 
In the preface Hartlib laments greatly that no public di- 
rector of husbandry was established in England by autho- 
rity ; and that we had not adopted the Flemish custom of 
letting farms upon improvement. Cromwell, as Harte 
says, in consequence of this admirable performance, al- 
lowed Hartlib a pension of IQOl. a year; and it was the 
better to fulfil the intentions of his benefactor, that lie 
procured Dr. Beati's excellent annotations before-men- 
tioned, with the other valuable pieces from his numerous 

Hartlib says himself, " As long as I have lived in Eng- 
land, by wonderful providences, I have spent yearly out 
of my own betwixt 3 and 409/. a year sterling; and when 
I was brought to public allowances, I have had from the 
parliaments and councils of state a pension of 300/. sterling 
a year, which as freely I have spent for their service, and 
the good of many." He says he "erected a little academy 
for the education of the gentry of this nation, to advance 
piety, learning, morality, and other exercises of industry, 
not usual then in common schools." This probably occa- 
sioned Milton's " Tractate on Education," about 1646, 
addressed to him ; and " Two letters to him on the same 
subject, by sir William Petty," Lond. 1647, 1648, 4to. 
Walter Blythe, the author of " The Improver Improved," 
1653, 4to, says that Hartlib lodged and maintained Speed 
in his house, whilst he composed his book of improvements 
in husbandry. 

" About the time," observes Harte, " when Hartlib 
flourished, seems to be an rera when English husbandry 
rose to high perfection ; for the preceding wars had made 
the country gentry poor, and in consequence thereof in- 
dustrious ; though sometimes the reverse of this happens 
in many kingdoms. But these wise men found the culti- 
vation of their own lands to be the very best posts they 
could be fixed in. Yet, in a few years, when the resto- 
ration took place, all this industry and knowledge were 
turned into dissipation and heedlessness ; and then hus- 
bandry passed almost entirely into the hands of farmers." 
Hartlib wrote a little treatise " on Setting Land," which 
is much esteemed ; and some attribute to him " Adam's 
Art Revived," though that work seems to belong more 
properly to Sir H. Platt. He also wrote " A true and 

H A R T L I B. 203 

ready way to learn the Latin Tongue,'* 16 54-, 4to. " A 
Vindication of Mr. John Durie," 1650, 4to, three sheets; 
and published " Twisse's doubting Conscience resolved," 
1652, 8vo. He was also author of " The reformed Com- 
mon-wealth of Bees, with the reformed Virginian Silk- 
worm," Lond. 1655, 4to ; and of " Considerations con- 
cerning England's Reformation in Church and State, 14 
1647, 4to. 

He was consulted in a book called " Chemical, Medi- 
cinal, and Chirurgical Addresses to Samuel Hartlib." 
Lond. 1655, 8vo, and again in a pamphlet " On Motion 
by Engines," 1651. There were also " Letters to Hart- 
lib from Flanders," 1650, 4to. Dury, Hartlib's friend, 
whom Whitlock calls a " German by birth, a good scholar, 
and a great traveller," was appointed in 1649 deputy- 
librarian, under Whitlock, of what had been the royal li- 
brary. Dury was Milton's friend and correspondent. On 
the restoration, all Hartlib's public services were forgotten. 
In Dec. 1662, his pension was 700/. in arrears; and in a 
letter to lord Herbert, he complains " he had nothing to 
keep him alive, with two relations more, a daughter and a 
nephew, who were attending his sickly condition." About 
the same time he presented a petition to the house of com- 
mons, by the name of Samuel Hartlib, sen. setting forth 
his services, and praying relief; in which, among other 
things, he says, that for thirty years and upwards he had 
exerted himself in procuring " rare collections of MSS. in 
all the parts of learning, which he had freely imported, 
transcribed, and printed, and sent to such as were most 
capable of making use of them ; also the best experiments 
in husbandry and manufactures, which by printing he hath 
published for the benefit of this age and posterity." The 
event of these applications, and the time of the death of 
this ingenious man, is unknown. Sprat, in his history of 
the royal society, says nothing of Hartlib, who seems to 
have been an active promoter of that institution. Nor is 
it less remarkable, that he never mentions Milton's "Trac- 
tate of Education," although he discusses the plan of Cow- 
ley's philosophical college. Harte intended to republish 
Hartlib's tracts, and those with which he was concerned ; 
and Warton had seen his collection. 1 

1 Qent. Mag. LXXU. p. 12. Censura Litcraria, vol. III. Wartoa's Mil- 
to, pp. 1 16, 59(5. flarte's Essays on Agriculture, &c. 

204- H A R T M A N. 

HARTMAN (JOHN ADOLPHUS), a learned divine, was 
born in 1680, at Minister, of catholic parents. After hav- 
ing been several years a Je.uit, he turned protestant at 
Cassel in 1715, was soon after made professor of philo- 
sophy and poetry, and, in 1722, appointed professor of 
history nnd rhetoric at Marpurg, where he died in 1744. 
His most esteemed works are, " Hist. Hassiaca," 3 vols. ; 
" Vita? Pontificum Romanorum Victoris III. Urbani II. Pas- 
calis II. Gelasii II. Callisti II. Honorii II.;" " State of the 
Sciences in Hesse," in German ; " Praecepta eloquentiae 
rationalis," &c. He has also left above eighty " Academical 
Discourses." He must be distinguished from GEORGE Hart- 
man, a German mathematician, who, in 1540, invented 
the bombarding-staff, " Baculus Bombardicus," and was 
author of a treatise on perspective, reprinted at Paris, 1 556, 
4to ; and from WOLFGANG Hartman, who published the An- 
nals of Augsburg, in folio, 1596. 1 

HARTSOEKER (NICHOLAS), an eminent mathema- 
tician, was born at Goud?, in Holland, March 26, 1656. 
His father intended him for the ministry, but the young 
man had an early disposition for contemplating the heavenly 
bodies, which engrossed his whole attention, and finding, 
at the age of thirteen or fourteen, that without some know- 
ledge of the mathematics he could make no satisfactory 
progress in this study, he saved his boyish allowance and 
presents in money, and applied to a teacher of the mathe- 
matics, who promised to be very expeditious, and kept his 
word. Under him he first learned to grind optic glasses, 
and at length, partly by accident, was enabled to improve 
single microscopes by using small globules of glass, melted 
in the flame of a candle. By these he discovered the ani- 
malculse in semine humano, which laid the foundation of a 
new system of generation. 

In the mean time, in obedience to his father's request, 
be spent some years at Leyden and Amsterdam in the 
study of the belies lettres, Greek, philosophy, and ana- 
tomy, until 1672, when he resumed his microscopical ob- 
servations at Amsterdam, and communicated his clisco^ 
veries respecting the animalcules to Huygens, who pub- 
lished them in the " Journal des Savans" without mention- 
ing Hartsoeker. Hartsoeker, indignant at being thus de- 
prived of the honours of invention, determined to avow 

1 Diet. Hist Moreri. 

H A R T S O E K E R. 20A 

himself the inventor of the new microscope, and the first 
observer of the animalcules ; and sent a letter to that pur- 
pose to the same literary journal. The editor, however, 
had the precaution to send it privately to Huygens, who, 
after reprimanding Hartsoeker for his rashness in being 
prejudiced against him by envious and interested persons, 
drew up a memoir for the journal, in which he did his young 
friend all the justice he could desire. 

Hartsoeker being now at Paris, and observing that the 
telescopical glasses of the observatory there were not large 
enough, made some attempts to improve them, which, al- 
though not successful at first, procured him the good 
opinion and encouragement of Cassini; flattered by whom 
he soon made good glasses of all sizes, and at length one 
of six hundred feet focus, which, on account of its rarity, 
he never would part with. As to these glasses of so long 
a focus, he one day told Varignon and the abbe St. Pierre, 
that he thought it impossible to form them in a bason, but 
that by trying pieces of glass intended to be quite flat, one 
might happen to meet with some that were segments of a 
sphere of a very long radius, and that he had in this man- 
ner met with one of twelve hundred feet focus; that this 
sphericity depended upon some insensible unevennesses in 
the tables of polished iron upon which the melted glass is 
stretched out, or on the manner of loading the gFasses to 
polish them one against another; and that these trials were 
more tedious than difficult; which was all he chose at this 
time to communicate. 

In 1694 he published at Paris, his first work, under the 
title of " Essai de Dioptrique," in which he demonstrate* 
with great perspicuity the whole theory of that science, 
as far as regards spherical glasses, for he rejects all other 
figures as useless. He then adds the methods, many of 
them peculiar to himself, of grinding and polishing glasses, 
and the names and quantities of the ingredients to be made 
use of for forming them ; and a general system of refrac- 
tion, along with his experiments, leading him to the dif- 
ferent refrangibiiity of the rays of light, he pretends to 
have been the first to assign their different velocities as 
the cause of it. Thus his essay on dioptrics is likewise 
an essay on the first principles of natural philosophy. He 
reckons but two elements, one a substance, infinite, per- 
fectly fluid, always in motion, and no part of which is ever 
perfectly separated from the rest ; the other a collection of 
little bodies different in .size and figure, perfectly hard and 

20S H A R T S O E K E R. 

unalterable, confusedly swimming in the fluid element, 
where they meet, unite, and become the different sensible 
bodies. With these two elements he forms every thing, 
and accounts for the weight and hardness of bodies, as he 
does elsewhere, from the same system, for their elasticity. 
There are other opinions advanced by him, which the more 
advanced state of the science has proved erroneous ; but 
this work at that time procured him the esteem of many 
men of learning, particularly father Malebranche and the 
marquis de L'Hopital, who, finding him well versed in the 
old geometry, would fain have gained him over to the new 
geometry of infinites, to which they were partial ; but he 
considered it of little service in natural philosophy, and 
had not a better opinion of any of the more abstruse parts 
of algebra. Encouraged, however, by the success of his 
Dioptrics, he two years alter published, at Paris, his " Prin- 
cipes cle Physique," in which he explains at large the sys- 
tem he had already given in miniature, adding to it his 
own sentiments and those of many others on some subjects 
which he had not before handled, the whole forming a 
course of natural philosophy, which, by avoiding too great 
minuteness, he has rendered sufficiently perspicuous. 

On the revival of the royal academy of sciences at Paris, 
in 1699, he was named a foreign associate, and was soon 
after chosen member of the royal society of Berlin, but he 
never used either of these titles, or any other, in any of 
the works he afterwards published. It is probable, how- 
ever, that they were of some service to his reputation at 
least, especially on the following occasion. Peter the 
Great, on his arrival at Amsterdam, having applied to the 
magistrates of that city for a person capable of instructing 
him in those branches of learning he was desirous of ac- 
quiring, they named Hartsoeker for that purpose; and he 
became so agreeable to the czar, that that monarch would 
have prevailed upon him to follow him to Moscovy. But 
the length of the journey for a numerous family, and the 
difference between the Russian manners and those of the 
people among whom he had hitherto lived, hindered him 
from accepting the proposal. The magistrates of Amster- 
dam, to acknowledge the honour he had done to their 
choice of him upon this occasion, erected a small obser- 
vatory for him on one of their bastions, which was a hand- 
some compliment to him, although at little expence. 

In 1704, after very pressing solicitations, he went to 
the court of the elector Palatine, who appointed him his 


first ma&ematiciau, and honorary professor of philosophy 
in the university of Heidelberg. Here he published, in 
1707 and 1708, his lectures, under the title ot " Conjee- 
tures Physiques," and then took his leave for a time of the 
electorate, in order to visit other parts of Germany, or 
study natural history, and mines in particular. At Cassel 
he repeated the experiments made by Mr. Hamberg with 
the landgrave's burning glass constructed by Mr. Tschirn- 
haus, but without being able to vitrify even lead, insomuch 
that he absolutely denied the fact, affirming that what 
Hamberg took for vitrified gold was a substance issuing 
from the charcoal tbat supported it, mixed perhaps with 
some of the heterogeneous parts of the metal itself. 

From Hesse Cassel Hartsoeker repaired to Hanover, 
where Leibnitz, the professed friend of all men of learning, 
presented him to the elector, afterwards George I. and the 
electoral princess, the late queen Caroline, who gave him 
a very gracious reception. About this time, the elector 
palatine hearing speak of the burning-glass of M. Tschirn- 
haus, asked Mr. Hartsoeker if he could make him such a 
one. Upon this he caused three to be cast, and having 
soon finished them, the elector presented him with the 
largest, which was three feet and five inches Rhinland 
measure jn diameter, nine feet focus, and this focus per- 
fectly circular, of the size of a louis d'or, and so pon- 
derous, that two men could with difficulty move it. 

In 1710 he published a volume entitled " Eclaircisse- 
ments sur les conjectures physiques," being answers to 
objections, most of which he attributes to Leibnitz ; and 
two years after he published another volume by way of 
sequel to it, and in 1722 a collection of several separate 
pieces on the same subject. ^In these three works he at- 
tacked, very freely, several celebrated names in the re- 
public of letters, protesting all the while, that if he did not 
esteem them, he would have given himself no trouble about 
them, and that they were very welcome to criticize upon 
him in their turn. But, in spite of this apology, he could 
not conceal an irritable temper, and considerable virulence 
in his manner of treating them. Neither Newton, Leib- 
nitz, Huygens, or the other members of the royal academy 
of sciences at Paris, escaped him on this occasion. The 
academy, however, notwithstanding such behaviour, to- 
lerated him as one of her members, and considered him as 
subject to fits of ill humour, while the several members, 
instead of answering him, pursued their researches. 

208 H A R T S O E K E R. 

In the second work he takes up and extends his favourite 
system of plastic souls. In man, according to him, the 
rational soul issues its orders, and a vegetative soul, which is 
the plastic, not only intelligent, but more intelligent than 
even the rational, immediately executes these orders, be- 
sides superintending or carrying on the whole animal oeco- 
nomy of the circulation of liquids, nutrition and accretion ; 
operations, in his opinion, above the reach of mere me- 
chanics. But it was immediately objected that rational 
soul, that vegetative soul, is ourselves, and how can we 
do all these things without knowing it ? This difficulty he 
solves by a comparison, which is at least ingenious. Sup- 
pose, says he, a dumb man alone in a room, and servants 
placed in the adjacent rooms to wait upon him. He is 
made to understand that when he has a mind to eat, he 
has only to strike the floor with his stick. Accordingly he 
strikes, and immediately sees his table covered with dishes. 
Now how can he conceive that this noise, which he has not 
heard, and of which he has not even any idea, should have 
brought the servants to him ? Hartsoeker, not content with 
attributing these intelligent plastic souls to men and ani- 
mals, gives them to plants, and even to the celestial bodies. 

The elector Palatine dying in 1716, Hartsoeker quitted 
the palatine court the year following, when the dowager 
clectress, a princess of the house of Medicis, in whom a 
taste for learning was hereditary, returned to Italy, her 
native country. As soon as the landgrave of Hesse saw 
him disengaged, he did him the honour to solicit him a 
second time to come and reside with him. But Hartsoeker 
thought his days too few to spend in a court, and there- 
fore, removed to Utrecht, where he undertook a course of 
natural philosophy, and made an extract of all the curious 
and useful observations buried here and there among a 
heap of useless matter in Lewenhoeck's letters. And hav- 
ing received some reproaches from Paris on account of the 
freedoms which he had taken with the royal academy of 
sciences, he began to draw up an apology, but did not 
live to finish it. He died Dec. 10, 1725. Fontenelle says 
he was brisk, facetious, obliging, but of an easy temper, 
which his artful friends often abused, and which betrayed 
him into those critical asperities which are too frequent in 
his works. l 

1 His Elog*, by Fontenelle, translated in Martin's Biog. Philosophies. 
Chaufepie. Niceron, vol. V1H. 


HARTZHEIM (JOSEPH), a celebrated Jesuit, was born 
at Cologne in 1694, of a patrician family, and taught the 
belles lettres there until he went to Milan, on being ap- 
pointed professor of Greek and Hebrew. On his return to 
his own country, he acquired much celebrity as a preacher 
and as a professor of philosophy and divinity. He died in 
1763; his principal works were, l."Summa historic omnis 
ab exordio rerum ad annum a Christo nato 1718," Luxem- 
bourg, 1718, ISmo. 2. " De initio metropoleos ecclesias- 
ticae Coloniae, &c. disquisitio," Cologne, 1731, 4to. 3. 
" Bibliotheca scriptorum Coloniensium," ibid. 1747, folio. 
4. "Dissertationes decem historico-criticx in sacram scrip* 
turam," fol. 5. " Inscriptionis Herseliensis Ubio-Romanse 
explanatio," Cologne, 1745, 8vo. He was also employed 
for many years of his life in the publication of a collection 
of the " Councils of the church of Germany," which had 
been projected by Schannat, a learned ecclesiastic, who 
had collected materials for the purpose. These, on his 
death, were put into the hands of Hartzheim, who after aug- 
menting and reducing them to order, published the first 
four volumes. The work was afterwards continued by 
Scholl and Neissen. 1 

HARVEY (GABRIEL), a caustic wit of the Elizabethan 
period, and the butt of the wits of his time, was born about 
1545. His father, although a rope-maker by trade, was 
of a good family, and nearly related to sir Thomas Smith, 
the celebrated statesman. He was educated at Christ's 
college, Cambridge, and for some time at Pembroke hall, 
and took both his degrees in arts. He afterwards obtained 
a fellowship in Trinity-hall, and served the office of proc- 
tor in the university. Having studied civil law, he ob- 
tained his grace for a degree in that faculty, and in 1585 
was admitted doctor of laws at Oxford, which he com- 
pleted in the following year, and practised as an advocate 
in the prerogative court of Canterbury at London. As -A 
poet and a scholar, he had great merit. His beautiful 
poem, signed Hobbinol, prefixed to the " Faerie Queene," 
bespeaks an elegant and well-turned mind; and among his 
works are several productions of great ingenuity and pro- 
found research. But he had too much propensity to vul- 
gar abuse; and having once involved himself with his 
envious and railing contemporaries Nash and Greene, 

1 Diet Hist. Saxii Oncoiait. 


210 HARVEY. 

came their equal in this species of literary warfare. He 
afforded the ai, howe?er, sufficient advantage, by having 
turned almanack-maker and a prophetic dealer in earth- 
qu ikes and prodigies, things which must not be altogether 
reierred to the credulity of the times, since they were as 
aptly ridiculed then by his opponents, as they would be 
now, did any man of real knowledge and abilities become 
so absurd as to propagate the belief in them. His highest 
honour was in having Spenser for his intimate friend ; nor 
was he less esteemed by sir Philip Sidney, as appears by 
the interesting account Mr. Todd has given ot Harvey's 
correspondence in his excellent Life of Spenser. For an 
equally curious account of Harvey's literary quarrels with 
Nash, &c. the reader may be referred with confidence to 
one of the most entertaining chapters in Mr. DTsraeli's 
" Calamities of Authors." He is supposed to have died in 
1630, aged about eighty-five. Among his works which 
provoked, or were written in answer to, the attacks of his 
contemporaries, we may enumerate, 1. "Three proper and 
wittie letters touching the Earthquake, and our English re- 
formed versifying," Lond. 1.080, 4to. 2. " Two other very 
commendable Letters touching artificial versifying," ibid. 
15SO, 4to. Harvey boasted his being the inventor of 
English hexameters, which very jnstly exposed him to 
ridicule. 3. " Foure Letters, and certain Sonnets, touch- 
ing Robert Greene and others," ibid. 1592. His un- 
iiKinlv treatment of Greene has been noticed with proper 
indignation by sir E. Brydges in his reprint of Greene's 
*' Groatsworth of Wit," and by Mr. Haselwood in his life 
of that poet in the " Censura Literaria." 5. " Pierce's 
Supererogation, or a new prayse of the old Asse, with an 
advertisement for Pap. Hatchet and Martin Marprelate," 
ibid. 1593, &c. This war ol scurrility was at length ter- 
minated by an order of the archbishop of Canterbury, 
" that all Nashe's books and Dr. Harvey's bookes be taken 
wheresoever they be found, and that none of the said 
bookes be ever printed hereafter." Among his more cre- 
ditable performances, Tanner has enumerated, 1. "Rhetor, 
sive dtiorutn dterum oratio de natura, arte et exercitatione 
rbetorica," Lond. 1577, 4to. 2. " Ciceronianus, vel oratio 
post reditum habita Cantabrigise ad suos auditores," ibid. 
1577, <Ko. 3. " Gratulatio Vatdenensium, lib. IV. ad Eliza- 
betham reginam," ibid. 1578. 4. " Smithus, vel musarum 


lachrymze pro obitu honoratiss. viri Thorn se Smith," ibid. 
1578, 4to. * 

HARVEY (GIDEON), an English physician, was born in 
Surrey, acquired the Greek and Latin tongues in ihe 
Low Countries, and was admitted of Exeter-college, Ox- 
ford, in Ib55. Afterwards he went to Leyden, and studied 
under Vanderlinden, Vanhorn, and Vorstius, all of them 
professors of physic, and men of eminence. He was 
taugbt chemistry there by a German, and, at the same 
place, learned the practical part of chirurgery, and the 
trade of an apothecary. After this he went to France, and 
thence returned to Holland, where he was admitted fellow 
of the college of physicians at the Hague ; being-, at that 
time, physician in ordinary to Charles II. in his exile. 
He afterwards returned to London, whence he was sent, in 
1659, with a commission to Flanders, to be physician to 
the English army there ; where staying till he was tired of 
that employment, he passed through Germany into Italy, 
spent some time at Padua, Bologna, and Rome, and then 
returned through Switzerland and Holland to England. 
Here he became physician in ordinary to his majesty; and, 
after king William came over, was made physician of the 
Tower. At this time there was a great debate who should 
succeed to this office, and the contending parties were so 
equally matched in their interests and pretensions, that it 
was extremely difficult to determine which should have the 
preference. The matter was at length brought to-a com- 
promise ; and Dr. Harvey was promoted, because he was 
in appearance sickly and infirm, and his death was ex- 
pected in a few months. He survived, however, not only 
his rivals, but all his contemporary physicians, and died 
after he had enjoyed his office above fifty-years. He wrote 
several medical treatises, which never have been in any 
esteem. Unlike his predecessor of the same name, whose 
modesty equalled his knowledge, and who never proceeded 
a step without fact and experiment, Gideon Harvey was 
a vain and hypothetical prater throughout. Under pretence 
of reforming the art of medicine, he attacked the charac- 
ters of the most eminent physicians of the time, combining: 
the most insulting sarcasms with many glaring falsehoods 
and absurdities ; and although, in the general war which, 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. Warton's Hist, of Poetry. Todd's Life of Spenser.- 
D' Israeli's Calamities. 

P 2 

212 HARVEY. 

he waged, he justly attacked many abuses which then 
prevailed in the profession, yet he often committed great 
errors of judgment. His principal work, part of which was 
published in 1683, and part in 1686, was entitled "The 
Conclave of Physicians, detecting their intrigues, frauds, 
and plots against the patients," &c. * 

HARVEY (WILLIAM), an eminent English physician, 
who first discovered the circulation of the blood, was born 
of a. good family at Folkstone, in Kent, April 2, 156^. 
At ten years of age he was sent to the grammar-school at 
Canterbury, and at fourteen removed thence to Caius col- 
lege, in Cambridge, where he spent about six years in 
the study of logic and natural philosophy, as preparatory 
to the study of physic. He then travelled through France 
and Germany, to Padua in Italy; where, having studied 
physic under Minadous, Fabricius ab Aquapendente, and 
Casserius, he was created doctor of physic and surgery in 
that university, 1602. He had a particular regard for Fa- 
bricius, often quotes him in terms of the highest respect ; 
and declares, that he was the more willing to publish his 
book, " De Motu Cordis," because Fabricius, who had 
learnedly and accurately delineated in a particular treatise 
almost all the parts of animals, had left the heart alone 
untouched. Soon after, returning to England, he was in- 
corporated M. D. at Cambridge, and went to London to 
practise, and married. In 1604, he was admitted candi- 
date of the college of physicians in London ; and three 
years after fellow, and physician to St. Bartholomew's hos- 
pital. In 1615, he was appointed lecturer of anatomy and 
surgery in that college ; and the year after read a course of 
lectures there, the original MS. of which is extant in the 
British Museum, and is entitled, " Prcelectiones anatom. 
universal, per me Gulielmum Harvaeiunu medicum Londi- 
nensem, anat. & chirurg. professorem." This appoint- 
ment of lecturer was probably the more immediate cause 
of the publication of his grand discovery of the circulation 
of the I id. The date of this promulgation is not abso- 
lutely a -tained : it is commonly said that he first dis- 
closed is opinion on the subject in 1619; but the index 
of his MS, containing the propositions on which the doc- 
trine is founded, refers them to April 1616. Yet with a 
patience and caution, peculiarly characteristic of the sound 

' Ath. Ox. vol. II. Granger, vol. IV, -Rees's Cyclopa-dia. 

H A E V E Y. 213 

philosopher, he withheld his opinions from the world, until 
reiterated experiment had amply confirmed his doctrine, 
and had enabled him to demonstrate it in detail, and to 
advance every proof of its truth of which the subject is 

In 1628 he published at Francfort his " Exercitatio ana- 
tomicade motu cordis & sang inis;" dedicated to Charles I. 
There follows also another dedication to the college of 
physicians, in which he observes, thiit he had frequently 
before, in his " Anatomical Lectures," declared his new 
opinion concerning the motion and use of the heart, and 
the circulation of the blood ; and for above nine years had 
confirmed and illustrated it before the college, by reasons 
and arguments grounded upon ocular d moustration, and 
defended it from the objections of the most skilful anato- 
mists. This discovery was of such vast importance to the 
whole art of physic, that as soon as men were satisfied, 
which they were in a tew years, that it could not be con- 
tested, several put in for the prize themselves, and a great 
many affirmed the disc very to be due to others. Some 
asserted, that father Paul was the first discoverer of the 
circulation, but being too much suspected tor hetero- 
doxies already, durst not make it public, for fear of the 
inquisition. Honoratus Faber professed himself to be the 
author of that opinion ; and Vander Linden, who published 
an edition of Hippocrates, about the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, took a great deal of pains to prove, that 
this father of physic knew the circulation of the blood, and 
that Harvey only revived it*. But the honour of the dis- 
covery has been sufficiently asserted and confirmed to 
Harvey ; and, says Freind, " as it was entirely owing to 
him, so he has explained it with all the clearness imagin- 
able : and, though much has been written upon tuat sub- 
ject since, I may venture to say, his own book is the 
shortest, the plainest, and the most convincing, of any, as 
we may be satisfied, it' we look into the many apologies 
written in defence of the circulation." 

In 1632 he was made physician to Charles I. as he had 
been before to king James ; and, adhering to the royal 
cause upon the breaking out of the civil wars, attended 

* In our time Dr. William Hunter See his " Two Introductory Lectures 
seems to have stood alone in an at- to his last course of Anatomical Lee- 
tempt to deprecia e (he merit of Har- tures," published in 1784, 4to. 
vey as the discoyerer of the circulation. 

214 HARVEY. 

his majesty at the battle of Edge-hill, and thence to Ox- 
ford ; where, in 1642, he was incorporated M. D. Inr 
V645 the king procured him to be elected warden of Mer- 
ton-college in that university ; but, upon the surrender- 
ing of Oxford the year after to the parliament, he left that 
office, and retired to London. In 1651 he published his 
book, entitled " Exercitationes de Generatione anima- 
limn." This is a curious work, and had certainly been 
more so, but for some misfortune, by which his papers 
perished, during the time of the civil wars. For although 
he had both leave and an express order from the parlia- 
ment to attend his majesty upon his leaving Whitehall, 
yet his house, in London, was in his absence plundered 
of all the furniture; and his "Adversaria," with a great 
number of anatomical observations, relating especially to 
the generation of insects, were taken away. This loss he 
lamented several years after in terms which show how he 
felt it. 

In the following year, 1652, Harvey had the satisfaction 
of seeing his merits acknowledged by his brethren in an 
unusual and most honourable manner : by a vote of the 
college his bust in marble was placed in their hall, with a 
suitable inscription recording his discoveries. He returned 
this compliment, by presenting to the college, at a splen- 
did entertainment to which he invited the members, an 
elegantly furnished convocation-room, and a museum filled 
with choice books and chirurgical instruments, which he 
had built, at his own expence, in their garden. On the 
resignation of Dr Prujeau, in 1654, Harvey was unani- 
mously nominated to the presidency, but he declined the 
offer on account of his age and infirmities. He still, how- 
ever, frequented the meetings of the college ; and his at- 
tachment to that body was shewn more conspicuously in 
1656, when, at the first anniversary feast instituted by 
himself, he gave up his paternal estate of fifty-six pounds 
per annum in perpetuity, for their use. The particular 
purposes of this donation were, the institution of an an- 
nual feast, at which a Latin oration should be spoken in 
commemoration of the benefactors of the college, a gra- 
tuity for the orator, and a provision for the keeper of his 
library and museum. His old age was afflicted with in- 
firmities, especially with most excruciating attacks of the 
gout; but he lived to complete his eighty-eighth year, ac- 
COrding to his epitaph, and expired on the 3d of June 

HARVEY. 215 

1658, in great tranquillity and self-possession. He was 
buried in the chapel of Hampstead, belonging to tbe church 
of Great Samfurd in Essex, where there is a monument 
erected over his grave with a Latin inscription. 

The private character of this great man appears to have 
been in every respect worthy of his public reputation. 
Cheerful, candid, and upright, he lived on terms of great 
harmony with his friends and brethren, and exhibited no 
spirit of rivalry or hostility in his career. He spoke mo- 
destly of his own merits, and generally treated his contro- 
versial antagonists with temperate and civil language, 
often very different from their own. He wrote in a re- 
markably perspicuous Latin style, which is flowing and 
even eloquent where the subject allows of ornament. The 
college of physicians very properly honoured his memory 
by a splendid edition of all his works in quarto, 1766, to 
which a Latin life of the author was prefixed, elegantly 
written by Dr. Laurence. 1 

HARWOOD (EDWARD), a dissenting clergyman, was 
born in 1729, and having passed with reputation through 
his grammatical learning, he was entered as student for 
the profession of a dissenting minister, in the academy 
supported by Mr. Coward's funds. Upon quitting this 
place, he engaged as an assistant to a boarding-school at 
Peck ham, and preached occasionally for some neighbouring 
ministers in and out of London. During this period of 
his life he studied very diligently the Greek and Roman 
classics, to which he was devoted through life. In 1754 
he undertook the care of a grammar-school at Congleton, 
in Cheshire, and preached for some years on alternate 
Sundays, to two small societies in the vicinity of that 
town. In 1765 he removed to Bristol, and in about five 
years he was obliged, as he pretended, to quit his situation 
on account of his principles as an Arian and Arminian, 
being for some time scarcely able to walk along the streets 
of Bristol without insult ; but the truth was, that a charge 
of immorality was brought against him, which he never sa- 
tisfactorily answered, and which sufficiently accounted for 
his unpopularity. He had previously to this, in 1768, ob- 
tained the degree of D. D. from the university of Edin- 
burgh, and with this he came to London, and obtained 

1 B,iog. Brit. Rees's Cyclopedia. Some anecdotes of Harvey, by Aubrey, 
are given in the " Letters by eminent persons," 18J3, 3 vols r Svu.-r- 
$iog. Memoirs of Medicine. 

216 H A R W O O D. 

employment as a literary character, and also as an instruc- 
tor in the Greek and Latin classics. He died miserably 
poor, in 1794, after having been confined many years in 
consequence of a paralytic attack. He was author of 
many works, the most important of which is " A View of 
the various Editions of the Greek and Roman Classics," 
which has been several times reprinted, and has, as well as 
his " Introduction to the New Testament," been translated 
into several foreign languages. His other works were 
pamphlets on the Arian and Socinian controversy, if we 
except an edition of the Greek Testament, 2 vols. 8vo, 
and a " Translation of the New Testament," into modern 
English, which exhibits an extraordinary proof of want of 
taste and judgment. 1 

HASE (THEODORE DE), an eminent doctor and minister 
of Bremen, son of Cornelius de Hase, minister and pro- 
fessor of divinity at Bremen, and Sarah Wolter, a lady 
distinguished by her learning, and her knowledge of He- 
brew, was born November 30, 1682, and was appointed 
professor of belles-lettres at Hanau, but recalled to Bre- 
men the following year, to be minister and professor of 
Hebrew, and admitted D. D. at Francfort upon Oder in 
1712, though absent; and member of the royal society at 
Berlin in 1718. In 1723 he was made professor of divinity 
at, Bremen, and died there April 25, 1731. He left a 
volume of " Dissertations," which are much esteemed ; and 
assisted M. Lampe in a journal begun under the title of 
" Bibliotheca Historico-Philologico-Theoiogica," and con- 
tinued under that of " Musieum Historico-Philologico- 
Theologicum." His brother JAMES was also a man of 
considerable erudition. He published many classical 
tracts, which were well received by the learned. He died 
in 1723. 2 

HASENMULLER (DANIEL), a native of Holstein, was 
.born July 3, 1651, and educated partly at home and 
partly at Lubeck. He made such progress in the Greek 
and oriental languages, that he was in 1683 appointed to 
the professorship of the Greek language at the university 
of Kiel, to which was added that of the Hebrew and ori- 
ental languages; but he died before he had completed his 
fortieth year, May 29, 1691. His principal works are, 

LXIIL and LXlV.-Rees's Cyclopedia. 
. German, vol. XXIJ.-Moreri.-Saxii Onomast. 


1. " Dissertatio de Linguis Orientalibus," Leipsic, 1677, 
8vo. 2. " Henrici Opitii synasmus restitutus," ibid. 1678, 
and 1691, 4to. 3. " Biblia parva Gneca, in quibus dicta 
insigniora omnia ex Versione Septuagintavirali secundum 
ordmem librorum biblicorum observatum in biblis parvis 
Opitianis, cum cura exhibentur," Kilon, 1686, I2mo. 
4. An edition with notes of " Mich. Pselli de operatione 
Dsemonum." 5. " Janua Hebraismi aperta," Kilon, 169 1. 1 

HASSELQUIST (FREDERICK), one of the favourite 
pupils of Linnaeus, and eminently distinguished by hisillus" 
trations of the natural history and medicine of the Levant, 
was born at Toernvalla, in East Gothland, Jan. 3d, 1722. 
He was the son of a poor curate, who died at an early age, 
and whose widow, on account of mental and corporeal in- 
firmities, was obliged to be placed in the hospital at Vad- 
stena. Her brother, a worthy clergyman of the name of 
Pontin, educated young Hasselquist with his own children, 
at the school of Linkoeping; but he was soon deprived of 
this benefactor, and was obliged to become the tutor of 
young children till he was old enough to go to the univer- 
sity ; and by a similar plan he was enabled to support him- 
self after he entered at Upsal, in 1741. Here he soon 
took a decided turn for physic and natural history, and 
had some talents for poetry ; and such was his diligence, 
that his superiors procured him, in 1746, a royal stipend or 
scholarship. In June 1747, he published his thesis, en- 
titled " Vires Plantarum," setting forth the erroneous and 
often foolish principles on which plants had formerly been 
employed in medicine, and suggesting a truly philosophi- 
cal one iii their natural botanical affinities. 

In one of his botanical lectures in 1747, Linnaeus hap- 
pening to speak of Palestine, one of the most important 
and interesting countries to the philosopher as well as the 
divine, but of whose productions we had less knowledge 
than of those of India, the zeal of young Hasselquist became 
instantly excited. In vain did his preceptor, secretly de- 
lighted with his enthusiasm, represent to him the difficulties 
of the undertaking, the distance, the dangers, the expence, 
and above ail the weak state of his own health, particularly 
of his lungs. Hasselquist's first step was to solicit assist- 
ance to defray the expences of his journey, but the whole 
he obtained is represented as far inadequate to his under- 

Moreri. Niceron, vol. XLH. 

218 H A S S E L Q, U I S T. 

taking. He began, however, to learn the oriental tongues, 
at the same time that he was completing his academical 
studies, reading lectures, and obtaining the degree of 
licentiate in physic. The faculty, considering his merit and 
circumstances, Would not aliow him to he at any expence 
on this occasion, any more than for his attendance on the 
lectures of the professors. The degree of doctor of physic 
was afterwards conferred on him during his absence at Cairo, 
March 8th, 75!, \vithtne same honourable and delicate 
attention to his peculiar situation. In the spring of 174-9 
he went to Stockholm, read lectures on botany there during 
the summer, and so far recommended himself to public no- 
tice, that the company of merchants trailing to the Le- 
vant, offered him a free passage to Smyrna in one of their 
ships, in which he set sail August 7th, arriving at Smyrna 
on the 27th of November, 1749. He kept a regular journal 
f his voyage. Touching at Gottenburgh, he there met 
Toreen, just returned from China with abundance of trea- 
sures for his master Linnaeus, in whose works they have at 
various times been communicated to the public. 

At Smyrna Hasselquist nret with the kindest reception 
from his relation, Mr. Rydelius, the Swedish consul, as 
well as from the French consul, M. Peysonel, one of the 
first who suspected the animal nature of corals. He spent 
the winter in noticing every thing he could meet with re- 
specting the main objects of his pursuit, in this place and 
its neighbourhood, as well as the religious ceremonies and 
manners of the people. He visited the house and garden, 
once occupied by the famous Sherard, at Sedekio, near 
Smyrna, but found no traces of any great care having been 
taken to adorn the garden, or to store it with exotic plants. 
He made an excursion to Magnesia, his quality of phy- 
sician causing him to be received every where with respect. 
As the spring advanced he became desirous of extending 
his inquiries ; and early in May set sail for Alexandria, 
where he arrived on the 1 3th. Here the palm-trees, which 
now first presented themselves to his notice, excited him 
to inquire into and to verify the celebrated history of their 
artificial impregnation, of whicii he wrote a full account to 
Linnaeus. Having spent two months in seeing all he could 
at Alexandria, Rosetta, and Cairo, he visited the Egyp- 
tian pyramids in July, brought from thence Chondrilla 
juncea, the only plant he could find, which is. now in the 

H A S S E L Q U I S T. 21$ 

herbarium of his preceptor, was hospitably entertained by 
the Arabs, and returned safe to Cairo, where he had after- 
wards an opportunity of seeing the caravan depart for 
Mecca, of which he has given an ample and interesting 
description, as well as of many other festivals and exhi- 
bitions. He visited the catacombs, and examined many 
mummies of the ancient Ibis, by the size of which he was 
induced to take this famous bird to be a species of Ardea, 
common and almost peculiar to Egypt, different from the 
Tantalus Ibis of Linnaeus. The learned Cuvier, however, 
has recently shewn that naturalists have been widely mis- 
taken on this subject, and Bruce alone has indicated the 
real Ibis. 

Hasselqnist proceeded, in March 1751, to 'Damiata, 
whence he sailed for Jaffa, or Joppa, and arrived there 
after a voyage of four days. He had now reached the 
great theatre of his inquiries, the Holy Land ; and he en- 
tered upon the examination of its productions, and their 
sacred as well as medical history, with all the zeal which 
had at first prompted him to the journey, and which was 
crowned with eminent success. Having spent near two 
months in this celebrated country, he sailed from Seide 
the 23d of May, for Cyprus, from whence he proceeded 
to Rhodes, and to Stanchio, the ancient Cos, finally re- 
turning to Smyrna in the end of July. 

From time to time, in the course of his travels, he had 
written to LinnaBtis, and had sent home various natural 
curiosities, as well as several dissertations, which were 
printed in the Transactions of the Upsal and Stockholm 
academies. His letters to various friends were occasionally 
printed, in a periodical publication called Literary News, 
at Stockholm ; and in return for the entertainment and in- 
formation he gave his countrymen, they contributed some 
necessary supplies towards his expensive undertakings. 
Unfortunately he had, in the meanwhile, sacrificed, in- 
stead of restoring his health. He flattered himself, as all 
in his condition do, and thought that a winter's repose at 
Smyrna might restore him. He tried the country air and 
a milk diet, but he wasted away daily, like a lamp whose 
oil is spent, and departed this life, Feb. 9, 1752, at six in 
the evening, to the inexpressible grief o f all who knew 
him, in the 31st year of his age. 

In the course of his expensive journeys and his illness, 
this unfortunate young man had unavoidably incurred debts 


beyond what his casual supplies from home could liquidate; 
and the collections and manuscript notes, which still re- 
mained at Smyrna, were seized by his creditors, for a sum 
amounting to 14,000 dollars of copper-money, or about 
350/. sterling. This circumstance was no sooner made 
known, through Linnaeus and his friend Bteck, to the ac- 
complished queen of Sweden, Louisa Ulrica, the worthy 
sister of the great Frederick of Prussia, than she imme- 
diately redeemed these treasures out of her own purse, 
gave Linnaeus all the duplicates, and commissioned him to 
arrange and publish the manuscript journal and remarks 
of his deceased pupil ; a task which he undertook with 
alacrity, and executed with care and judgment. These 
papers were given to the public in 1757, in Swedish, ex- 
cept several Latin descriptions, under the title of " Iter 
Palaestinum," or a Journey to the Holy Land, in one vo- 
lume, 8vo, with a biographical preface by Linnseus, who 
subjoined to the work the very interesting letters of Has- 
selquist to himself. This book has been translated into 
several languages, and appeared in English, at London, in 
1766; but this translation is in many parts defective, es- 
pecially with regard to the natural history and the scientific 
names. In 1758 the above-mentioned Dr. Baeck, physi- 
cian to the queen, published, at Stockholm, an oration in 
praise of Hasselquist, in 8vo. 

Hasselquist must ever rank high as an original and faith- 
ful observer, not only in his own immediate line of study, 
out in whatever came before him. His illustrations of the 
natural history of Scripture are above all things valuable 
and correct. Far less prone to go learnedly and inge- 
niously astray than his distinguished countryman Olaus 
Celsius, in the " Hierobotanicon," he has, by accurate 
observation and plain sense, cleared up many difficulties, 
which commentators, without the former, and disdaining 
the latter, have often embroiled. 1 

HASTED (EDWARD), the historian of Kent, was the 
only son of Edward Hasted of Hawley, in Kent, esq. bar- 
rister at law, descended paternally from the noble family 
of Clifford, and maternally from the ancient and knightly 
family of the Dingleys of Woolverton in the Isle of Wight. 
He was born in 1732, and probably received a liberal edu- 
cation ; but we have no account of his early life. At one 

1 Rws's Cyclopaedia, by tle President of the Linnsean Society. 

HASTED. 221 

time he possessed a competent landed property in the 
county of Kent, and sat in the chair for a little while at 
the quarter sessions at Canterbury. His laborious " His- 
tory of Kent" employed his time and attention for upwards 
of forty years ; and such was his ardour in endeavouring 
to trace the descent of Kentish property, that he had ab- 
stracted with his own hand, in two folio volumes, all the 
wills in the prerogative office at Canterbury. His mate- 
rials, in other respects, appear to have been ample. He 
had access to all the public offices and repositories of re- 
cords in London ; to the libraries and archives of the arch- 
bishop at Lambeth, the dean and chapter of Canterbury, 
and that at Surrenden in Kent. He had also the MS col- 
lections of Thorpe, Le Neve, Warburton, Edmondson, 
Lewis, Twisden, and many others, with much valuable 
correspondence with the gentlemen of the county. This 
work was completed in four folio volumes, 1778 1799. 
The whole exhibits more research than taste, either in ar- 
ranging the information, or in style ; and it is very defec- 
tive in notices of manners, arts, or biographical and lite- 
rary history. Its highest praise is that of a faithful record 
of the property of the country, and of its genealogical his- 
tory. During the latter part of his labours, he fell into 
pecuniary difficulties, which are thought to have prevented 
his making a proper use of his materials, and obliged him 
to quit his residence in Kent. After this he lived in ob- 
scure retirement, and for some time in the environs of 
London. A few years before his death, the earl of Rad- 
nor presented him to the mastership of the hospital at Cor- 
sham in Wiltshire, to which he then removed j and some 
time after by a decree in the court of chancery, recovered 
his estates in Kent. He died at the master's lodge at Cor- 
sham, Jan. 14, 1812. By Anne his wife, who died in 1803, 
Mr. Hasted left four sons and two daughters, of whom the 
eldest son is vicar of Hollingborne, near Maidstone in 
Kent, and in the commission of the peace for that county. 1 
HASTINGS (LADY ELIZABETH), a lady of high rank 
and higher virtues, the daughter of Theophilus earl of 
Huntingdon, was born April 19, 1682. Her mother was 
the daughter of sir John Lewis, of Ledstone, in the county 
of York. The accession of a large fortune, after the death 
wf her brother George earl of Huntingdon, enabled her to 

4 Account by himself, Gent. Mag. LXXXII. Cough's Topography, &c 


afford an illustrious example of active goodness and bene- 
volence. She fixed her principal residence at Ledstone- 
house, where she became the patroness of merit, the be- 
nefactress of the indigent, and the intelligent friend and 
counsellor of the surrounding neighbourhood. Temperate, 
chaste, and simple, in her habits, she devoted her time, 
her fortune, and the powers of her understanding, which 
was of a high order, to the benefit an4 happiness of all 
around her. il Her cares,'* says her biographer, " extend- 
ed even to the animal creation ; while over her domestics 
she presided with the dispositions of apparent, providing 
for the improvement of their minds, the decency of their 
behaviour, and the propriety of their manners. She would 
have the skill and contrivance of every artificer used in her 
house, employed for the ease of her servants, and that they 
might suffer no inconvenience or hardship. Besides pro- 
viding for the order, harmony, and peace of her family, 
she kept great elegance in and about her house, that her 
poor neighbours might not fall into idleness and poverty 
for want of employment ; and while she thus tenderly re- 
garded the poor, she would visit those in the higher ranks, 
lest they should accuse her of pride or superciliousness." 
Her system of benevolence was at once judicious and ex- 
tensive. Her benefactions were not confined to the neigh- 
bourhood in which she lived ; to many families, in various 
parts of the kingdom, she gave large annual allowances. 
To this may be added her munificence to her relations and 
friends, her remission of sums due to her in cases of dis- 
tress or straitened circumstances, and the noble hospitality 
of her establishment. To one relation she allowed five 
hundred pounds annually, to another she presented a gift 
of three thousand pounds, and to a thifd three hundred 
guineas. She acted also with great liberality towards a 
young lady whose fortune had been injured in the South- 
sea scheme : yet the whole of her estates fell short of three 
thousand pounds a-year. In the manors of Ledstone, 
Ledsham, Thorpe-arche, and Colhngham, she erected 
charity-schools; and, for the support of them and other 
charities she gave, in her life-time. Collingham, Shadwell, 
and her estate at Burton Salmon. Sht also gave WOOL for 
building a new church at Leeds ; but, that this donation 
might not hurt the mother church there, she afterwards 
offered a farm near Leeds, of 23/. per annum, and capable 
of improvement, to be settled on the vicar and his succes- 


sors, provided the town would do the like ; which the cor- 
poration readily agreed to, and to her ladyship's benefac- 
tion added lands of the yearly value of 24/. tor Uie appli- 
cation of whicn they were to be entirely answerable to her 
kindred This excellent lady also bequeathed at her death 
considerable sums for charitable and public uses ; amongst 
which were five scholarships in Queen's college, Oxford, 
for students in divinity, of 28/. a year each, to be enjoyed 
for five years, and, as the rents should rise, some of her 
scholars to be capable, in time, of having 6Ql. per annum, 
for one or two years after the first term. She died Dec. 
22, 1739. She was fond of her pen, and frequently em- 
ployed herself in writing ; but, previous to her death, 
destroyed the greater part of her papers. Her fortune, 
beauty, and amiable qualities, procured her many solici- 
tations to change her state ; but she preferred, in a single 
and independent life, to be mistress 01 her actions, and 
the disposition of her income. 1 

HATCHER (THOMAS), the son of Dr. Hatcher, regius 
professor of physic in Cambridge, and physician to queen 
Mary, flourished in the sixteenth century, but of his birth, 
or death we have no dates. He became a fellow of Eton 
college in 1555. He is said to have left that fur Gray's 
inn, and to have afterwards studied physic. He compiled 
some memoirs of the eminent persons educated in Eton 
college, in two books, in a catalogue of all tne provosts, 
fellows, and scholars, to the year 1572. Mr. Harwood 
acknowledges his obligations to this work, but leaves us at 
a loss to understand its being compiled " after the manner 
of Bayle." Hatcher, however, he informs us, was a very 
able antiquary, and a learned and pious man. He pub- 
lished the epistles and orations of his fellow-collegian, 
Walter Haddon, in a book entitled " Lucubrationes." He 
died in Lincolnshire. 2 

HATFIELD (THOMAS), bishop of Durham. Of this 
great prelate we meet with few accounts previous to his 
promotion to the see of Durham, except his being a pre- 
bendary of Lincoln and York, and secretary to Edward III. 
by whom he appears to have been much esteemed. Be- 
fore this time the popes had for many years taken upon 
them the authority of bestowing all the bishoprics in Eng- 

1 Barnard's Hist. Character of Lady Eliz. Hastings, 1742, 12iuo. Gent. 
Map. vol. VI. ami X. Tatler with notes, vol. I. p. 346, &c. 

2 Harwood's Alumni Etonenses. 

224 H A T F I E L D. 

land, without even consulting the king : this greatly of- 
fended the nobility and parliament, who enacted several 
statutes against it, and restored to the churches and con- 
vents their ancient privilege of election. Richard de Bury, 
bishop of Durham, dying April 24, 1345, king Edward 
was very desirous of obtaining this see for his secretary 
Hatfield ; but, fearing the convent should not elect, and 
the pope disapprove him, he applied to his holiness to 
bestow the bishopric upon him, and thereby gave him an 
opportunity of resuming his former usurpations. Glad of 
this, and of obliging the king, and showing his power at 
the same time, the pope immediately accepted him ; ob- 
jections, however, were made against him by some of the 
cardinals, as a man of light behaviour, and no way fit for 
the place ; to this the pope answered, that if the king of 
England had requested him for an ass, he would not at 
that time have denied him : he was therefore elected the 
8th of May, and consecrated bishop of Durham, 10th of 
July, 1345. 

What his former behaviour, on which the cardinals 
grounded their objections, may have been, is uncertain ; 
but it is scarce to be imagined, that a king of Edward's 
judgment and constant inclination to promote merit, would 
have raised him to such a dignity had he been so unde- 
serving; nor would he have employed him in so many 
affairs of consequence as he appears to have done had he 
not been capable of executing them. In 1346, David king 
of Scotland, at the head of 50,000 men, invaded England, 
and after plundering and destroying the country wherever 
he came, encamped his army in Bear-park, near Stanhope, 
141 the county of Durham, from which he detached parties 
to ravage the neighbouring country ; to repel these in- 
vaders, a great number of the northern noblemen armed 
all their vassals, and came to join the king, who was then 
at Durham; from thence they marched against the Scots 
in four separate bodies, the first of which was commanded 
by lord Percy and bishop Hatfield, who on this occasion 
assumed the warrior, as well as several other prelates. The 
Scots were defeated, and their king taken prisoner. In 
13 54 the bishop of Durham and lords Percy and Ralph 
Nevill were appointed commissioners to treat with the 
Scots for the ransom of their captive monarch. In 1355, 
when king Edward went into France at the head of a large 
army, he was attended by our prelate; to whom, however, 

H A T F I E L D. 225 

It is more important to mention, that Trinity college, in 
Oxford, owed its foundation ; it was at first called Durham 
college, and was originally intended for such monks of 
Durham as should chuse to study there, more particulars 
of which may be seen in Warton's Anglia Sacra. Wood, 
in his Annals, relates the matter somewhat differently. 
At the dissolution it was granted, in 1552, to Dr. Owen, 
who sold it to sir Thomas Pope, by whom it was refounded^ 
endowed, and called Trinity college. Before Hatfield's 
time, the bishops of Durham had no house in London to 
repair to when summoned to parliament ; to remedy this, 
this munificent prelate built a most elegant palace in the 
Strand, and called it Durham-house (lately Durham-yard), 
and by his will bequeathed it for ever to his successors in 
the bishopric. This palace continued in possession of the 
bishops till the reformation, when it was, in the fifth of 
Edward VI. demised to the princess Elizabeth. In the 
fourth of Mary it was again granted to bishop Tunstall and 
his successors, and afterwards let out on a building lease, 
with the reservation of 200/. a year out-rent, which the 
bishop now receives. On this pfat of ground the Adelphi 
buildings are erected. 

Bishop Hatfield was the principal benefactor, if not the 
founder, of the Friary at Northallerton, in Yorkshire, for 
Carmelites or white friars. The records of his time give 
large accounts of his charities to the poor, his great hos- 
pitality and good housekeeping^ and of the sums he ex- 
pended in buildings and repairs during the time he held 
the bishopric. After a life spent in an uniform practice of 
munificence and charity, he died at his manor of Alfond, 
or Alford, near London, May 7, 1381, and by his will 
directed his body to be buried in his own cathedral. ' It is 
there entombed in the south aile under a monument of 
alabaster, prepared by himself in his life-time, which is 
now remaining very perfect, though without any in- 
scription. * 

HATTO, or ATTO VERCELLENSIS, bishop of Ver- 
celli, in Italy, of a noble family, was born in Piedmont iri 
the beginning of the tenth century, and was esteemed a 
learned divine and canonist. He was promoted to the 
bishopric of Vercelli in the year 945, and by knowledge 
and amiable manners proved himself worthy of this rank, 

1 Godwin. Antiq. Repertory. Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, vol. L 


226 H A T T O. 

It is not mentioned when he died. His works are, I. " Li- 
beilus de pressuris Ecclesiasticis," in three parts, inserted 
in D'Achery's " Spicilegium." This treatise on the suf- 
ferings and grievances of the church, Mosheim says, shews 
in their true colours the spirit and complexion of the times. 
2. " Epistolae." 3. " Canones statutaque Vercellensis Ec- 
clesiae," both in the same collection. In the Vatican, and 
among the archives of Vercelli, are many other produc- 
tions of this author, all of which were collected by Baron- 
zio, and published as the " Complete works of Hatto," in. 
1768, 2 vols. fol. 1 

HATTON (Sia CHRISTOPHER), a statesman and lawyer 
in queen Elizabeth's reign, was the third and youngest son, 
of William Hatton, of Holdenby in Northamptonshire, by 
Alice, daughter .of Lawrence Saunders, of Horringworth, 
in the same county. He was entered a gentleman com- 
moner of St. Mary Hall, Oxford, but removed, without 
taking a degree, to the society of the Inner Temple, not 
to study law, but that his mind might be enlarged by an 
intercourse with those who were at once men of business 
and of the world, for such was the character of the lawyers 
of that day. He came on one occasion to the court at a 
masque, where queen Elizabeth was struck by the elegance 
of his person, and his graceful dancing. It is not impro- 
bable also that his conversation corresponded with his out- 
ward appearance. He was from this time, however, in the 
way to preferment ; from one of the queen's pensioners he 
became successively a gentleman of the privy chamber, 
captain of the guard, vice-chamberlain, and privy-coun- 
sellor, and by these unusual gradations rose to the office 
of lord chancellor in 1587, when he was likewise elected a 
knight of the garter. His insufficiency is said at first to 
have created strong prejudices among the lawyers against 
him, founded, perhaps, on some degree of envy at his 
sudden advancement without the accustomed studies ; but 
his good natural capacity supplied the place of experience 
and study; and his decisions were not found deficient 
either in point of equity or judgment. In all matters of 
great moment he is said to have consulted Dr. Swale, a 
civilian. " His station," says one of his biographers, " was 
great, his dispatches were quick and weighty, his orders 
.many, yet all consistent : being very seldom reversed ijii 

1 Biog. Uaiverselle in Acton Moreri iu Atton, JMosheij 

H A T T O N. 227 

thartcery, and his advice opposed more seldom in council. 
He was so just, that his sentence was a law to the subject, 
and so wise, that his opinion was an oracle to the queen.'* 
When, in 1586, queen Elizabeth sent a new deputation to 
queen Mary of Scotland, informing her that the plea of 
that unhappy princess, either from her royal dignity, or 
from her imprisonment, could not be admitted, sir Chris- 
topher Hatton was one of the number, along with Bur- 
leigh, and Bromley the chancellor; and it was by Hatton's 
advice chiefly, that Mary was persuaded to answer before 
the court, and thereby give an appearance of legal pro- 
ceed u re to the trial. 

Sir Christopher did not enjoy his high office above four 
years, and died unmarried, Sept. 20, 1591, of a broken 
heart, as usually reported, owing to the stern perseverance 
with which Elizabeth had demanded an old debt which he 
was unable to pay. Camden enumerates him among the 
liberal patrons of learning, and as eminent for his piety 
towards God, his fidelity to his country, his untainted 
integrity, and unparalleled charity. In his opinions re- 
specting matters of religion, he appears to have been 
averse to persecution, which brought upon him the re- 
proach of being secretly affected to popery, but of this we 
have no proof. As chancellor of Oxford, which office he 
held from 1588 to his death, he did much to reform the 
education and discipline of that university. He was buried 
under a stately monument in the choir of St. Paul's. Wood 
says he wrote several things pertaining to the law, none of 
which are extant 2 but the following has been attributed to 
him, " A Treatise concerning Statutes or Acts of Parlia- 
ment, and the exposition thereof," Lond. 1677, 8vo. War- 
ton thinks he was the undoubted writer of " the fourth act 
in the tragedy of Tancred and Gismund," which bears at 
the end composuit Ch. Hat. This play was the joint pro- 
duction of five students of the Inner Temple, and was 
acted at that society before the queen in 1568, but not 
printed till 1592. It is reprinted in the second edition of 
Dodsley's collection. * 

HAUTEFEUILLE (JOHN), an ingenious mechanic, born 
at Orleans, March 20, 1647, made a great progress in me- 
chanics in general, but had a particular taste for clock- 

1 Lives of the Lord Chancellors. Ath. Ox. vol. II. Lodge's Illustrations, 
x'Qls. II. and III, Park's edition of Royal and Noble Authors. Lloyd's State 
Worthies. Peck's Desiderata, vol. I. Hume's Hist. Fuller's Worthies, 

*2ft H A U T E F E U I L L E. 

work, and made several discoveries in it that were of 
singular use. He found out the secret of moderating 
the vibration of the balance by means of a small steel- 
spring, which has since been made use of. This dis- 
covery he laid before the members of the academy of 
sciences in 1694 ; and these watches are, by way of emi- 
nence, called pendulum-watches ; not that they have real 
pendulums, but because they nearly approach to the just- 
ness of pendulums. M. Huygens perfected this happy 
invention ; but having declared himself the inventor, and 
obtained a patent for making watches with spiral springs, 
the abbe* Feuille opposed the registering of it, and pub- 
lished a piece on the subject against Huygens. He died 
iu 1724. Besides the above, he wrote a great many other 
pieces, most of which are small pamphlets, but very cu- 
rious ; as, 1. His " Perpetual Pendulum." 2. " New In- 
ventions." 3. " The Art of Breathing under Water, and 
the means of preserving a Flame shut up in a small place." 
4. " Reflections on Machines for raising water." 5. His 
opinion on the different sentiments of Mallebranche and 
Regis, relating to the appearance of the Moon when seen 
in the horizon. 6. " The Magnetic Balance." 7. " A 
Placet to the king on the Longitude." 8. " Letter on the 
secret of the Longitude." 9. " A New System on the 
Flux and Reflux of the Sea." 10. "The means of making 
sensible experiments that prove the Motion of the Earth ;" 
and many other pieces. * 

HAVERCAMP (SIGEBERT), a classical editor of consi- 
derable fame, was born in 1684, but where, or where edu- 
cated, none of our authorities mention. In 1718 we find 
him a preacher at the village of Stad aan't Haringvliet,. in 
the island of Overflacke, between Holland and Zealand, 
in which year he published " Tertulliani Apologeticus," 
Leyden, 8vo, with a commentary. In 1721 he was ap- 
pointed professor of Greek in the university of Leyden, 
and afterwards filled the chair of history and rhetoric. He 
died in that city, April 25, 1742. He translated many of 
the writings of the Italian antiquaries into Latin for Van- 
der Aa's " Thesaurus Italiae," and for Polenus's " Sup- 
.plementa nova utriusque Thesauri Romanarum Grsecarum- 
que Autiquitatum." His principal separate publications- 
are, 1. " Dissert, de Alexandri magni numismate," Ley- 

1 Moreri. Button's Diet Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 180. 


ien, 1722, 4to. 2. " Oratio cle actione oratoris, sive cor- 
poris eloquentia," ibid. 1724, 4to. 3. " Series numisma- 
tum antiquorum Henr. Adriani a Mark," 1727, 8vo. 4. 
" Museum Hilenbroekianum," without date or place. 5.. 
" Thesaurus Morellian us: familiarum Romanarum numis- 
mata," with a commentary, Amst. fol. 1734. 6. "A His- 
tory of Asia, Africa, and Europe, from the end of the fa- 
bulous ages," in Dutch, three parts, 1736 39, fol. with 
plates of coins. 7. " Sylloge scriptorum de pronunciations 
Grascae Linguae," Leid. 1736 and 1740. 8. " Reguin et 
imperatorum Romanorum numismata, ducis Croyiaci, et 
Arschotani, &c." Amst. 1738, 4to, &c. The classics he edited 
were, 1. " Lucretius," Leyden, 1725, 2 vols. 4to, a very 
splendid, learned, and critical edition : some have given 
it the preference to all former editions, and it appears* as 
yet doubtful whether it be excelled by that of the late 
Mr. Gilbert Wakefield. 2. " Josephus," fol. Amst. 1726. 
By this he seems to have lost almost as much reputation as 
he gained by his Lucretius, it being shamefully incorrect. 

3. " Eutropius," Leyden, 1729, 8vo, an excellent edition. 

4. " Dionysius Periegetes," Gr. Lat. ibid. 1738. 5. " Sal- 
lust." Amst. 1742, 2 vols. 4to, on the basis of Wasse and 
Gruter, but with very little from Havercamp, except the 
notes on the " Fragmenta Sallustiana," and good indexes. 1 

HAWE8 (STEPHEN), an English poet who flourished 
about the end of the fifteenth century, was a native of 
Suffolk, and educated at Oxford. He travelled afterwards 
in England, Scotland, France, and Italy, and became a 
complete master of French and Italian poetry. On his 
return, his acquired politeness and knowledge procured 
him an establishment in the household of Henry VII. who 
was struck with the liveliness of his conversation, and ad- 
mired the readiness with which he could repeat most of 
the old English poets, especially Lydgate : his knowledge 
also of the French tongue might be a recommendation to 
that monarch, who was fond of studying the best French 
books then in vogue. 

Hawes's principal work is his " Pastime of x Pleasure," 
first printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1517, with wooden 
cuts. This, Mr. Warton says, contains no common touches 
-of romantic and allegoric fiction. The personifications are 
often happily sustained, and indicate the writer's familiarity 

1 Moreri, Saxii Onomast. Pibdin's Classics. 

230 H A W E S. 

with the Provincial school : he also says that " Hawes has 
added new graces to Lvdgate's manner." Mr. Ellis, how- 
ever, seems to be of a different opinion, and thinks that 
he has copied Lydgate's worst manner ; and that he is dif- 
fuse, fond of expletives and epithets which add nothing to 
the sense. Hawes's other works are, " The Temple of 
Glass, 1 ' in imitation of Chaucer's "Temple of Fame; 1 ' 
" The Conversyon of Swerers," and one or two other ra- 
rities, described in our authorities. 1 

HAWES (WILLIAM), an English physician, and founder 
of the Humane Society, was born at Islington, Nov. 28,1736; 
and received the early part of his education in his native 
village, and completed it in St. Paul's school. He was 
afterwards placed with Mr. Carsan, an ingenious medical 
practitioner near Vauxhall ; and, on the expiration of his 
apprenticeship, was for a short time an assistant to Mr. 
Dicks, in the Strand, whom he succeeded in business; 
and, by his application, and unwearied attention to his 
patients, acquired a considerable degree of reputation and 
affectionate esteem. In May 1759, he married an amiable 
woman, by whom he had a numerous family, and who 
survives to lament his loss. 

In 1773 he became deservedly popular, from his inces- 
sant zeal in calling the attention of the public to the resus- 
citation of persons apparently dead, principally by drown- 
ing. In this laudable attempt he encountered much oppo- 
sition, and some ridicule. The practicability of resuscita- 
tion was denied. He ascertained its practicability by ad- 
vertising rewards to persons, who, between Westminster 
and London bridges, should, within a certain time after 
the accident, rescue drowned persons from the water, and 
bring them ashore to places appointed for their reception, 
where means might be used for their recovery, and give 
immediate notice to him. The public mind being thus 
awakened to the subject, greater exertions were made by 
individuals than had ever before been known ; and many 
lives were saved by himself and other medical men, which 
would otherwise have certainly been lost; and Mr. Hawes, 
at his own expence, paid the rewards in these cases for 
twelve months, which amounted to a considerable sum. 
His excellent friend, Dr. Cogan (then somewhat known to 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. I. Bliss's edit. Ellis's Specimens, vol. I. p. 409. Warton's 
Hist, of Poetry. Phillips's Theatrum. Cens. Lit. vol. III. and IV. 


the public, and since much better known, by several va- 
luable publications), who had long turned his thoughts to 
this subject, remonstrated with him on the injury which 
his private fortune would sustain from a perseverance .in 
these expences ; and he at last consented to share them with 
the public. Dr. Coganancl he agreed to join their strength; 
and each of them bringing forward fifteen friends to a 
meeting at the Chapter coftee-house in 1774, the Humane 
Society was instantly formed. From this period the weight 
and organization of the infant institution devolved in great 
measure on Mr. Hawes, whose undeviating labours have, 
it is hoped, established it for ever ; and without which, 
there would very probably not have been at this time a si- 
milar establishment in Europe, America, or India; where Hu- 
mane societies have now multiplied with every great stream 
that fructifies the soil of those different regions. 

In 1774, he published " An Account of Dr. Goldsmith's 
last Illness," whose death he ascribed to the improper ad- 
ministration of a popular medicine ; and from this unfortu- 
nate event he deduced many useful cautions respecting 
the exhibition of powerful medicines. 

In 1777, appeared his " Address on Premature Death 
and Premature Interment ;" which he liberally distributed, 
in order to awaken attention in the public mind, against 
the too early interment of persons supposed to be dead, 
before it was clearly ascertained that life was totally ex- 
tinct. This performance had been suggested to his mind, 
even prior to the establishment of the great object of re- 
suscitation, which he afterwards so successfully pursued. 

In 1780 was published, his third edition of an " Exami- 
nation of the Reverend John Wesley's Primitive Physick ;" 
in which the absurdities and dangerous remedies recom- 
mended by that venerable and (on many other accounts) 
respectable writer were acutely exposed by a combination 
of irony and serious argument. In 1780, or 1731, he re- 
moved to Palsgrave-place, and commenced practice as a 
physician ; the degree of doctor of medicine having been 
conferred upon him some time before. 

In 1781, Dr. Hawes published " An Address to the 
Legislature, on the Importance of the Humane Society;'* 
and, by his steady perseverance, and personal endeavours, 
he lived to see most of his objects realized, as conducive 
to the restoration of suspended animation. About the 
same period, appeared his " Address to the King and Par* 

332 H A'W E S. 

liament of Great Britain ; with Observations on the Gene- 
ral Bills of Mortality." These useful and interesting pub- 
lications gradually raised the reputation of the author to 
the notice of many learned, as well as benevolent, charac- 
ters. In the same year, he was elected physician to the 
Surrey Dispensary ; and about the same time, commenced 
his medical lectures on suspended animation ; and was the 
first, and perhaps the only, person that ever introduced 
the subject as a part of medical education. These lec- 
tures were closed by a proposal of bestowing prize-medals, 
suggested by the ardour of his mind, and founded by his 
munificence; and in October 1782, the gold medal was 
awarded, by four respectable physicians, to Dr. Richard 
Pearson, of Birmingham, and the silver medal to a writer 
whose paper wat signed Humanitas. Since that period 
similar prize-medals, bestowed by the Medical Society, 
have given rise to the invaluable works of Pearson, Good- 
win, Coleman, Kite, and Fothergill. 

In 1782, Dr. Hawes removed to East-cheap ; and (hav- 
ing been elected physician to the London Dispensary in 
1785) to Bury-street, in 1786; and to Spital-square in 
1791. In 1793, when the manufactories of cottons had so 
far superseded those of silks as to occasion temporary 
want, and even beggary, among the artisans in Spitalfields, 
Dr. Hawes singly stood forward ; and, principally by his 
activity, 1200 families were snatched from ruin. On this 
emergency he published a short address, which does great 
credit to his humanity and good sense. 

In 1796, Dr. Hawes favoured the public with a large 8vo 
volume, entitled " Transactions of the Royal Humane So- 
ciety, from 1774 to 1784," which was dedicated to the 
ting by royal permission. 

This worthy man died Dec. 5, 1808, and was interred in 
the new burying-ground at Islington. 

Dr. Hawes was a man totally without guile ; and self 
never entered into his contemplation. There was a sim- 
plicity in his manners, the result of an innocent and un- 
suspecting heart. Without possessing, or affecting to pos- 
sess, any very superior literary talents, he contrived to 
furnish to the public an acceptable work in his " Annual 
Reports." His practice had been considerable ; and his 
medical knowledge was respectable. In the resuscitative 

t he was eminently skilled. He was an honorary mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Humane Society; and of many 

H A W E S. 233 

others/ at Edinburgh, Manchester, Bath, &c. &c. and a 
vice-president of the London Electrical Dispensary. 

The Royal Humane Society is a shining and an eminent 
proof of his philanthropy ; an institution which has been 
found highly useful, and to establish which he employed 
many years of his life. The moment in which one of the 
regular anniversaries of the society were at an end, he be- 
gan to meditate plans for the success of the ensuing year. 
The nomination of succeeding stewards, the augmentation 
of the list of regular subscribers, and the obtaining of 
churches and preachers for the benefit of .his favourite in- 
stitution, were never out of his sight; and so much indeed 
did the Humane Society engross his attention, that his own 
immediate interests appeared to him to be subordinate 
considerations. He was always ready to afford both his 
pecuniary and his professional assistance to distress ; and 
his name ought to be recorded among those who add to 
the character of the nation, by the establishment of insti- 
tutions founded on benevolent principles. 1 

HAWKE (EDWARD, LORD HAWKE), an eminent naval 
officer, was the son of Edward Hawke, esq. barrister at law, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of Nathaniel Bladen, esq. He was 
from his youth brought up to the sea, and passed through 
the inferior stations till, in 17134, he was appointed captain 
of the Wolf. His intrepidity and conduct were first of all 
distinguished in the memorable engagement with the com- 
bined fleets of France and Spain on Toulon, in J744, when 
the English fleet was commanded by the admirals Mat- 
thews, Lestock, and Rowley. If all the English ships had 
done their duty on that day as well as the Berwick, which 
captain Hawke commanded, the honour and discipline of 
the navy would not have been so tarnished. He compelled 
the Pader, a Spanish vessel of 60 guns, to strike ; and, to 
succour the Princessa and Somerset, broke the line with- 
out orders, for which act of bravery he lost his commis- 
sion, but was honourably restored to his rank by the king. 
In 1747 he was appointed rear-admiral of the 'white ; and 
on the 14th of October, in the same year, fell in with a 
large French fleet, bound to the West Indies, convoyed 
by nine men of war, of which he captured seven. This 
was a glorious day tor England, and the event taught Bri- 
tish commanders to despise the old prejudice of staying 

Pent. Mag. vol. LXXV1II. and LXXX1. 

234 H A W K E. 

for a line of battle. " Perceiving," says the gallant admi- 
ral in his letters to the Admiralty, " that we lost time in 
forming our line, I made the signal for the whole squadron 
to chase, and when within a proper distance to engage." 
On October the 31st, admiral Hawke arrived at Portsmouth 
with his prizes, and as a reward of his bravery, he was 
soon afterwards made knight of the bath. In 1748 he was 
made vice-admiral of the blue, and elected an elder bro- 
ther of the Trinity-house; in 1755 he was appointed vice- 
admiral of the white, and in 1757 commanded the squa- 
dron which was sent to co-operate with sir John Mordaunt 
in the expedition against Rochfort. In 1759, sir Edward 
commanded the grand fleet opposed to that of the French 
equipped at Brest, and intended to invade these kingdoms. 
He accordingly sailed from Portsmouth, and, arriving off 
Brest, so stationed his ships that the French fleet did not 
dare to come out, and had the mortification of beholding 
their coast insulted, and their merchantmen taken. The 
admiral, however, being by a strong westerly wind blown 
from his station, the French seized this opportunity, and 
steered for Quiberon-bay, where a small English squadron 
lay under the command of commodore Duff. Sir Edward 
Hawke immediately went in pursuit of them, and on the 
20th of November came up with them off Belleisle. The 
wind blew exceedingly hard at the time, nevertheless the 
French were engaged, and totally defeated, nor was the 
navy of France able to undertake any thing of consequence 
during the remainder of the war. This service, owing to 
the nature of the coast, was peculiarly hazardous; but when 
the pilot represented the danger, our gallant admiral only 
replied, "You have done your duty in pointing out the 
difficulties ; you are now to comply with my order, and 
lay me along the Soleil Royal." For these and similar 
services, the king settled a pension of 2000/. per annum 
on sif Edward and his two sons, or the survivor of them; 
he also received the thanks of the house of commons, and 
the freedom of the city of Cork in a gold box. In 1765 
he was appointed vice-admiral of Great Britain, and first 
lord of the admiralty ; and, in 1776, he was made a peer 
of England, under the title of Baron Hawke, of Towton, in 
the county of York. His lordship married Catharine the 
daughter of Walter Brooke, of Burton-hall, in Yorkshire, 
esq. by whom he had four children. He was one of the 
greatest characters that ever adorned the British navy ; but 

HAWK E. 235 

most of all remarkable for the daring courage which in- 
duced him on many occasions to disregard those forms of 
conducting or sustaining an attack, which the rules and 
ceremonies of service had before considered as indispens- 
able. He died at his seat at Shepperton in Middlesex, 
October 14, 178 1. 1 

HAWKESWORTH (JOHN), an elegant and ingenious 
English writer, was born either in 1715, or 1719, in Lon- 
don, and was, as some report, brought up to the trade of a 
watchmaker. Sir John Hawkins, however, informs us that 
he was, when very young, a hired clerk to one Harvvood, 
an attorney in Grocers'-alley in the Poultry. His parents 
were probably dissenters, as he was a member of the cele- 
brated Mr. Bradbury's meeting, from which, it is said, he 
was expelled for some irregularities. It does not appear 
that he followed any profession, but devoted himself to 
study and literary employment. So early as 1744 he suc- 
ceeded Dr. Johnson in compiling the parliamentary de- 
bates for the Gentleman's Magazine, to which he after- 
wards contributed many of his earlier productions in verse. 
In 1746, he wrote in that publication, under the' name of 
Greville, the "Devil Painter, a tale ;" the " Chaise Percee," 
from the French; "Epistle to the King of Prussia;" 
" Lines to the Rev. Mr. Layng" (who was at this time a 
writer in the Magazine), and to the celebrated Warburton : 
" On a series of theological inquiries :" " A Thought from 
Marcus Antoninus ;" " The Smart." In- 1747 he contri- 
buted " The Accident ;" " Ants' Philosophy ;" " Death of 
Arachne;" "Chamontand Honorius ;" " Origin of Doubt;" 
" Life," an ode ; " Lines to Hope ;" " Winter," an ode ;" 
"The Experiment," a tale. In 1748, " The Midsummer 
Wish ;" " Solitude ;" " The two Doves," a fable ; " Au- 
tumn ;" in 1749, " Poverty insulted ;" "Region allotted 
to Old Maids;" " The Nymph at her Toilet;" " God is 
Love;" " Cloe's Soliloquy." Some of these are signed 
H. Greville. Whether he wrote any prose compositions is 
doubtful. Mr. Duncombe, on whose authority the above 
list is given, says nothing of prose. 

In 1752-3-4, he was concerned with Drs. Johnson, Ba- 
thurst, and Warton, in the Adventurer, and from the 
merit of his papers acquired much reputation and many 
friends. At this time, his wife kept a school for the edu- 

1 Collins's Peerage by sir E, Br ydges. Ckaniock'i Biog. Navalis. 

36 H A W K E S W O R T H. 

cation of young ladies, at Bromley in Kent; and his ambi- 
tion was to demonstrate by his writings how well qualified 
he was to superintend a seminary of that kind. But an 
incident happened after the publication of the Adventurer 
which gave a new turn to his ambition. Arohbishop Her- 
ring, who had read his essays with much delight, and had 
satisfied himself that the character of the author would 
fully justify the honour intended, conferred on him the 
degree of doctor of civil law, with which he was so elated, 
as to imagine that it opened a way for the profession of a 
civilian, and, having prepared himself by study, made an 
effort to be admitted a pleader in the ecclesiastical courts, 
but met with such opposition as obliged him to desist. 
After this disappointment, he devoted his attention again 
to the concerns of his school, which was much encouraged, 
and became a source of considerable emolument. This 
degree, however, and the consequence he began to ac- 
quire in the world, alienated him from son*e of the most 
valuable of his early friends. Although he had until this 
time, lived in habits of intimacy with Dr. Johnson, he 
appears to have withdrawn from him ; and it is singular, 
that in all Mr. Boswell's narrative of that eminent man's 
life, there is not one instance of a meeting between John- 
son and Hawkesworth. This seems in some degree to con- 
firm sir John Hawkins's account, which states that " his 
success wrought no good effects upon his mind and con- 
duct :" Dr. Johnson made the same remark, and with a 
keen resentment of his behaviour; and sir John thinks "he 
might use the same language to Hawkesworth himself, and 
also reproach him with the acceptance of an academical 
honour to which he could have no pretensions, and which 
Johnson, conceiving to be irregular, as many do, held in 
great contempt;" thus much is certain, that soon after the 
attainment of it the intimacy between them ceased. 

In 1756, at Garrick's desire, Dr. Hawkesworth altered 
the comedy of " Amphytrion, or the two Sosias," from 
Dryden, and in 1760 wrote " Zimri," an oratorio, set to 
music by Stanley, which appears to have been approved 
by the public. About the same time he altered for Drury- 
lane theatre, Southern's tragedy of" Oroonoko," by some 
omissions and some additions, but the latter, in the opinion 
of the critics, not enough to supply the place of the for- 
mer. In 1761 he appeared to more advantage as the 
author of a dramatic fairy tale, "Edgar and Emtneline;' 


acted at Drury-lane theatre with great success. Dr. 
Hawkes worth, having gained much popularity from the 
eastern stories introduced in the Adventurer, this year 
gave to the public, in two volumes, his line tale of " Al- 
moran and Hainet," which, notwithstanding some incon- 
sistencies and improbabilities of fable, is entitled to very 
high praise for its moral tendency, and was long a favou- 
rite with the public. 

In 1765 he published dean Swift's works, with explana- 
tory notes, and a life written upon a plan long before laid 
down by Dr. Johnson ; and here it is worthy of remark, 
that whatever coolness may at one time have subsisted be- 
tween them, all traces of animosity had been effaced from 
the mind of Dr. Johnson, when he characterized Hawkes- 
worth as a man " capable of dignifying his narration with 
so much elegance of language and force of sentiment.'* 
To this edition, the critics of the day discovered many ob- 
jections, which have, however, been since removed by 
more accurate information respecting Swift, and by the 
indefatigable researches of his more recent editor, Mr. 
Nichols, a man who cannot be praised too highly for having 
enlarged the resources of literary history. 

In 1766, Dr. Hawkesworth was the editor of three ad- 
ditional volumes of Swift's Letters, with notes and illus- 
trations. In this publication he discovers an uncommon 
warmth against infidel publications, and speaks of Boling- 
broke and his editor Mallet with the utmost detestation : that 
4 in this he was sincere, will appear from the following proof. 
We have already mentioned, that in 1744 he succeeded 
Dr. Johnson as the writer or compiler of the parliamen- 
tary debates in the Gentleman's Magazine ; in this office, 
if it maybe so termed, he continued until 1760, when 
the plan of the Magazine was improved by a Review of 
New Publications. Mr. Owen Ruffhead was the first who 
filled this department, and continued to do so about two 
years, according to sir John Hawkins, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Dr. Hawkesworth ; but there must have been 
an intermediate reviewer, if sir John be correct in the 
time when Mr. Ruffhead ceased to write, as Dr. Hawkes- 
worth's first appearance as a critic 'is ascertained, upon 
undoubted authority, to have been April 1765. In the 
month of October of that year, there appeared in the Ma- 
gazine an abstract of Voltaire's " Philosophical Dictionary," 
by a correspondent. Dr. Hawkesvvorth's friends, to vyhom 

238 H A W K E S W O R T H. 

it appears his connection with the Magazine was no secret, 
were alarmed to see an elaborate account of so impious a 
work ; and one of them wrote to him on the subject. An 
extract from his answer, now before us, and dated Nov. 
8, 176:5, will perhaps fill up a chasm in his personal as well 
as literary history. 

" I am always sorry when I hear anonymous perform- 
ance, not expressly owned, imputed to particular persons , 
that which a man never owned either privately or in public, 
I think he should not be accountable for. J speak feelingly 
on this subject, for though Mr. Duncombe assured you 
that tiie Magazine was solely under my direction, I must 
beg leave to assure you that it is not, nor ever was, there 
being in almost every number somethings that I never see, 
and some things that I do not approve. There is in the 
last number an account of Voltaire's ' Philosophical Dic- 
tionary,' a work of which I never would give any account, 
because I would not draw the attention of the public to it. 
It is true that the extracts exhibited in this article do not 
contain any thing contrary to religion or good morals ; but 
it is certain that these extracts will carry the book into 
many hands that otherwise it would never have reached ; 
and the book abounds with principles which a man ought 
to be hanged for publishing, though he believed them to 
be true, upon the same principle that all states hang rebels 
and traitors, though the offenders think rebellion and trea- 
son their duty to God. I beg, Sir, that you would do 
me the justice to say this whenever opportunity offers, 
especially with respect to the political part of the Maga- 
zine, for I never wrote a political pamphlet or paper, or 
ever directly or indirectly assisted in the writing of either 
in my life." 

In 1768 he published an excellent translation of " Te- 
lemachus," in 4to. He continued to review new books in 
the magazine, but without offering any publications from 
his own pen that can now be traced, until 1772, when he 
was invited to write an account of the late voyages to the 
South Seas, a fatal undertaking, and which in its conse- 
quences deprived him of peace of mind and life itself. 
When these navigators returned home, the desire of the 
public to be acquainted with the new scenes and new 
objects which were now brought to light, was ardently 
excited, and different attempts were made to satisfy the 
general curiosity. There soon appeared a publication 

H A W K E S W O R T H. 23* 

entitled " A Journal of a Voyage round the World." This 
was the production of some person who had been upon the 
expedition ; and, although the account was dry and im- 
perfect, it served in a certain degree to relieve the public 
-eagerness. The journal of Sydney Parkinson, draughts- 
man to sir Joseph Banks, to whom it belonged by ample 
purchase, was likewise printed, from a copy surreptitiously 
obtained; but an injunction from the court of chancery 
for some time prevented its appearance. This work, though 
dishonestly given to the world, was recommended by its 
plates. But it was Dr. Hawkesworth's* account of Lieu- 
tenant Cook's voyage which completely gratified the public 
curiosity, as it was written by authority, was drawn up 
from the journal of the lieutenant, and the papers of sir. 
Joseph Banks ; and besides the merit of the composition, 
derived an extraordinary advantage from the number and 
excellence of its charts and engravings, which were fur- 
nished at the expence of government. The large price 
given by the bookseller for this work, and the avidity with 
which it was read, displayed in the strongest light the 
anxiety of the nation to be fully informed in every thing 
that belonged to the late navigation and discoveries. 

This account, chiefly from the pen of Dr. Kippis, cap- 
tain Cook's biographer, in the Biographia Britannica, is 
too favourable : the public was not satisfied with this work. 
The literary journals, indeed, examined it with candour, 
and rather with favour ; but men of science were disap- 
pointed, and the friends of religion and morals were 
shocked/ No infidel could have obtruded opinions more 
adverse to the religious creed of the hation, than what 
Dr. Hawkesworth advanced in his preface. He denied a 
special providence ; he supposed that providence might 
act in some general way in producing events, but con- 
tended that one event ought not to be distinguished, or 
accounted an extraordinary interposition more than ano- 
ther. He asks, "If the deliverance of the Endeavour was 
an extraordinary interposition, why did not Providence 
interpose to prevent the ship from striking at all, rather 
than to prevent her from being beaten to pieces after she 

* Dr. Hawkesworth owed his ap- admiralty. Hawkesworth was profuse 

poiutment to write this work to the in his acknowledgments to Garrick, 

recommendation of Garrick, in a con- but forgot them in a manner which de- 

versation with the late earl Sand- prived him of Ganitk's frkniLhip. 
wich, at that time first lord of the 


had struck?" a question which was considered as much fitter 
for the mouth of a professed scoffer than that of a man whose 
regard tor revealed religion approached, in the opinion of 
some, to intemperate zeal. In his " Almoran and Hamet," 
his notions of providence are confused and perplexed ; but 
in this he has attacked revealed religion, by striking off 
one of its principal duties, and one of its most consoling 
hopes, the duty and efficacy of prayer, of which he was 
not, however, insensible when he wrote No. 28 of the Ad- 

An innumerable host of enemies now appeared in the 
newspapers and magazines ; some pointed out blunders in 
matters of science, and some exercised their wit in poetical 
translations and epigrams ; these might hurt his feelings 
as an author ; but the greater part, who arraigned his im- 
pious sentiments and indecent narratives, probably ren- 
dered his sufferings as a man more acute. Against their 
charges he stood defenceless; and no defence indeed 
could be attempted with a reasonable expectation of suc- 
cess. But what, we are told, completed his chagrin, was 
the notice frequently given in an infamous magazine pub- 
lished at that time, that " All the amorous passages and 

descriptions in Dr. Hawk th's Collection of Voyages 

^should be) selected and illustrated with a suitable plate" 
And this, in defiance of public decency, was actually done, 
and he whose fame had been raised on his labours in the 
cause of piety and morals, was thus dragged into a partner- 
ship in the most detestable depravity that the human mind 
can invent. 

That such a reception given to a work of which he 
thought he might be proud, and from which he drew so 
great an emolument*, should have irritated his mind, can 
excite little surprize. No respect for the services he had 
rendered to religion or virtue could obliterate the memory 
of his declension ; and it certainly aggravated the pain his 
friends felt, when they considered that whatever was ob- 
jectionable in this work, had come from his pen without 
provocation and without necessity, either from the nature 
of the undertaking, or the expectation of the public. He 
was, indeed, so sensible that his opinions would shock the 
feelings of his readers, that he thought it necessary to apo- 

* He received 6MO/. for this work. 

H A W K E S W O R T H. 

logize for them in a very respectful, although unsatisfac- 
tory manner. 

Soon after the publication of this ill-fated book, he be- 
.earne known to a lady who had great property and interest 
in the East India company ; and through her means was 
chosen a director of that body, at the general election, in 
April 1773. The affairs of the company were at this time 
in a confused state, and the public mind greatly agitated 
by the frequent debates both in parliament and at the India- 
house. Dr. Hawkesworth (who in the list is styled John 
Hawkesworth, esq.) probably attended the meetings, but 
took no active share: his health was indeed now declining ; 
and he expired at the house of his friend Dr. Grant, of 
Lime-street, Nov. 17, 1773. He was interred at Brom- 
ley, in Kent, where a monument was erected to his me- 

Of his personal character the following friendly sketch 
appeared in the Annual Register for 1773, and was no 
doubt intended to counteract some disadvantageous re- 
ports respecting his principles, which were circulated 
about the time of his death. " Nature had endowed him 
with an uncommonly fine understanding, which had been 
improved not only by long study, but by converse with 
mankind. His fertile mind teemed with ideas> which he 
delivered in so clear, and yet concise a manner, that no 
one could be at a loss perfectly to comprehend his meaning, 
or ever tired by hearing him speak ; especially as his dic- 
tion was so unaffectedly pure, and his language so simply 
elegant, that the learned and unlearned attended with 
equal pleasure to that unstudied flow of eloquence, which, 
without seeming to look for them, always adopted those 
words which were most suitable to the subject, as well as 
most pleasing to his hearers. It has been objected to him, 
that he suffered his passions to hold too strong a dominion 
over him j and it must be confessed a too keen sensibility 
seemed to him, as indeed it ever is to all who possess it, 
a pleasing but unfortunate gift. Alive to every tender sen- 
timent of friendship, his heart dilated with joy whenever 
heaven put it in his power to be beneficial to those he 
loved ; but this feeling disposition was the means of leading 
him into such frequent, though transient gusts of passion, 
as were too much for his delicate constitution to bear, 
without feeling the effects of them. Yet with all these 
quick sensations, he was incapable of lasting resentment 

242 H A W K E S W O R T H. 

or revenge ; and had he never found an enemy till he had 
done an injury, he would, we may venture to pronounce^ 
have left the world without having known one." l 

HAWKINS (SIR JOHN), an able naval commander, was* 
born at Plymouth about 1520. Being the son of a sea- 
man, captain William Hawkins, he imbibed a love for the 
profession, and when a youth made several voyages to 
Spain, Portugal, and the Canaries. In the spring of 1562 
he formed the design of his first famous voyage, the con- 
sequence of which was very important to his country, as 
he then began that traffic in slaves, which after two cen- 
turies and a half we have seen abolished. At that time, 
however, this trade was accounted honourable and useful, 
and sir John bore the badge of his exploits in a crest of 
arms granted him by patent, consisting of a " demi-moor 
in his proper colour, bound with a cord," not unlike a 
device which we have seen employed to excite an abhor- 
rence of the slave-trade when its abolition was first agi- 
tated. In returning from a third expedition of this kind 
he -was attacked and defeated by a Spanish fleet. After 
undergoing many hardships, he reached home in Jair. 
1568; and it is said that his ill-success in this instance 
damped his ardour for maritime enterprise. In 1573 he 
was appointed treasurer of the navy, and in a few months 
he had nearly lost his life by a wound from an enthusiastic 
assassin, who mistook him for another person. He was 
now consulted on every important occasion, and in 1588; 
was appointed rear-admiral on-board the Victory, to con- 
front the famous armada. His conduct on this occasion 
obtained for him the high commendations of his illustrious 
queen, the honour of knighthood, and other important com- 
mands in the navy. He died in 1595, it is said of vexation, 
on account of an unsuccessful attempt on the enemies pos- 
sessions in the West Indies, and in the Canaries. He was a 
good mathematician, and understood every thing that re- 
lated to his profession as a seaman. He possessed much 
personal courage, and had a presence of mind that set 
him above fear, and which enabled him frequently to de- 
liver himself and others out of the reach of the most im- 
minent dangers ; he had great sagacity, and formed his 
plans so judiciously, and executed the orders committed 

1 ftrUifih Kssayists. Preface to the Adventurer. Gent. Mag. see Index 

D'Israeli's Calaipitics.-r-JIawkifls'e Life of Dr. Johnson, Boswell's ditto, &e. 


to him with so much punctuality and accuracy, that he 
ever obtained the applause of his superiors. He was sub- 
missive to those above him, and courteous to his inferiors, 
extremely affable to his seamen, and much beloved by 
them. He sat twice in parliament as burgess for Ply- 
mouth, and once for some other borough. He erected 
an hospital at Chatham for the relief of disabled and dis- 
eased seamen, and is highly applauded by his contempo- 
raries and by historians, who lived after him. His son, 
sir RICHARD Hawkins, was brought up to a maritime life, 
and in 1582, when very young, he had the command of a 
vessel in an expedition under his uncle to the West In- 
dies ; he also commanded a ship in the action against the 
Spanish armada, in which he was greatly distinguished. 
About 1593, he sailed with three ships, his own property, 
to the coast of Brazil, at the commencement of a much 
longer voyage; but he was obliged to burn one of his 
little squadron, another deserted their commander, so that 
he was under the necessity of sailing alone through the 
straits of Magellan. To satisfy the desires of his men, he 
made prizes of some vessels, which drew upon him the 
whole force of a Spanish squadron, to which he was com- 
pelled to yield. After a confinement of two years in Peru 
and the adjacent provinces, he was sent back to Europe. He 
died in 1622, as he was attending, on business, the privy- 
council. He left behind him a work of considerable value, 
which was printed and ready for publication ; it is entitled 
" The Observations of sir Richard Hawkins, knight, into 
the South-sea, A.D. 1593." From this piece, which the 
author dedicated to prince Charles, afterwards king 
Charles I., it appears that the issue of his voyage to the 
South-seas, his long confinement, and the disasters which 
naturally attended it, brought him into great distress. His 
nautical observations, his description of the passage through 
the straits of Magellan, and his remarks on the sea-scurvy, 
and on the best methods of preserving his men in health, 
were considered at that period of very great importance. 
He intended to have published a second part of his obser- 
vations, in which he meant to have given an account of 
what happened to him and his companions during their 
stay in Peru, and in Terra Firma, but which death pre- 
vented him from accomplishing. 1 

1 Biog. Brit. Prince's Worthies of Devon, 
R 2 


HAWKINS (sir JOHN), a recent English writer, 
the son of a man, who, though descended from the pre- 
ceding sir John Hawkins, followed at first the occupa- 
tion of a house-carpenter, which he afterwards exchan- 
ged for the profession of a surveyor and huijder. He 
had married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gwatkin 
of Tou nhope, co. Hereford, gentleman ; and the issue of 
this marriage were several children. Of these the present 
object of this article was the youngest, and was born in the 
city of London, on the 30th day of March, 1719. After 
fcaving been sent first to one school, and afterwards to a 
second, where he acquired a tolerable knowledge of Latin, 
he was placed under the tuition of Mr. Hoppus, the au- 
thor of a well-known and useful architectural compendium, 
published in 1733, 8vo, and entitled " Proportional Ar- 
chitecture, or the Five Orders regulated by equal Farts." 
Under this person he went through a regular course of ar- 
chitecture and perspective, in order to fit him for his 
father's profession of a surveyor, for which he was at first 
intended ; but his first cousin, Mr. Thomas Gwatkin, being 
clerk to Mr. John Scott of Devonshire-street, Bishops- 
gate, an attorney and solicitor in full practice, persuaded 
him *to alter his resolution, and embrace that of the law, 
which he did, and was accordingly articled as a clerk to 
Mr. Scott. In this situation his time was too fully em- 
ployed in the actual dispatch of business, to permit him 
without some extraordinary means to acquire the neces* 
sary knowledge of his profession by reading and study ; 
besides that, his master is said to have been more artxious 
to render him a good copying-clerk, by scrupulous atten- 
tion to his hand-writing, than to qualify him by instruc- 
tion to conduct business. To remedy this inconvenience, 
therefore, he abridged himself of iiis rest, and rising at 
four in the morning, found opportunity of reading all the 
necessary and most eminent law-writers, and the works 
of our mos% celebrated authors. By these means, be- 
fore the expiration of his clerkship, he had already 
rendered himself a very able lawyer, and had possessed 
himself of a taste for literature in general, but particu- 
larly for poetry and the polite arts ; and the better to 
facilitate his improvement, he from time to time fur- 
nished to " The Universal Spectator," " The West- 
minster Journal," The Gentleman's Magazine," and 
other periodical publications of the time, essays and 

HAW K-I N S. 245 

disquisitions on several subjects*. The first of these is 
believed to have been an " Essay on Swearing ;" but the 
exact time of its appearance, and the paper in which it 
was inserted, are both equally unknown. It was, however, 
re-published some years since (without his knowledge till 
he saw it in print) in one of the newspapers. His next 
production was an " Essay on Honesty," inserted in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for March, 1739; and which oc- 
casioned a controversy, continued through the magazine* 
for several succeeding months, between him and a Mr. 
Calamy, a descendant of the celebrated Dr. Edmund Ca- 
lamy, then a fellow-clerk with him. 

Without friends or family connections, or at least with- 
out such as could advance him in the profession to which 
he had betaken himself, he was now (his clerkship being 
expired, and he himself admitted an attorney and solicitor) 
to seek for the means of procuring business by making for 
himself reputable and proper connections. 

About 1741, a club having been instituted by Mr. Im- 
inyns, an attorney, a musical man, (but better known as 
the amanuensis of Dr. Pepusch), and some other musical 
persons, under the name of " The Madrigal Society," to 
meet every Wednesday evening, he became a member of 
it, and continued so many years. Pursuing his inclination 
for music still farther, he became also a member of " The 
Academy of Ancient Music," which used to meet every 
Thursday evening at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand, 
but afterwards removed to Freemasons' -hall ; and of this 
he continued a member till a few years before its removal. 

Impelled by his own taste for poetry, and excited to it 
by his friend Foster Webb's example, who had contributed 
to * The Gentleman's Magazine" many very elegant 
poetical compositions, he had, before this time, himself 
become an occasional contributor in the same kind, as well 
to that as to some other publications. The earliest of hi? 
productions of this species, now known, is supposed to be 
a copy of verses " To Mr. John Stanley, occasioned by 
looking over some compositions of his, lately published," 
which bears date 19th February, 1740, and was inserted in 
"The Daily Advertiser" for February 21, 1741; but, 
about 1742, he proposed to Mr. Stanley the project of 

* In some of his visits on these and first became acquainted with Dr. Joh n- 
similar occasions to Cave, the editor son, soon after the connection betwe e$ 
of "The Gentlcmau's Magazine," he Cave and Johnson commenced. 


publishing', in conjunction with him, six cantatas for a 
Voice and instruments, the words to be furnished by him- 
self, and the iriusic by Mr. Stanley. The proposal was 
accepted, the publication was to be at their joint expence, 
and for their mutual benefit ; and accordingly, in 1742, six 
cantatas were thus published, the five first written by Mr. 
Hawkins, the sixth arid last by Foster Webb ; and, these 
having succeeded beyond the most sanguine expectations, 
a second set of six more, written wholly by himself, were 
in like manner published a few months after, and succeed- 
ed equally well. > 

As these compositions, by being frequently performed 
'at Vauxhall, Ranelagh, and other public places, and at 
many private concerts, had become favourite entertain- 
ments, and established the author's reputation as a poet, 
many persons, finding him also a modest well-informed 
young man of unexceptionable morals, were become desi- 
rous of his acquaintance. Among these was Mr. Hare of 
Lhnehouse, a brewer, who being himself a musical man, 
and having met him at Mr. Stanley's at musical parties, 
gave him an invitation to his house ; and, to forward him 
in his profession, introduced him to a friend of his, Peter 
Storer of Highgate, esq. This introduction became, from 
his own good conduct, the means of making Mr. Hawkins's 
fortune, though in a way which neither he nor Mr. Hare 
at that time could foresee, and different from that in which 
it was first intended. 

In the winter of this year 1749, Dr. (then Mr.) Johnson 
was induced to institute a club to meet every Tuesday 
evening at the King's Head, in Ivy-lane, near St. Paul's. 
It consisted only of nine persons, and Mr. Hawkins was 
invited to become one of the first members ; and about 
this time, as it is supposed, finding his father's house, 
where he had hitherto resided, too small for the dispatch 
of his business, now very much increasing, he, in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Munckley, a physician, with whom he had 
contracted ah intimacy, took a house in ClementVlane, 
Lombard-street. The ground-floor was occupied by him 
as an office, and the first floor by the doctor as his apart- 
ment. Here he continued till the beginning of 1753, 
when, on occasion of his marriage with Sidney, ; the 
youngest of Mr. Storer's daughters, who brought" him a 
considerable fortune, which was afterwards greatly in- 
creased, he took a house in Austin Friars, near Broad- 

H A W K I N S. 247 

street, still continuing to follow his profession of an attor- 
ney. Having received, on the death of Peter Storer, esq. 
his wife's brother, in 1759 ; a very large addition to her 
fortune, he quitted business to the present Mr. chamber- 
lain Clark, who had a short time before completed his 
clerkship under him, disposed of his house in Austin Friars, 
and purchasing a house at Twickenham for a country, he 
soon afterwards bought the lease of one in Hatton-street, 
London, for a town-residence. 

From a very early period of his life he had entertained a 
strong love for the amusement of angling ; and being long 
acquainted with Walton's. " Complete Angler," had, by 
observation and experience, himself become a very able 
proficient in the art. Hearing, about this time, that Mr. 
Moses Browne proposed to publish a new edition of that 
work, and being himself in possession of some material 
particulars respecting Walton, he, by letter, made Mr. 
Browne an offer of writing, for his intended edition,- Wal- 
ton's Life. To this proposal no answer was returned, at 
least for some time, from which circumstance Mr. Hawkins 
concluded, as any one reasonably would, that his offer was 
not accepted ; and, therefore, having also learnt in the 
mean time that Mr. B. meant not to publish the text as 
the author left it, but to modernize it in order to file off 
die rust, as he called it, wrote again to tell Mr. Browne 
that he so understood it; and that, as Mr. B.'s intention 
was to sophisticate the text in the manner above men- 
tioned, he, Mr. Hawkins, would himself publish a correct 
edition. Such an edition, in 1760, he accordingly pub- 
lished in octavo with notes, adding to it a " Life of Wal- 
ton" by himself, a " Life of Cotton," the author of the 
second part, by the well-known Mr. Oldys ; and 'a set' of 
cuts designed by Wale, and engraved by Ryland*. 

His propensity to music, manifested by his becoming a 
member and frequenter of the several musical societies be- 
fore mentioned, and also by a regular concert at his house 

* Of this work, three editions, each ever, every fact in the former, and 

containing a very large impression, adding several others. In 1792, after 

were sold off before 1784, when, there his death, a fifth edition was published 

being a demand for a fourth, he revised by his eldest Son (in which, fruui his 

and made very large additions to the papers, were inserted his last correc- 

" Life of Walton," and the notes to the tions and additions), the former im- 

work throughout ; and he re-wrote the pression of 1784 being at that time 

" Life of Cotton," in order to compress nearly disposed of.' 
it into less compass, retaining, how- 


in Austin Friars, had led him, at the same time that he 
was endeavouring to get together a good library of books, 
to be also solicitous foY collecting the works of some of the 
best musical composers ; and, among other acquisitions, 
it was his singular good fortune to become possessed by 
purchase of several of the most scarce and valuable theore- 
tical treatises on the science itself any where extant, which 
had formerly been collected by Dr. Pepusch*. With this 
stock of erudition, therefore, he about this time, at the 
instance of some very good judges, his friends, set about 
procuring materials for a work then very much wanted, a 
" History of the Science and Practice of Music," which he 
afterwards published. 

At the recommendation of the well-known Paul White- 
head, esq his neighbour in the country, who, conceiving 
him a fit person for a magistrate, had mentioned him as 
such to the duke of Newcastle, then lord lieutenant for. 
Middlesex, his name was, in 1761, inserted in the com- 
mission of the peace for that county ; and having, besides 
a due attention to the great work in which he was engaged, 
by the proper studies, and a sedulous attendance at the 
sessions, qualified himself for the office, he became an 
active and useful magistrate in the countyt. Observing, 
as he had frequent occasion to do in the course of his duty, 
the bad state of highways, and the great defect in the laws 
for amending and keeping them in repair, he set himself 
to revise the former statutes, and drew an act of parlia- 
ment consolidating ajl the former ones, and adding such 
other regulations as were necessary. His sentiments on 
this subject he published in octavo, in 1763, under the 
title of " Observations on the State of Highways, and on, 
the Laws for amending and keeping them in Repair," sub- 
joining to them the draught of the act before mentioned, 
which bill, being afterwards introduced into parliament, 
passed into a law, and is that under which all the highways 
in the kingdom are at this time kept repaired. Of this 

* This collection of treatises, he, af- house quarrel produced an application 
ter tlio completion of his work, gave, fora warrant. To check this, there- 
in 1778, to the British Museum, where fore, he altered his mode, and received, 
it still continues. his due fees, but kept them separately 

f When he first began to act, he in a purse ; and at the end of every 

formed a resolution of taking no fees, summer, before he left the country for. 

not even the legal and authorized on, the winter, delivered the whole amount 

and pursued this method for some time, to the clergyman of the parish, to be 

II he found that ii was a temptation to by him distributed among such of the 

litigation, and that every trilling ale- poor as he judged fit. 


bill it is but justice to add, that, in the experience of more 
than thirty years, it has never required a single amend* 

Johnson, and sir Joshua (then Mr.) Reynolds, had, in, 
the winter of this year 1763, projected the establishment 
of a club to meet every Monday evening at the Turk's 
Head in Gerrard street, and, at Johnson's solicitation, he, 
Mr. H. became one of the first members. This club, since 
known by the appellation of " The Literary Club," was at 
first intended, like the former in Ivy-lane, to have con- 
sisted of no more than nine persons, and that was the num- 
ber of the first members ; but the rule was broken through 
to admit one who had been a member of that in Ivy-lane, 
Till this admission, Johnson and Mr. Hawkins were the 
only persons that had been members of both. 

An event of considerable importance and magnitude, in 
1764, engaged him to stand forth as the champion of the 
county of Middlesex, against a claim, then for the first 
time set up, and so enormous in its amount as justly to 
excite resistance. The city of London finding it necessary 
to re-build the gaol of Newgate, the expence of which, 
according to their own estimates, would amount to 40,OOOJ. 
had this year applied to parliament, by a bill brought into 
the House of commons by their own members, in which, on 
a suggestion that the county prisoners, removed to New- 
gate for a few days previous to their trials at the Old 
Bailey, were as two to one to the London prisoners con- 
stantly confined there, they endeavoured to throw the bur- 
then of two-thirds of the expence on the county, while they 
themselves proposed to contribute one third only. This 
attempt the magistrates for Middlesex thought it their duty 
to oppose ; and accordingly a vigorous opposition to it was 
commenced and supported under the conduct of Mr. Haw- 
kins, who drew a petition against the bill, and a case of 
the county, which was printed and distributed amongst the 
members of both houses of parliament. It was the subject 
of a day's conversation in the House of lords ; and pro- 
duced such an effect in the House of commons, that the 
city, by their own members, moved for leave to withdraw 
the bill. The success of this opposition, and the abilities 
and spirit with which it was conducted, naturally attracted 
towards him the attention of his fellow-magistrates; and, a 
vacancy not long after happening in the office of chairman 
of the quarter sessions, Mr. Hawkins was, on the 19th day 
4>f September, 1765, elected the successor. 


In the year 1771 he quitted Twickenham, and, in the 
summer of the next year, he, for the purpose of obtaining, 
by searches in the Bodleian and other libraries there, far- 
ther materials for iiis History of Music, made a journey to 
Oxford, carrying with him an engraver from London, to 
make drawings from the portraits in the music-school. 

On occasion of actual tumults or expected disturbances, 
he had more than once been called into service of great 
personal danger. When the riots at Brentford had arisen, 
during the time of the Middlesex election in 1768, he and 
some of his brethren attended to suppress them ; and, in 
consequence of an expected riotous assembly of the jour- 
neymen Spitalfields weavers in Moorfields, in 1769, -the 
magistrates of Middlesex and he at their head, with a party 
of guards, attended to oppose them, but the mob, on see- 
ing them prepared, thought it prudent to disperse. In 
these and other instances, and particularly in his conduct 
as chairman, having given sufficient proof of his activity, 
resolution, abilities, integrity, and loyalty, he, on the 23d 
of October, 1772, received from his present majesty the 
honour of knighthood. 

Mr. Gostling of Canterbury, with whom, though they 
had never seen each other, he had for some years corre- 
sponded by letter, having invited him, he, in this year, 
paid him a visit at Canterbury, and procured from him a 
great deal of very curious musical intelligence, which none 
but Mr. Gostling could have furnished ; and in the month 
of June in the next year, 1773, he repeated his visit. In 
this latter year, 1773, Dr. Johnson and Mr. Steevens pub- 
lished, in ten volumes octavo, their first joint edition of 
Shakspeare, to which sir J. H. contributed such notes as 
are distinguished by his name, as he afterwards did a few 
inbre on the republication of it in 1778. An address to 
the king from the county of Middlesex, on occasion of the 
American war, having, in 1774, been judged expedient, 
end at his instance voted, he drew up such an address, and 
together with two of his brethren had,, in the month of 
October in that year, the honour of presenting it. 

After sixteen years' labour, he, in 1776, published, in 
five volumes, quarto, his " General History of the Science 
and Practice of Music," which, in consequence of permis- 
sion obtained in 1773 for that purpose, he dedicated to 
the king, and presented it to him at Buckingham-house 
on the Mth of November 1776, when he was honoured 


with an audience of considerable length both from the king 
and queen. Few works have been attacked with more 
acrimony and virulence than this. Its merit, however, as 
containing a great deal of original and curious information, 
which, but for its author, would have perished, has been 
amply attested by the approbation of some of the very best 
judges of the science and of literary composition ; and by 
thai of the university of Oxford, who, in consequence of 
its publication, made him soon after, a voluntary offer of 
the degree of doctor of laws, which he had reasons for de- 
clining, and afterwards paid him the compliment of re- 
questing his picture. 

Not long after this publication, in November 1777, he 
was induced, by an attempt to rob his house, which, 
though unsuccessful, was made three different nights with 
the interval of one or two only between each attempt, to 
quit his house in Hatton-street ; and, after a temporary 
residence for a short time in St. James's- place, he took a 
lease of one, formerly inhabited by the famous admiral 
Vernon, in the street leading up to Queen- square, West- 
minster, and removed thither. By this removal, he be- 
came a constant attendant on divine worship at the parish 
church of St. Margaret, Westminster ; and having learnt, 
in December 177S, that the surveyor to the board of ord- 
nance was, in defiance of a proviso in the lease under 
which they claimed, carrying up a building at the east end 
of the church, which was likely to obscure the beautiful 
painted glass window over the altar there, sir J. H. with 
the concurrence of some of the principal inhabitants, wrote 
to the surveyor, and compelled him to take down two feet 
of the wall, which he had already carried up above the sill 
of the window, and to slope off the roof of his building in 
such a manner as that it was not only no injury, but, on 
the contrary, a defence, to the window. 

In the month of December, 1783, Dr. Johnson, having 
discovered in himself symptoms of a dropsy, sent for sir 
John Hawkins, and telling him the precarious state of his 
health, declared his desire of making a will, and requested 
him to be one of his executors. On his accepting the 
office, he told him his intention of providing for his ser- 
vant; and, after concerting with him a plan for investing a 
sum of money for that purpose, he voluntarily opened to 
him the state of his circumstances, and the amount of what 
he had to dispose of. Finding the doctor, however, not- 


withstanding liis repeated solicitations from time to time, 
extremely averse to carrying this intention into effect by 
the actual execution of a will, and thinking it might in 
some measure arise from the want oi legal information as 
to the necessary form, he, sir J. from the above communi- 
cations, some time afterwards, drew and sent him a draught 
of a will, with instructions how to execute it, but leaving 
in it blanks for the names of his executors, and for that of 
the residuary legatee, (for though Johnson had given no 
instructions on this latter head, sir J. H. had apprized him 
of the absolute necessity of a bequest of the residue, that 
it might not become, as it would otherwise, by the silent 
operation of law, the property of his executors). Johnson 
still procrastinated, but at length executed this draught; so 
carelessly, however, as to omit firsts filling up the blanks, 

When this circumstance became known to sir J. H. he 
represented this act to him (as it really was) as a mere nul- 
lity ; and Johnson was prevailed upon, on the 27th of No- 
vember, 1784, at Mr. Strahan's, at Islington, to give him 
the necessary instructions, which he, sir J. on the spot con- 
verted into proper legal form, by dictating, conformably to. 
them, a will to Mr. Hoole, who, with some other friends, 
had there called in upon Johnson, and which being coin-* 
pleted, was executed by Johnson and properly attested. In 
the codicil, which Johnson afterwards made, sir J. assisted 
in the same manner, as to legal phraseology, and directing 
the proper mode of execution and attestation. 

From so long an acquaintance with him, and from hav- 
ing been intimately consulted in his affairs, and, as it is 
strongly believed, in consequence of a conversation that 
passed between them, sir J. H. was induced, on the event 
of Johnson's death, on the 13th day of December, 1784, to 
undertake to write a life of him, and accordingly he st;t 
himself to collect material^* for that purpose, and for an. 
edition of his works, which with his life was afterwards 
published. But, not three months after the commence- 
ment of this undertaking, he met with the severest loss 
that a literary man can sustain, in the destruction of his 
library ; consisting pf a numerous and well-chosen collec- 
tion of books, ancient and modern, in many languages, 
fnd on most subjects, which it had been the business of 
^bove thirty years at intervals to get together. This event 
was the consequence of a fire. Of this loss, great as it 
was in pecuniary value, and comprising in books, prints,, 


and drawings, many articles that could never be replaced, 
he was never heard in the smallest degree to complain ; 
but, having found a temporary reception in a large house 
in Orchard-street, Westminster, he continued there a short 
time, and then took a house in the Broad Sanctuary, 

This event, for a short time, put a stop to the progress 
of his undertaking. As soon, however, as he could suffi- 
ciently collect his thoughts, he recommenced his office of 
biographer of Johnson, and editor of his works ; and com- 
pleted his intention by publishing, in 1787^ the life and 
works, in eleven volumes, 8vo, which he dedicated to the 
king. With this production he terminated his literary la- 
bours ; and, having for many years been more particularly 
sedulous in his attention to the duties of religion, and ac- 
customed to spend all his leisure from other necessary con- 
cerns in theological and devotional studies, he now more 
closely addicted himself to them, and set himself more es- 
pecially to prepare for that event which he saw could be at 
no great distance ; and, the better to accomplish this end, 
he, in the month of May 1788,, by a will and other proper 
instruments, made such an arrangement of his affairs as he 
meant should take place after his decease. 

In this manner he spent his time till about the month of 
May 1789, when, finding his appetite fail him in a greates 
degree than usual, he had recourse, as he had sometimes 
had before on the same occasion, to the waters of the Isling- 
ton Spa. These lie drank for a few mornings; but on the 
14th of that month, while he was there, he was, it is sup- 
posed, seized with a paralytic affection, as on his return- 
ing to the carriage which waited for him, his servants per- 
ceived a visible alteration in him. On his arrival at home 
he went to bed, but got up a few hours after, intending 
to receive an old friend from whom he expected a visit in 
the evening. At dinner, however, his disorder returning, 
he was led up to bed, from which he never rose, for, 
being afterwards accompanied with an apoplexy, it put a 
period to his Jife, on the 2 1st of the same month, about 
two in the morning. He was interred on the 28th in the 
cloisters of Westminster-abbey, in the north walk near 
the easternmost door into the church, under a stone, con- 
taining, by his express injunctions, no more than the ini- 
tials of his name, the date of his death and his age ; leav- 
ing behind biox a high reputation for abilities and integrity, 


united with the well-earned character of an active and reso- 
lute magistrate, an affectionate husband and father, a firm 
and zealous friend, a loyal subject, and a sincere Christian 
(as, notwithstanding the calumnies of his enemies, can be 
abundantly testified by the evidence of many persons now- 
living), and rich in the friendship and esteem of very many 
of the very first characters for rank, worth, and abilities, 
of the age in which he lived. 1 

HAWKSMOOR (NICHOLAS), an architect of consider- 
able note, was born in 1666, and at the age of seventeen 
became the scholar of sir Christopher Wren, but deviated 
a little from the lessons and practice of his master, at least 
he did not improve on them, though his knowledge in 
every science connected with his art, is much commended, 
and his character remains unblemished. He was deputy- 
surveyor at the building of Chelsea college, clerk of the 
works at Greenwich, and was continued in the same posts 
by king William, queen Anne, and George I. at Kensing- 
ton, Whitehall, and St. James's ; surveyor of all the new 
churches, and of Westminster-abbey, from the death of 
sir Christopher, and designed many that were erected in 
pursuance of the statute of queen Anne for building fifty 
new churches : viz. St. Mary Wool no th, in Lombard-street; 
Christ church, in Spitaifields ; St. George, Middlesex ; St. 
Anne, Limehouse ; and St. George, Bloomsbury ; the 
steeple. of which is a master-stroke of absurdity. It con- 
sists of an obelisk : topped with the statue of George I. 
hugged by the royal supporters: a lion, "an unicorn, and a 
king, on such an eminence, as Walpole observes, are very 
surprizing. He also rebuilt some part of All Souls' college, 
Oxford, and gave the plan for a new front to the street, 
which may be seen in Williams's " Oxonia," but has never 
been executed. At Blenheim and Castle-Howard he was 
associated with Vanbrugh, and was employed in erecting 
a magnificent mausoleum there, when he died in March 
1736, near seventy years of age. He built several man- 
sions, particularly Easton Neston in Northamptonshire ; 
restored a defect in Beverley minster by a machine that 
screwed up the fabric with extraordinary art ; repaired, in 
a judicious manner, the west end of Westminster-abbey ; 
and gave a design for the Radcliife library at Oxford. 2 

1 From information communicated by the family, for the last edition of this 
work. 3 whole's Anecdotes. 

H A W K W O O D. 25S 

HAWKWOOD (SiR JOHN), a brave officer of the four, 
teenth century, has been slightly noticed by his contem- 
poraries at home, and would not have been brought into a 
conspicuous point of view but for the engraved portrait of 
him presented to the society of antiquaries in 1775, by 
lord Hailes. He is said, by the concurrent testimony of 
our writers, to have been the son of a tanner of Sible He- 
dingham, in Essex, where he was born in the reign of 
Edward II. Mr. Morant says, the manor of Hawk wood in. 
that parish takes its name from sir John. But it was 
holden before him by Stephen Hawkwood, probably his 
father, a circumstance which would lead one to doubt the 
meanness of his birth as well as his profession. Persons 
who gave names to manors were generally of more consi- 
derable rank : and the manor appears to have been in the 
family from the time of king John. 

Our hero is said to have been put apprentice to a tailor 
in London : " but soon," says Fuller, " turned his needle 
into a sword, and his thimble into a shield," being prest 
into the service of Edward III. for his French wars, where 
he behaved himself so valiantly, that from a common sol- 
dier he was promoted to the rank of captain ; and for some 
farther good service had the honour of knighthood con- 
ferred on him by that king, though he was accounted the 
poorest knight in the army. His general, the black prince, 
highly esteemed him for his valour and conduct, of which 
he gave extraordinary proofs at the battle of Poictiers. 

Upon the conclusion of the peace between the English 
and French by the treaty of Bretigni 1360, sir John, find- 
ing his estate too small to support his title and dignity, 
associated himself with certain companies called, by Frois- 
sart, " Les Tard Venus ;" by Walsingham, " Magna Co- 
mitiva." These were formed by persons of various nations, 
who, having hitherto found employment in the wars be- 
tween England and France, and having held governments, 
or built and fortified ho.uses in the latter kingdom which, 
they were now obliged to give up, found themselves re- 
duced to this desperate method of supporting themselves 
and their soldiers by marauding and pillaging, or by en-, 
gaging in the service of less states, which happened to be 
at war with each other. Villani, indeed, charges Edward 
III. with secretly authorizing these ravages in France, 
while outwardly he affected a strict observance of the 
peace. At this time, in tlie summer, continues this his- 

ft A W K W O O D. 

torian, ah English tailor, named John della Guglea, that 
is, John of the needle, who had distinguished himself iri 
the war, began to form a company of marauders, and col- 
lected a number of English, who delighted in mischief, 
and hoped to live by plunder, surprizing and pillaging 
first one town, and then another. This company increased 
so much that they became the terror of the whole country. 
All who had not fortified places to defend them were forced 
to treat with him, and furnish him with provision and mo- 
ney, for which he promised them his protection. The 
effect of this was, that in a few months he acquired great 
wealth. Having also received an accession of followers 
and power, he roved from one country to another, till at 
length he came to the Po. There he made all who came 
in his way prisoners. The clergy he pillaged, but let the 
laity go without injury. The court of Rome was greatly 
alarmed at these proceedings, and made preparations to 
oppose these banditti. Upon the arrival of certain English- 
men on the banks of the Po, Hawkwood resigned his com- 
mand to them, and professed submission to the king of 
England, to whose servants he presented a large share of 
his ill-gotten wealth. 

The first appearance of Hawkwood in Italy- was in the 
1*isan service in 1364; after which period he was every 
where considered as a most accomplished soldier, and 
fought, as different occasions presented themselves, in the 
service of many of the Italian states. In 1387 we find him 
engaged in a hazardous service in defence of the state of 
Florence. The earl of Armagnac, the Florentine general, 
having been lately defeated by Venni, the governor of the 
Siannese, the victors marched to surprize Hawkwood, and 
encamped within a mile and a half of him. But this cau- 
tious general retreated into the Cremonese, and when by 
several skirmishes he had amused the enemy, who kept 
within a mile of him, and thought to force his camp, he 
sallied out and repulsed them with loss. This success 
a little discouraged them. Venni is said to have sent 
Hawkwood a fox in a cage, alluding to his situation ; to 
which Hawkwood returned for answer, " the fox knew how 
to find his way out." This he did by retreating to the 
river Oglio, placing his best horse in the rear till the 
enemy had crossed the river, on whose opposite bank he 
placed 400 English archers on horseback. The rear by 
their assistance crossed the river and followed the rest, 


H A W K W O O D. 257 

who, after fording the Mincio, encamped within ten miles 
of the Adige. The greatest danger remained here. The 
enemy had broken down the banks of the river, and let out 
its waters, swoln by the melting of the snow and mountains 
to overflow the plains. Hawkwood's troops, surprized at 
midnight by the increasing floods, had no resource but im- 
mediately to mount their horses, and, leaving all their 
baggage behind them, marched in the morning slowly 
through the water, which came up to their horses bellies. 
By evening, with great difficulty, they gained Baldo, a 
town in the Paduan. Some of the weaker horses sunk 
under the fatigue. Many of the foot perished with cold, 
and struggling against the water; many supported them- 
selves by laying hold on the tails of the stronger horses. 
Notwithstanding every precaution, many of the cavalry 
were lost as well as their horses. The pursuers, seeing 
the country under water, and concluding the whole army 
had perished, returned back. The historian observes, that 
it was universally agreed no other general could have got 
over so many difficulties and dangers, and led back his 
small army out of the heart of the enemy's country, with 
no other loss than that occasioned by the floods, which no 
precaution could have prevented. One of the most cele- 
brated actions of Hawkwood's life, says Muratori, was this 
treat, performed with so much prudence and art, that 
! deserves to be paralleled with the most illustrious Ro- 
man generals ; having, to the disgrace of an enemy infi- 
nitely superior in number, and in spite of all obstructions 
from the rivers, given them the slip, and brought off his 
army safe to Castel Baldo, on the borders of the Paduan. 
Sir John Hawkwood, as soon as he found himself among 
his allies, employed himself in refreshing his troop and 
watching the enemy's motions. 

At the end of 1391 the Florentines made peace with Ga- 
leazzo and the rest of their enemies, though on disadvanta- 
geous terms. To reduce the expences of the state, they 
discharged their foreign auxiliaries, except Hawkwood, 
of whose valour and fidelity they had had such repeated 
proofs, with 1000 men under his command. 

Peace being now re-established abroad, the city of Flo- 
rence was, in 1393, distracted with civil feuds, which were 
not terminated by the execution and exile of some prin- 
cipal citizens. But at the close of this year they sus- 
tained a greater loss in sir John Hawkwood, who died 
,. XVIL s 

258 H A W K W O O D. 

March 6, advanced in years, at his house in the street 
called PulveYosa, near Florence. His funeral was cele- 
brated with -reat magnificence, ami the ge.teral lamenta- 
tion of the whole city. His bier, adorned with gold and 
jewels, was supported by the first persons of the republic, 
followed by horses in gilded trappings, banners, and other 
military ensigns, and the whole body of the citizens. His 
remains were deposited in the church of St. Repar.ita, 
where a statue (as Poggio and Rossi call it, though it is 
well known to be a portrait) of him on horseback was put 
np by a public decree. If the Florentine historians did 
not distinguish between a statue and a portrait, no wonder 
our countryman Stowe talks of an " image as great as a 
mighty pillar," erecteci to the memory of sir John Hawk- 
wood at Florence ; or that Weever, copying him, calls it 
" a statue." 

In the representation of this hero painted on the dome 
of the church, he appears mounted on a pacing gelding, 
whose bridle, with the square ornament embossed on it, is 
covered with crimson velvet or cloth, and the saddle is red, 
stuffed or quilted. He is dressed in armour with a surcoat 
flowing on from his shoulders, but girt about his body ; 
his greaves are covered with silk or cloth, but the knee- 
pieces may be distinguished under them : his shoes, which 
are probably part of his greaves, are pointed according to 
the fashion of the times. His hands are bare : in his right 
he holds a yellow baton of office, which rests on his thigh ; 
in his left the bridle. His head, which has very short hair, 
is covered with a cap not unlike our earls' coronets, with 
a border of wrought work. 

Sir John had a cenotaph in the church of his native town, 
erected by his executors Robert Rokeden senior and junior, 
and John Coe. It is described by Weever, as " a tomb 
arched over, and engraven to the likeness of hawks flying 
in a wood," which, Fuller says, was " quite flown away." 
It is plain the last of these writers never took any pains to 
visit or procure true information about this monument, 
which still remains in good preservation near the upper 
end of the fourth aile of Sible Hedingham church. The 
arch of this tomb is of the mixed kind, terminating in a 
sort of bouquet, on both sides of which, over the arch, are 
smaller arches of tracery in relief. The arch is adorned 
with hawks and their bells, and other emblems of hunting, 
.as. a hare, a boar, a boy sounding a conch-shell, c. The 

H A W K W O O D. 259 

two pillars that support it are charged with a dragon and 
lion. Under this arch is a low altar-tomb with five shields 
in quatrefoils, formerly painted. In the south window 
of the chantry chapel, at the east end of this aile, are 
painted hawks, hawks bells, and escallops, which last are 
part of the Havvkwood iirms, as the first were probably the 
crest, as well as a rebus of the name ; and we find a hawk 
volant on sir John's seal. In the north and west side of 
the tower are two very neat hawks on perches in relief, in 
rondeaux hollowed in the wall : that over the west door is 
extremely well preserved. They probably denote that 
some of the family built the tower. Mr. Morant imagines 
some of them rebuilt this church about the reign of Ed- 
ward III. but none appear to have been in circumstances 
equal to such munificence before our hero ; and perhaps 
his heirs were the rebuilders. 

Contemporary and succeeding writers agree in their 
praises of this illustrious general. Both friends and ene- 
mies considered him as one of the greatest soldiers of his 
age. Poggio styles him " rei militaris scientia clarus, et 
bello assuetus," " dux sagax," " dux prudens," " tantus 
dux," " rei bellicae peritissimus," fl ad belli officia pruden- 
tissimus," " expertae virtutis et fidei ;" epithets these 
which might serve instead of a particular character. Mu- 
ratori calls him, " II prodeet il accortissimo capitano." As 
he had been formed under the Black Prince, it is not to 
be wondered that his army became the most exact school 
of martial discipline, in which were trained many captains, 
who afterwards rose to great eminence. 

The circumstances of the times must make an apology 
for the frequent changes of his service, which led him to 
engage as suited his interest. He was a soldier of fortune; 
and his abilities in the field occasioned him to be couned 
by different rival states. The Florentines offered the best 
terms, and to them he ever after adhered with an irre- 
proachable fidelity. His chanty appears in his joining with 
several persons of quality in this kingdom, in founding the 
English hospital at Rome for the entertainment of poor 
travellers. * 

HAWLES (JOHN), an English lawyer, the son of Tho- 
mas Hawles, gent, was born at Salisbury in 1645, and edu- 
cated at Winchester school, whence he entered as a com* 

* Life, by Mr. Gojigh, in Bibl. Topog. Brit. No. I V. Shepherd's Life rf 
Poggio, p, 18. 

S 2 

260 H A W L E S. 

moner of Queen's college, Oxford, in 1662, but, like most 
men intended for the study of the law, left the university 
without taking a degree. He removed to Lincoln's Inn, 
and after studying the usual period, was admitted to the 
bar, and, as Wood says, became " a person of note for 
his profession." On the accession of king William, he 
more openly avowed revolution-principles, and published 
" Remarks upon the Trials of Edward Fitzharris, Stephen 
Coiledge, count Coningsmarke, the lord Russel, &c." Lond. 
1689, foho; and a shorter tract called " The Magistracy 
and Government of England vindicated ; or a justification 
of the English method of proceedings against criminals, by 
way of answer to the Defence of the late lord Russel's 
innocence," ibid. 1689, fol. In 1691 he stood candidate 
for the recordership of London against sir Bartholomew 
Shower, but was unsuccessful. In 1695, however, he was 
appointed solicitor general, which office he held until 
1702. He was one of the managers against Dr. Sacheverel 
in his memorable trial. He died Aug. 2, 1716. l 

HAY (WILLIAM), esq. an agreeable English writer, was 
born at Glenburne in Sussex, Aug. 21, 1695, and edu- 
cated partly at Newick, near Lewes, and partly at Lewes. 
In 1712 he went to Oxford, which he left without a degree, 
and removed to the Temple. Here he studied the law 
until a defect in his sight from the small pox obliged him 
to relinquish it. In 1718 he travelled in England and 
Scotland, and in 1720 on the continent, where he was a 
very acute observer and inquirer. After his return he re- 
sided for some years at his house in Sussex. 

When lord Hardwicke was called up to the house of 
lords in 1734, he was chosen to succeed him in repre- 
senting the borough of Seatbrd in the Commons ; and he 
represented this borough for the remainder of his life. He 
defended the measures of sir Robert Walpole in general, 
but was far from being subservient or indiscriminate in his 
approbation of public measures. In 1728 he published his 
1 Essay on Civil Government;" in 1730 his poem entitled 
" Mount Caburn," dedicated to the duchess of Newcastle, 
in which he celebrates the beauties of his native country, 
and the virtues of his friends. In 1735 he published " Re- 
marks on the Laws relative to the Poor, with proposals for 
their better relief and employment ; and at the same time 

1 Ath. OK. vol. H. 

H A Y. 261 

brought in a bill for the purpose. He made another at- 
tempt of this kind, but without effect. In May 1738, he 
was appointed a commissioner of the victualling-office. In 
1753 appeared " Religio Philosophi ; or, the principles 
of morality and Christianity, illustrated from a view of che 
universe, and of man's situation in it." This was followed, 
in- 1754, by his " Essay on Deformity ;" in which h*3 rallies 
his own imperfection in this respect with much liveliness 
and good humour. " Bodily deformity," says he, " is 
very rare. Among 558 gentlemen in the House of com- 
mons, I am the only one that is so. Thanks to my worthy 
constituents, who never objected to my person, and I hope 
never to give them cause to object to my behaviour." The 
same year he translated Hawkins Browne " De Immortali- 
tati Animse." In 1755 he translated and modernized some 
" Epigrams of Martial ;" but survived this publication only 
a short time, dying June 22, the same year. A little time 
before, he had been appointed keeper of the records in 
the Tower ; and it is said that his attention and assiduity, 
during the few months he held that office, were eminently 
serviceable to his successors. 

He left a son, who inherited the imperfect form of his 
father. This gentleman went into the service of the East 
India company, where he acquired rank, fortune, and re- 
putation; but, being one of those who opposed Cossim 
Ally Kawn, and unfortunately falling into his hands, was, 
\vith other gentlemen, ordered to be put to death at Patna, 
October 5, 1762. Mr. Hay's works were collected by his 
daughter in two volumes, quarto, 1794, with a biographi- 
cal sketch, exhibiting his many amiable qualities, and pub- 
lic spirit. l 

HAYDN (JOSEPH), an eminent musical composer, was 
born at llhorau, in Lower Austria, in 1733. His father, 
a wheelwright by trade, played upon the harp without the 
least knowledge of music, which, however, excited the 
attention of his son, and first gave birth to his passion for 
music. In his early childhood he used to sing to his fa- 
ther's harp the simple tunes which he was able to play, and 
being sent to a small school in the neighbourhood, he there 
began to learn music regularly ; after which he was placed 
under Reuter, maestro di capella of the cathedral at Vi- 
enna; and having a voice of great compass, was received 

Life prefixed to his works. Nichols's Eowyer 

262 HAYDN. 

into the choir, where he was well taught, not only to sing, 
but to play on the harpsichord and violin. At the age of 
eighteen, on the breaking of his voice, he was dismissed 
from the cathedral. After this, he supported himself 
during eight years as well as he could by his talents ; and 
began to study more seriously than ever. He read the 
works of Matthcson, lieinichen, and others, on the theory 
of music ; and for the practice, studied with particular at- 
tention the pieces of Emanuel Bach, whom he made his 
model in writing for keyed instruments. At length, he 
met with Porpora, who was at this time in Vienna; and 
during five months was so happy as to receive his counsel 
and instructions in singing and the composition of vocal 

About this time he resided in the house with Metastasio 
three years, as music-master to mademoiselle Martinetz, 
and during this time had the great advantage of hearing 
the Italian language spoken with purity, and of receiving 
the imperial laureat's counsel, as to cloathing the finest 
lyric compositions with the most appropriate and expres- 
sive jnelodies. In 1759 he was received into the service 
of count Marzin, as director of his music, whence, in 1761, 
he passed to the palace of prince Esterhazi, to whose ser- 
vice he was afterwards constantly attached. He arrived 
in England in 1791, and contributed to the advancement 
of his art, and to his own fame, by his numerous produc- 
tions in this country ; while his natural, unassuming, and 
pleasing character, exclusive of his productions, endeared 
him to his acquaintance and to the nation at large. It 
ought to be recorded, that twelve of his noble and match- 
less symphonies were composed here expressly for Salo- 
mon's concerts, and that it was from his spirit of enterprize, 
and enthusiastic admiration of Haydn, and love of his art, 
that we were indebted for his visit to this country : besides 
tht>e sublime symphonies, his piano-forte sonatas, his 
quartets and songs, were sufficient to establish his reputa- 
tion as a great and original composer, upon a lasting foun- 
dation, ii only what he produced during the few years 
which he remained among us was known. He returned to 
Germany in 1796. 

The first time we meet with his name in the German ca- 
talogues of music, is in that of Breitkopf of Leipsic, 1763, 
to a Divertimento a Cembalo, 3 Concern a Cembalo, 
5 Trios, 8 Quadros or quartets, and 6 Symphonies in four 

HAYDN. 263 

and eight parts." The chief of his early music was for the 
chamber. He is said at Vienna to have composed, before 
1782, a hundred and twenty-four pieces for the bariton, a 
species ot viol di gamba, for the use of his prince who was 
partial to that instrument, and a great performer upon it. 

Besides his numerous productions for instruments, he 
has composed many operas for the Esterhazi theatre, and 
church music that has established his reputation us a deep 
contrapuntist. His " Stabat Mater" has been performed 
and p imed in England, but his oratorio of " II Ritorno di 
Tobia," composed in 1775, for the benefit of the widows 
of musicians, has been annually performed at Vienna ever 
since, and is as high in favour there as Handel's " Mes- 
siah" in England. His instrumental " Passione," in six- 
teen or eighteen parts, was among his later and most ex- 
quisite productions previous to his arrival in England. It 
entirely consists of slow movements, on the subject of the 
last seven sentences of our Saviour, as recorded in the 
Evangelists. These strains are so truly impassioned and 
full of heart- felt grief and dignified sorrow, that though 
the movements are all slow, the subjects, treatment, and 
effects, are so new and so different, that a real lover of 
music will feel no lassitude, or wish for lighter strains to 
stimulate attention. 

His innumerable symphonies, quartets, and other instru- 
mental pieces, which are so original and so difficult, had 
the advantage of being rehearsed and performed at Ester- 
hazi under his own direction, by a band of his own forming. 
Ideas so new and so varied were not at first so universally 
admired in Germany as at present. The critics in the 
northern parts of the empire were up in arms, but before 
his decease he was as much respected all over Europe by 
professors, for his science as invention. And the extent 
of his tarne may be imagined from his being made the hero 
of a poem on music, in Spanish, written and published at 
Madrid, thirty years ago, entitled " La Musica Poema^ 
par D. Tomas de Yarte." This sublime work was pro- 
duced for Cadiz. He lias not long since published it in 
score with German and Italian words, so that it may be 
performed as an oratorio. 

The la>t of his compositions which were received in 
England subsequent to the " Creation," were, two sets of 
quartets, of which the first violin, calculated to display 
Salomon's powers of execution and expression, is very dif- 

264- HAYDN. 

ficult ; and his " Seasons." There is a general cheerful- 
ness and good-humour in Haydn's allegros, which exhila- 
rate every hearer. But his adagios are often so sublime in 
ideas and the harmony in which they are clad, that though 
played by inarticulate instruments, they have a more pa- 
thetic effect on our feelings than the finest opera air united 
with the most exquisite poetry. He has likewise move- 
ments and passages that are sportive, playful, and even 
grotesque, for the sake of variety ; but they are often so 
striking and pleasant, that they have the eifect of bon mots 
in speaking or writing. 

His grand and sublime oratorio of the " Creation," and 
his picturesque and descriptive " Seasons," composed since 
his departure from England, if music were a language as 
intelligible and durable as the Greek, would live anct be 
admired as long as the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer. And 
we cannot help thinking that future ages will be as curious 
to know when and where he flourished, as the country and 
chronology of Orpheus and Amphion. 

In 1791, when at Oxford, he was created doctor of 
music, and some time before his death, was admitted a, 
member of the French institute. On his return from this 
country, he took a small house and garden at Gumpendorf, 
where he lived as a widower until the time of his death, 
which happened in May 1309. 1 - 

HAVE (JoHN DE LA), a learned Franciscan, preacher in 
ordinary to queen Anrie of Austria, was born in 1593 at 
Paris, and died there in 1661. His principal works are, 
"Biblia Magna," 1643, 5 vols. fol. ; and " Biblia Max- 
ima," 1660, 19 vols. fol. No part of the last is esteemed 
but the Prolegomena, and even they are too diffuse ; but his 
" Biblia Magna" is reckoned a very good work. He must 
not be confounded with John de la Haye, a Jesuit, who 
died 1614, aged seventy-four, leaving an " Evangelical 
Harmony," 2 vols. fol. and other works ; nor with another 
John de la Haye, valet de chambre to Margaret of Valois, 
who published her poems. 3 

HAYES (CHARLES), esq. a very singular person, whose 
great erudition was so concealed by his modesty, that his 
name is known to very few, though his publications are 
many. He was born in 1678, and became distinguished 

c y cl P*dia, by Dr. Burney. Gent. Mag. vol. LXXIX. and 
a Diet. Hit. Moreri. 

HAYES. 265 

in 1704 by a " Treatise of Fluxions," in folio, which was, 
we believe, the first treatise on that science ever published 
in the English language ; and the only work to which he 
ever set his name. In 1710 came out a small 4to pamphlet 
in 19 pages, entitled "A new and easy Method to find out 
the Longitude from observing the Altitudes of the Celestial 
bodies." Also in 1723, he published " The Moon, a Phi- 
losophical Dialogue," tending to shew that the moon is not 
an opaque body, but has native light of her own. 

To u skill in the Greek and Latin, as well as the modern 
languages, he added the knowledge of the Hebrew; and 
he published several pieces, which we shall enumerate, re- 
lating to the translation and chronology of the Scriptures. 
During a long course of years he had the chief manage- 
ment of the African company, being annually elected sub- 
governor. But on the dissolution of that company, in 
1752, he retired to Down, in Kent, where he gave him- 
self up to study ; from whence, however, he returned in 
1758, to chambers in Gray's-inn, London, where he died 
Dec. 18, 1760, in his eighty ^second year. 

His works relating to the translation and chronology of 
the holy Scriptures, were, 1. " A Vindication of the His- 
tory of the Septuagint," from the misrepresentations of its 
opponents, 1736, 8vo. 2. " A Critical Examination- of 
the Holy Gospels according to St. Matthew and St. Luke, 
with regard to the history of the birth and infancy of our 
Lord Jesus Christ," 1738, 8vo. 3. " Dissertation on the 
Chronology of the Septuagint," 1741, 8vo, a very learned, 
and in many respects an original work, to which in 1757, he 
printed " A Supplement." 4. " Chronographiae Asiatics 
et Egyptiacae Specimen; in quo, 1. Origo Chronologiae 
LXX Interpretum investigatur; 2. Conspectus totius 
operis exhibetur," 1759, 8vo. In this laborious work, 
which he began in 1753, when he was seventy-five years 
old, his opinions are sometimes not quite correct, nor such 
as he perhaps would probably have advanced had he begun 
it in an earlier period of lite, but the whole is highly cre- 
ditable to his learning and researches. 1 

HAYES (WiLUAM), an eminent musical composer, was 
born in 1708, and began his musical career as organist of 
St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, but quitted that place on being 
chosen successor to Goodson, organist of Christ Church, 

1 Gent. Mag. vol. X^XI. HicUols's Bowycr. Button's Dictionary, 

266 HAYES. 

Oxford, where he settled. He took his degree <5f bachelor 
of music July 8, 17 V 5 and was appointed professor of 
music Jan. 14, 1741. In April 1749 he was created doctor 
of music, and was also organist of Magdalen college. For 
many years he was sole director of the choral meetings, 
concerts, and encaenia, and every musical exhibition in 
that university to the time of his death 

He was a studious and active professor ; a great collector 
of curious and old compositions, and possessed of consi- 
derable genius and abilities tor producing ^iew. He pub- 
lished while at Shrewsbury, a collection of English ballads, 
his maiden composition. But at Oxford his ecclesiastical 
compositions for different colleges were innumerable ; yet, 
being local, they were never printed, and but little known 
out of Oxford. Those productions which gained him the 
most general celebrity, were his canons, catches, and 
glees for the catch-club, in London, during the first years 
of its institution ; several of which were justly crowned. 
His canon of " Let's drink and let's sing together," is per- 
haps the most pleasant of all those laboured compositions 
which go under the name of canons. He had a true sense 
of Handel's superior merit, over all contemporary com- 
posers ; and on the publication of Mr. Avison's well-written 
" Essay on Musical Expression," in which it is perpetually 
insinuated that Geminiani, Rameau, and Marcello, were 
greatly his superiors, Dr. Hayes produced a pamphlet en- 
titled " Remarks on the Essay of Musical Expression," 
written with much more knowledge of the subject than 
temper : he felt so indignant at Avison's treatment of 
Handel, that he riot only points out the false reasoning in 
his essay, but false composition in his own works. 

Dr. Hayes died July 27, 1777, and was buried in the 
church-yard of St. Peter's in the east, in Oxford. His 
son PHILIP was regularly educated by his father in the 
same art. When grown up, after he had lost his treble 
voice, which dropped into a tolerable tenor, he was ad- 
mitted one of the gentlemen of the king's chapel, and re- 
sided chiefly in London, till the decease of his worthy fa- 
ther ; who having established a family interest in the uni- 
versity, he succeeded to all his honours and appointments. 
He took his degree of B. M. in May 1763, and proceeded 
doctor of music Nov. 6, 1777, when he succeeded his 
father in the professorship. He also became organist of 
Magdalen, New college, and St, John's. He succeeded in 

HAYES. 267 

the same style of composition as his father, and was a con- 
siderable benefactor to the music-school and orchestra, and 
gave many valuable portraits both to that room and to some 
of the colleges. Dr. Philip Hayes was perhaps the most 
corpulent man in the kingdom, and his friends were long 
in apprehension of a sudden death, which at last took place 
when he was on his annual visit to London, about the time 
of the anniversary of the new musical fund. He dropped 
down dead, after he had dressed himself, in the morning 
of March 19, 1797, in his fifty -eighth year. His remains 
were interred in St. Paul's cathedral with due respect. 1 

H\YM (NICOLAS FRANCIS), a native of Rome, appears 
to have come to London in the early part of the last cen- 
tury, as a musical professor, and engaged with two others, 
Clayton and Dieupart, in an attempt to establish an Italian 
opera here. This scheme had some success until 1710, 
when the superior merits of Handel's " Rinaldo" diverted 
the public attention from Haym and his colleagues. Haym 
appears afterwards to have tried various literary projects, 
one of which was his " II Tesoro Britannico," Lond. 
1719 20, 2 vols. 4to, in which he proposed to engrave 
and describe all the coins, statues, gems, &c. to be found in 
the cabinets in England, and not before made public. In 
the execution of this work, however, he committed so many 
egregious blunders, and advanced so many ignorant and 
rash conjectures, that it has ever been thrown aside with 
contempt by able antiquaries. His most useful publica- 
tion was his " Notizia de Libri rari nella Lingua Italiana,'* 
which appeared first in 1726, in an Svo volume, printed at 
London, and was several times reprinted with additions. 
The edition of Milun, 1771, 2 vols. 4to, appears to be 
the best. 

He likewise wrote two tragedies, " La Merope," and 
"La Dernodice," and edited an edition of Tasso in 2 vols. 
4to. In the last years of his arrive life, he published pro- 
posals for a History of music, upon an admirable plan ; but 
it was not encouraged, which Dr. Btirney thinks is much 
to be lamented, as far as Italy was concerned ; as he was 
not only a good practical musician, but a man of extensive 
learning, and perfectly acquainted with the history of the 
art in his own country, and its progress in England during 
his residence there. He had not only knowledge in coun- 

1 Rees's Cyclopaedia, by Dr. Burney. Wood's Annals. -Gent. Mag. 1797. 

268 H A Y M. 

terpoint, but genius for composition, as he published at 
Amsterdam in 1713, two sets of sonatas for two violins and 
a bass, which are little inferior to the sonatas of Corelli. 
There is more variety in them, though less grace. He 
died in March 1730, and his effects were sold by auction 
soon after his decease. 1 

HAYMAN (FRANCIS), an English artist, much cele- 
brated in his day, was born in 1708, at Exeter, and was 
the scholar of Brown. He appears to have come to Lon- 
don in the early part of his life, and was much employed 
by Fleetwood, the proprietor of Drury-lane theatre, for 
whom he painted many scenes. In the pursuit of his pro- 
fession, he was not extremely assiduous, being more con- 
vivial than studious ; yet he acquired a very considerable 
degree of power in his art, and was the best historical 
painter in the kingdom, before the arrival of Cipriani. It 
was this superiority of talent that introduced him to the 
notice of Mr. Jonathan Tyers, the founder and proprietor 
of Vauxhall, by whom he was employed in decorating 
those well-known gardens, and where some of his best 
historical pictures are still to be seen. He also painted 
four pictures from subjects taken from Sbakspeare, for 
what is called the prince's pavilion in Vauxhall, but Mr. 
Tyers had such an high opinion of them, as to remove 
them to his own residence, and place copies in their room. 
His reputation procured him much employment from the 
booksellers, whom he furnished with drawings for their 
editions of Moore's Fables, Congreve's Works, Newton's 
Milton, Hammer's Shakspeare, Smcllet's Don Quixote, 
Pope's Works, &c. These drawings have in general great 

When the artists were incorporated by charter, Mr. 
Lambert was appointed the first president ; but he dying 
shortly after, Hay man was chosen in his stead, in which 
office he remained till 1768, when, owing to the illiberal 
conduct of the majority of the members of that society, he 
was no longer continued in that station. For this exclu- 
sion, however, he was amply recompensed on the founda- 
tion of the royal academy, of which he was chosen a mem- 
ber, and soon after appointed librarian. This place he 
held till his death, Feb. 2, 1776. 8 

1 Hawkins's tfist. of Music. Rees's Cyclopaedia, by Dr. Burney. Diet. Hist. 
4 Pilkmgton, Edwards's Supplement to Walpole. 

H A Y N B. 269 

HAYNE (THOMAS), a learned schoolmaster, the son of 
Robert Hayne, of Thrussington, in Leicestershire, was 
born probably in that parish, in 1581, and in 1599 was 
entered of Lincoln-college, Oxford, where, being under 
the care of an excellent tutor, he obtained great know- 
ledge in philosophy, to which, and his other studies, he 
was the more at leisure to give diligent application, as he 
was, by a lameness almost from his birth, prevented from 
enjoying the recreations of youth. In 1604 he took his 
bachelor's degree, and became one of the ushers of mer- 
chant taylors' school, London : and after taking the degree 
of master, was usher at Christ's hospital. He was a noted 
critic, an excellent linguist, and a solid divine, highly re- 
spected by men of learning, and particularly by Selden. 
He died July 27, 1645, and was buried in Christ-church, 
London, where a monument was erected over his grave, 
(destroyed in the fire of London) with an inscription to his 
memory, as an antiquary, a teacher, and a man of peace. 
He bequeathed his books to the library at Leicester (which 
is commemorated in an inscription in that place), except a 
few which he left to the library at Westminster. He gave 
also 400/. to be bestowed in buying lands or houses, in or 
near Leicester, of the yearly value of 24/. for ever, for the 
maintenance of a schoolmaster in Thrussington, or some 
town near thereto, to teach ten poor children, &c. Fif- 
teen are now educated in this school. He founded also 
two scholarships in Lincoln-college, the scholars to come 
from the free-school at Leicester, or in defect of that, from 
the school at Melton, &c. Several other acts of charity 
are included in his will. His works are, I. " Grammatices 
Latinae Compendium, 1637, reprinted in 1649, Svo, with 
two appendices. 2. " Linguarum cognatio, seu de linguis 
in genere," &c. Lond. 1639, Svo. 3. " Pax in terra; 
seu tractatus de pace ecclesiastica," ibid. 1639, Svo. 
4. " The equal ways of God, in rectifying the unequal 
ways of man,'* ibid. 1639, Svo. 5. " General View of 
the Holy Scriptures ; or the times, places, and persons of 
the Holy Scripture," &c. ibid. 1640, fol. 6. " Life and 
Death of Dr. Martin Lutlier," ibid. 1641, 4to.' 

HAYNES (HOPTON), a strenuous advocate for Socinian-, 
ism, was born in 1672, and became assay-master of the 
mint, and principal tally-writer of the exchequer. In 

1 Nichols's Leicestershire; vol. HI. Part I, 

270 H^A Y N E S. 

defence of the independence and prerogatives of his office, 
he printed and privately dispersed a tract entitled " A 
hriel enquiry relating to tiie right of his majesty's Chapel 
Royal, and the privileges of his servants within the Tower, 
in a Memorial addressed to the rignt hon. the lord viscount 
Lonsdale, constable of tiis majesty's Tower of London,' 1 
1728, folio. His principal effort in favour of Socicianism 
was entitled " The Scripture account of the attributes and 
worship of God, and of the character and offices of Jesus 
Christ, by a candid Enquirer after Truth." This he left 
for the press, and it was accordingly printed by his son, in 
obedience to his father's injunctions, but probably against 
his own inclinations, nor was it generally known as a pub- 
lication until reprinted in 1790 by the late rev. Theophilus 
Lindsey. Mr. Haynesdied November 19, 1749. His son 
SAMUEL HAYNES was educated at King's college, Cam- 
bridge, where he took his degrees of A. B in 1723, A. M. 
1727, and D. D. in 1748. He was tutor to the earl of 
Salisbury, with whom he travelled, and who, in 1737, 
presented him to the valuable rectory of Hatfield in Hert- 
fordshire. In March 1743, he succeeded to a canonry of 
Windsor; and in May 1747, he was presented by his 
noble patron to the rectory of Clothal, which he held by 
dispensation with Hatfield. He died June 9, 1752. He 
published " A Collection of State-papers, relating to af- 
fairs in the reigns of Henry VIII. Edward VI. Mary and 
Elizabeth, from 1542 to 1570," transcribed from the Cecil 
MSS. in Hatfield-house, 1740, fol. 1 

HAYWARD (Sir JOHN), an English historian, was edu- 
cated at Cambridge, where he took the degree of LL. D. 
In 1599 he published, in 4to, The first Part of the Life 
and Raigne of King Henrie IV. extending to the end of 
the first yeare of his raigne," dedicated to Robert earl of 
Essex ; for which he suffered a tedious imprisonment, on 
account of having advanced something in defence of here- 
ditary succession to the crown. We are informed, in lord 
Bacon's " Apophthegms," that queen Elizabeth, being 
highly incensed at this book, asked Bacon, who was then 
one of her council learned in the law, " whether there was 
any treason contained in it?" who answered, "No, ma- 
dam ; for treason, I cannot deliver my opinion there is 
any ; but there is much felony." The queen, apprehend- 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. 

H A Y W A R D. 271 

ing it, gladly asked, " How and wherein ?" Bacon an- 
swered, " because he had stolen many of his sentences 
and conceits out of Cornelius Tacitus.'* This discovery is 
thought to have prevented his being put to the rack. 
Carnden tells us, that the book being dedicated to the 
earl of Essex, when that nobleman and his friends were 
tried, the lawyers urged, that " it was written on purpose 
to encourage the deposing of the queen ;" and they par- 
ticularly insisted on these words in the dedication* in which 
our author styles the earl " Magnus & present! judicio, & 
futuri temporis expectatione." In 1603 he published, in 
quarto, " An Answer to the first part of a certaine Con- 
ference concerning Succession, published not long since 
under the name of R. Doleman." Tais R. Doleman was 
the Jesuit Parsons. In 1610 he was appointed by king 
James one of the historiographers of Chelsea college, near 
London, which, as we have often had occasion to notice, 
was never permanently established. In 1613, he published 
in 4to, " The Lives of the Three Normans, kings of Eng- 
land ; William I ; William II. ; Henry I." and dedicated 
them to Charles prince of Wales. In 1619, he received 
the honour of knighthood from his majesty, at Whitehall. 
In 1624, he published a discourse entitled " Of Supre- 
macie in Affaires of Religion," dedicated to prince Charles, 
and written in the manner of a conversation held at the 
table of Dr. Toby Matthews, bishop of Durham, in the 
time of the parliament, 1605. The proposition main- 
tained is, that supreme power in ecciesiasticaJ affairs is a 
right of sovereignty. He wrote likewise, " The Life and 
Raigne of King Edward VI. with the beginning of the 
Raigne of queen Elizabeth," 1630, 4to, but this was post- 
humous; for he died June 27, 1627. He was the author 
of several works of piety, particularly " The Sr.nctuarie of 
a troubled soul," Lond. 1616, 12mo; "David's Tears, 
or an Exposition of the Penitential Psalms," 1622, 8vo. 
and te Christ's Prayer on the Crosse for his Enemies," 
1623. Wood says that " he was accounted a learned and 
godly man, and one better read in theological authors, 
than in those belonging to his profession ; and that with 
regard to his histories, the phrase and words in them were 
in their time esteemed very good ; only some have wished 
that in his * History of Henry IV.' he had not called sir 
Hugh Lynne by so light a word as Mad -cap, though he 
were such j and that he had not changed his historical style 

272 H A Y W A R D. 

into a dramatical, where he introduceth a mother ut- 
tering a woman's passion in the case of her son." Ni- 
colson observes, that " he had the repute in his time, of a 
good clean pen and smooth style ; though some have since 
blamed him for being a little too dramatical," Strype 
recommends that our author " be read with caution ; 
that his style and language is good, and so is his fancy ; 
but that he uses it too much for an historian, which puts 
him sometimes on making speeches for others, which they 
never spake, and relating matters which perhaps they ne- 
ver thought on." In confirmation of which censure, Ken- 
net has since affirmed him to be " a professed speech-maker 
through all his little history of Henry IV." 1 

HEADLEY (HENRY), a very elegant poet and critic, 
was born at Instead in Norfolk in 1766. At an early age 
he was placed under the care of the rev. Dr. Samuel Parr, 
then master of the grammar-school at Norwich. Even at 
this period he exhibited a superior elegance of mind, taste, 
and genius. He had a certain pensiveness of manner, 
which conciliated esteem and sympathy ; and which, 
though it might in part have been excited by the delicacy 
of his constitution, was promoted and increased by his stu- 
dious pursuits. From Norwich he removed, in 1782, to 
Oxford, where he became a member of Trinity college, a 
circumstance for which the world was probably indebted 
for his celebrated publication on the old English poets. 
Thomas Warton was then resident, as senior fellow of the 
college, and Headley naturally became acquainted with 
his labours as a poetical historian, which confirmed the bias 
of his mind ; and from this time the study of old English 
poetry superseded every other literary pursuit. 

He left Oxford after a residence of three years, in which 
interval he lost his father. His biographer informs us that 
his friends could not for some months discover the place 
of his residence ; but that at length it appeared he was 
married, and had retired to Matlock in Derbyshire. From 
our other authority, however, we learn, that during his 
occasional visits from Oxford to his friends in Norfolk, he 
formed an attachment of the tenderest kind to a very beau- 
tiful woman, now alive, but of no fortune. Many of the 
most charming and interesting of his poetical compositions 
addressed to this lady. The connexion appeared to 

- Ath. Ox. toK I. Biojf. Brit. YO). V. p. 3Q5S. -Gen. Diet. 

H E A D L E Y. 273 

their common friends to be indiscreet, and the object of 
his affections married a deserving man, with whom she is 
now happy in a lovely family. It appears, however, that 
he did marry hastily, in the anguish of disappointment, a 
lady, who died before him. From Matlock he went to 
reside at Norwich, and in a short time the consumptive 
tendency of his constitution rendered it advisable to try 
the climate of Lisbon, from which he returned only to die, 
at Norwich, in November 1788. 

What Headley might have produced, had he lived to 
persevere in the line of study in which he had engaged, 
may he easily conjectured from the "-Select Beauties of 
Ancient English Poetry," which he published in 1787, 2 
vols. Svo. It may be said to have given a new direction to 
the public taste, and to have pointed out to poetical anti- 
quaries those objects of research which they have since 
pursued with equal avidity and success. These volumes 
soon became popular, and certainly possess various claims 
to attention, whether we consider the taste and judgment 
with which the selection was made, or the neatness, point, 
and felicitous discrimination of character with which the 
biographical sketches are universally marked. Previous to 
the appearance of this work, Mr. Headley had published a 
small volume of original poems, and is said to have contri- 
buted some papers to the u Olla Podrida," and to a less 
known periodical paper, entitled " The Lucubrations of 
Abel Slug," of which a few numbers only were printed. 1 

HEARNE (SAMUEL), an enterprising English navigator, 
was born in 1745 ; he was the son of Mr. Hearne, secretary 
to the water-works, London-bridge, a very sensible man, 
and of a respectable family in Somersetshire ; he died of a 
fever in his fortieth year, and left Mrs. Hearne with this 
son, then but three years of age, and a daughter two years 
older. Mrs. H. finding her income too small to admit her 
living in town as she had been accustomed, retired to Bim- 
mister, in Dorsetshire (her native place), where she lived 
as a gentlewoman, and was much respected. It was her 
wish to give her children as good an education as the place 
afforded, and accordingly she sent her son to school at a very 
early period : but his dislike to reading and writing was so 
great, that he made very little progress in either. His 

1 Biographical Sketch prefixed to the Rev. H. Kett's new edition of the 
" Beauties." British Critic, vol. XXXV. an article drawn up by one why kns\ 
Mr. Headley well. 


274 H E A R N E. 

masters, indeed, spared neither threats nor persuasion to 
induce him to learn, but their arguments were thrown 
away on one who seemed predetermined never to become 
a learned man ; he had, however, a very quick apprehen- 
sion, and in his childish sports shewed unusual activity and 
ingenuity; he was particularly fond of drawing; and 
though he never had the least instruction in the art, copied 
with great delicacy and correctness even from nature. 
Mrs. Hearne's friends, finding her son had no taste for 
study, advised tier fixing on some business, and proposed 
such as they judged most suitable for him ; but he declared 
himself utterly averse to trade, and begged he might be 
sent to sea. His mother very reluctantly complied with 
his request, took him to Portsmouth, and remained with 
him till he sailed. His captain (now lord Hood) promised 
to take care of him, and gave him every indulgence his 
youth required. He was then but eleven years of age. 
They had a warm engagement soon after he entered, and 
took several prizes: the captain told him he should have 
his share ; but he begged, in a very affectionate manner, 
it might be given to his mother, and she would know best 
what to do with it. He was a midshipman several years 
under the same commander; but on the conclusion of the 
war, having no hopes of preferment, he left the navy, and 
entered into the service of the Hudson's Bay company, as 
mate of one of their sloops. He was, however, soon dis- 
tinguished from his associates by his ingenuity, industry, 
and a wish to undertake some hazardous enterprize by 
which mankind might be benefited. This was represented 
to the company, and they immediately applied to him as 
a proper person to be sent on an expedition they had long 
had in view, viz. to find out the north-west passage: he 
gladly accepted the proposal, and how far he succeeded is 
shewn to the public in his Journal. On his return he was 
advanced to a more lucrative post, and in a few years was 
made commander in chief, in which situation he remained 
till 1782, when the French unexpectedly landed at Prince 
of Wales' s Fort, took possession of it, and after having 
given the governor leave to secure his own property, seized 
the stock of furs, &c. &c. and blew up the fort. At the 
company's request Mr. H. went out the year following, 
saw it rebuilt, and the new governor settled in his habita- 
tion (which they took care to fortify a little better than 
formerly), and returned to England in 1787. He had 

H E A R N E. 275 

saved a few thousands, the fruits of many years' industry, 
and might, had he been blessed with prudence, have enjoyed 
many years of ease and plenty ; but he had lived so long 
where money was of no use, that he seemed insensible of 
its value here, and lent it with little or no'security to those 
he was scarcely acquainted with by name ; sincere and 
undesigning himself, he was by no means a match for the 
duplicity of others. His disposition, as may be judged by 
his writing, was naturally humane ; what he wanted in 
learning and polite accomplishments, he made up in na- 
tive simplicity ; and was so strictly scrupulous with regard 
to the property of others, that he was heard to say, a few 
davs before his death, " he could lay his hand on his heart 
and say, he had never wronged any man of sixpence." 

Sucii are the outlines of Mr. Hearne's character ; who, 
if he had some failings, had many virtues to counterba- 
lance them, of which charity was not the least. He died 
of the dropsy, November 1792, aged forty-seven. In 1797 
appeared his "Journey from the Prince of Wai es's Fort, 
in Hudson's Bay, to the Northern Ocean ; undertaken by 
order of the Hudson's Bay Company, for the discovery of 
Copper-mines, a North-west passage, &c. in the years 
1769, 1770, 1771, 1772," a volume which forms a very 
valuable addition to the discoveries of our enterprizing 
countrymen. 1 

HEARNE (THOMAS), an eminent English antiquary, 
and indefatigable collector and editor of books and manu- 
scripts, was the son of George Hearne, parish-clerk of 
White Waltham, Berkshire, by Edith, daughter of Thomas 
Wise. He was born at Littlefteld-green in the above 
parish, in 1678, and baptised July 1 1th of that year. He 
appears to have been born with a taste for those researches 
which formed afterwards the business of his life ; and even 
when he had but attained a knowledge of the alphabet, 
was seen continually poring over the old tomb-stones in 
the church-yard. As to education, he had very little. His 
father, who kept a writing-school, and who, as parish- 
clerk, was also a kind of amanuensis to the illiterate part of 
his neighbours, could teach him English and writing, in 
both which he made considerable proficiency ; but he had 
other children, and, instead of being able to place Thomas 
at any superior school, was obliged to let him earn his sub* 

1 European Mag. 1797. 
T 2 

H E A R N E. 

sistence as a day-labourer. His natural abilities, howe?er f 
appeared through this disadvantage, and his being a better 
reader and writer than could have been expected from his 
scanty opportunities, recommended him to the kind atten- 
tion of an early patron, whom he calls " that pious and 
learned gentleman Francis Cherry, esq." By this gentle- 
man, in whose house he was for some time a menial ser- 
vant, he was placed at the free-school of Bray in Berkshire, 
in the beginning of 1693, and rewarded his care by such 
diligent application, as to acquire an accurate knowledge 
of Greek and Latin. He was on this account much re- 
spected both by the master and his fellow-scholars, who 
were accustomed to consult him in their little difficulties, 
and used to listen to his information respecting English 
history, which his original taste had led him to study as 
he found opportunity. 

His patron, Mr. Cherry, pleased with the happy effects 
of his care, determined to take our young antiquary into 
his house, and maintain him as his son. In this it is said 
he partly followed the advice of the learned Mr. Dodwell, 
who then lived in the neighbourhood, and had probably 
watched the progress of Hearne's education. He was ac- 
cordingly taken into Mr. Cherry's house about Easter 1695, 
and his studies in classical learning promoted by this gen- 
tleman, or by Mr. Dodwell, both taking that trouble with 
him, which, from his diligence and apt memory, they 
foresaw would not be lost. With the same benevolent 
views, Mr. Cherry sent him to Oxford, where, in Michael- 
mas term of the above year, he was entered of Edmund- 
hall, but returned immediately after his matriculation, 
and pursued his studies both at Mr. Cherry's, and at the 
school of Bray. 

In Easter term 1696, he came to reside at Edmund-hall, 
a society which had probably been recommended to Mr. 
Cherry by Dr. White Kennet, who was at that time vice- 
principal, and also rector of Shottesbrooke, which he re- 
ceived from Mr. Cherry. The learned Dr. John Mill was 
at this time principal. Both his tutor, Dr. Kennet, and 
his principal, Dr. Mill, appear to have soon discovered the 
bent of his studies ; and Dr. Mill, who was then employed" 
on the appendix to his edition of the Greek Testament, 
finding young Hearne an apt reader of MSS. employed 
him in the laborious task of collation. It was also at the 
doctor's request, that when he was about three years stand- 

II E A R N E. 277 

ing, he went to Eton to compare a MS. of Tatian and 
Athenagoras in that college library. The variations he 
discovered were afterwards made use of by Mr. Worth in 
his edition of Tatian, in 1700, and by Dechair in his edi- 
tion of Athenagoras, 1706; but Mr. Hearne complains, 
and with some justice, that neither mentioned the person 
who collated the MSS. Hearne' s own copy of the varia- 
tions is now in the Bodleian. About this time Mr. Cherry 
sent for him to Shottesbrooke, and employed him in tran- 
scribing sir Henry Spelman's " History of Sacrilege," 
which was soon after printed at London. Mr. Dodwell 
also appears to have employed him in transcribing two 
copies of his " Paraenesis." At Edmund Hall Dr. Grabe 
availed himself of his useful talents in transcribing and col- 
lating various old manuscripts. 

Irr act term 1699, he took his bachelor's degree, soon 
after which a proposal was made to him by Dr. Kennet to 
go to Maryland, as one of Dr. Bray's missionaries. What 
particular fitness Dr. Kennet discovered in Hearne for a 
situation of this kind we know not. He says, indeed, that 
he mentioned him as " a man of a pious, sober, and stu- 
dious inclination," but we are much mistaken if Hearne's 
habits were not at this time irreconcileahle with the func- 
tions of a missionary; and accordingly we find Dr. Ken- 
net endeavouring to render the office palatable, by inform- 
ing our antiquary, that besides the stipend, &c. he was to 
have a library worth 50/. was to be librarian to the whole 
province, and visitor of all the public libraries. 

Hearne, as may be expected, had no inclination to ac- 
cept this offer, and exchange the libraries of Oxford for 
those of Maryland ; and his refusal appears to have been 
sanctioned by some, although not all, of his best friends. 
Having now obtained access to the Bodleian library, he 
visited that noble repository every day, and his visits were 
so long, and his knowledge of books so visibly increasing, 
that in 1701, when Dr. Hudson was chosen librarian, he 
applied for leave to employ him as an assistant, and soon, 
found him a very useful one. Having by this official ap- 
pointment obtained a wider range, he began by examining 
the state of Dr. Hyde's catalogue, published in 1674, and 
finding it, from the gradual increase of the library, very 
defective, he endeavoured to supply what was wanting in. 
an interleaved copy, and afterwards transcribed his ad- 
ditions into two volumes, which he entitled " Appendix 

278 H E A R N E. 

Catalog! librorum impressorum Bibl. Bod." This was in- 
tended to have been printed by itself, but it was afterwards 
incorporated with Hyde's catalogue. The same service 
Mr. Hearne afterwards performed for the catalogue of MSS. 
and of coins. 

In act term 1703, betook his master's degree, and was 
offered a chaplainship of Corpus college by Dr. Turner, 
the president, provided he could keep his place in the 
library; but Dr Hudson objecting to this, he declined it, 
as he did, for the same reason, a chaplainship of All Souls. 
He had been made janitor of the library, and in 1712 
succeeded to the place of second keeper, with which he 
was allowed to hold his office of janitor; and, as he says, 
it was " by virtue of these two offices being united that he 
still kept the keys of the library, &c." In 1713 an offer 
was made to him of the place of librarian to the royal 
society and keeper of their museum, which he declined, 
" his circumstances not permitting him to leave Oxford." 
It is less accountable why he should at this time decline 
the honour of being made a fellow of this society. The 
offer, however, shows that the society thought him worthy 
of it, and that, with all his peculiarities, he had at this 
time attained considerable reputation in the learned world. 

In January 1714-15, he was elected architypographus, 
and esquire beadle of civil law in the university of Oxford, 
which post he held, together with that of under-librarian, 
till November following ; but then, finding they were not 
tenable together, he resigned the beadleship, and very 
soon after the other place also, by reason of the oaths to 
government, with which he could not conscientiously com- 
ply. He continued a nonjuror to the last, much at the 
expence of his worldly interest ; for, on that account he 
refused several preferments which would have been of 
great advantage and very agreeable to him. So many in- 
deed were the offers made, that his motives for refusal must 
have been urgent and conscientious. His enemies took 
some pains to bring a charge of inconsistency against him, 
by publishing <; A Vindication of those who take the Oath 
of Allegiance to his present majesty." This he wrote 
when a very young man, in king William's reign, but, as 
he very justly remarks, it proves no more than that he had 
viewed the question in another light, and surely must be 
accounted sincere, when we find him refusing so many 
profitable situations. In the latter part of his life he 

H E A R N E. 27& 

appears to have resided in Edmund-hall, preparing and 
publishing his various works, but not, as will be noticed in 
our catalogue of them, without interruption from what he 
thought the candid declaration of his political sentiments 
clashing with those of the university, and of the nation at 
large. This, in one or two instances, occasioned serious 
prosecutions, and considering himself as an injured man, 
he was not sparing in his censures of some of his most 
learned contemporaries, who, in their turns, were equally 
disrespectful in their notices of him. With these disputes 
the present age has little to do, and it owes too much to 
the industry of Hearne to trace his failings with anxious 
care, or treat them with the animosity that might have 
been natural in his own times. How useful his industry 
was, may be estimated from the number of valuable pieces 
which lie hid in public or private repositories, of no utility 
even to the possessors of them, for want of persons who 
have perseverance enough to travel through the drudgery, 
or spirit enough to hazard the expence of printing them. 
By a life of the greatest regularity and ceconomy, Hearne 
was enabled in a great measure to prevent this injury to 
literature : and his endeavours were assisted by the en- 
couragement of many noble and opulent patrons. It might 
therefore be matter of surprize, though no reflection upon 
his character, that a sum amounting to upwards of 1000/. 
was found in his room after his decease. His death, which 
happened June 10, 1735, was occasioned by a severe cold 
and a succeeding fever, which, being improperly treated, 
terminated in a violent flux. He was buried in the church 
yard of St. Peter's in the East, where is erected over his 
remains a stone with an inscription written by himself: 
" Here lyeth the body of Thomas Hearne, M. A. who 
studied and preserved Antiquities. He died June 10, 
1735, aged 55 years. Deut. xxxii. 7. * Remember the 
clays of old, consider the years of many generations; ask 
thy father, and he will shew thee, thy elders, and they 
will tell thee.' Job viii. 8, 9, 10. " Enquire I pray thee,' 
&c." -This stone was repaired by Dr. Rawlinson in 1754. 
As the value of Hearne' s labours have been much under- 
rated, and indeed grossly misrepresented, in the Biog. 
Britannica, and its servile copyists, we shall make no 
apology for adding the sentiments of his Oxford biogra- 
pher, Mr. Huddesford : " Since that kind of study pur- 
sued by Mr. Hearne is more general now than it was in 

280 H E A R N E. 

his time, to praise and speak well of him will of conse- 
quence be more safe, as it will be better received. His 
chief excellence, so often celebrated, but to the misfor- 
tune of learning so little imitated, was unwearied in- 
dustry, which began almost with his life, and continued in 
full vigour till within a few weeks of his death. By means 
of this industry, and of a good disposition, he raised him- 
self from the lowest state of dependence to a station of 
ease and honour. When his worth was in some sort ac- 
knowledged, by the offer of the best offices the univer- 
sity had to bestow, he manifested uncommon integrity in 
declining those offers, because the acceptance of them 
appeared to him inconsistent with the principles which he 
had adopted. If there was a singularity in his exterior 
behaviour or manner which was the jest of the man of wit 
and polite life, he secretly enjoyed the approbation, fa- 
vour, and correspondence of the "greatest men of the age. 
Succeeding times have given testimony to his abilities, 
which the age in which he lived so lightly esteemed. It is, 
at least, not flattery, to consider him as a pattern to all 
whose duty it is, as well as inclination, to unite much 
learning and erudition, with the greatest plainness and 
simplicity of manners." 

Much of Hearne's personal history, opinions, and pecu- 
liarities, might be derived, if a piece of minute biography 
were undertaken, from his correspondence, and particu- 
larly from his manuscript diary, of which there are 1 50 
small paper books in the Bodleian. Some information 
gleaned from these has lately been given to the public in 
that valuable and curious work, " Letters written by eminent 
persons, &c." printed in 3 vols. 8vo, 1813, to which we have 
often to own our obligations. It appears that Hearne's 
anxiety to recover manuscripts became in him a species of 
religious enthusiasm, and that he was accustomed to return 
thanks in his prayers for success of this kind *. It is more 
to be regretted that his perpetual recurrence to Jacobite 

* Of such forms of thanksgiving, taken of me. I continually meet with 
the following is a specimen ; and, we most signal instances of this thy pro- 
agree with the editor of the " Letters," vidence, and one act yesterday, when 
exemplifies the native simplicity of I unexpectedly met with three old MSS. 
Hcarne's character as much, perhaps, for which, in a particular manner, I 
as any anecdote that has descended to return my thanks, beseeching thee to 
u*. " O most gracious and merciful continue the same protection to me, a 
L'>rd God, wonderful in thy provi- poor helpless sinner, and that for Je* 
deuce, I return all possible thanks to sus Christ his sake." 
thee for the care thou hast always 

H E A R N E. 281 

sentiments, in his prefaces, where they were surely out of 
place, created him many enemies, kept him at perpetual 
variance with his neighbours in the university, and pro- 
moted an irritability of temper, and a querulous disposition, 
which made him unhappy. For social enjoyments he was 
not well qualified. His manners were originally clownish 
and simple, and little improved by his intercourse with 
the world. 

Hearne left his MS collections by will to Dr. William. 
Bedford, of whom Dr. Rawlinson purchased them tor an. 
hundred guineas, and at his death bequeathed them with 
his own MSS. to the Bodleian library. Among other in- 
jurious reports at the time of Hearne's death, one was, 
that he died a Roman catholic, an imputation on the non- 
jurors not very uncommon at that time, but which, as to 
Hearne, has been fully disproved in a letter printed by 
Mr. Huddesford in his life. Hearne had no more of po- 
pery than antiquaries in general, who can never forgive 
the injuries done to libraries at the time of the reformation. 

His publications were, 1. " An Index to L'Estrange's 
translation of Josephus," 1702, fol. 2. " Reliquiae Bod- 
leianae, or some genuine remains of sir Thomas Bodley, 
&c." 1703. 3. " Plinii Fpistolae et Paneg\ricus, &c." 
1703. 4. " Eutropius.' Messala Corvinus. Julius Obse- 
quens, &c." 1703. 5. "Indices tres locupletissimi in Cy- 
rilli opera," Ox. 1733. 6. " Ductor Historicus," 2 vols. 
They did not come out together; a second edition of the 
first was published in 1705, and the second volume was 
published in 1704. Our author was not solely concerned 
in this work, some parts of it being written by another 
hand, as was the preface. He had made great collections 
for a third volume, but laid aside this design upon the ap- 
pearance of the English translation of Puffendorf's intro- 
duction, which begins where the second volume of the 
" Ductor Historicus" ends, and continues the history to 
the present times. 7. " Index to Dr. Edvards's Preserva- 
tive against Socinianism," 1740, 4to. 8. " Index to Cla- 
rendon's History of the Rebellion," fol. 1704. This " lit- 
tle work," or opella, he informs us, he undertook at the 
request of dean Aldrich. 9. An edition of " Justin," 1705, 
a very good one, compiled from four MSS. but not equal 
in value to his " Eutropius." 10. " Livy," 1708, 6 vols. 
#vo, a very accurate edition, which, in the opinion of Dr. 
Harwocd, does honour to Hearne, It has of late risen very 

282 H E A R N E. 

much in price. 11. " A Letter containing an account of 
some Antiquities between Windsor and Oxford, with a 
list of the several pictures in the school gallery adjoining 
to the Bodleian library," printed in 1708, in the " Monthly 
Miscellany, or Memoirs for the Curious;" and reprinted 
at the end of the fifth volume of Leland's " Itinerary," but 
without the list of the pictures j for which, however, there 
being a demand, he reprinted 100 copies of the whole in 
1725. 12. "The Life of Alfred the Great, by sir John 
Spelman, from the original MS. in the Bodleian library, 
1710" 13. " The Itinerary of John Leland the antiquary, 
intermixed with divers curious discourses, written by the 
editor and others, 1710," 9 vols. A new edition was 
printed in 1744. 14. " Henrici Dodwell de Parma Equestri 
Wood ward iana dissertatio," 1713. Some expressions in 
his preface to this brought upon him a serious loss, as the 
work was prohibited until he had cancelled the offensive 
parts. Of this some no* ice has already been taken in our 
account of Dodwell. 15. '* Lelandi de rebus Bntannicis 
collectanea," 17 15, 6 vols. 16. " Acta Apostolorum, Gras- 
co Latine, literis majusculis. E codice Laudiano, &c. 
1715." 17. " Joannis Rossi antiquarii Warwicensis histo- 
ria regum Anglue, 1716." It was printed again with the 
second edition of Leland's " Itinerary," and now goes 
along with that work. 18. " Titi Livii Foro-Juliensis vita 
Henrici V. regis Anglire. Accedit sylloge epistolarum a 
variis Angliae principibus scriptarum, 1716." 19. " Aluredi 
Beverlacensis annales ; sive historia de gestis regum Brit- 
tannin, &c. 1716." 20. " Gulielmi Roperi vita D. Tho- 
mse Mori equitis aurati, lingua Anglicana coutexta," 17l6. 
21. " Gulielmi Camdeni Annales rerum Anglicarum et Hi- 
bernicarum, regnante Elizabetha," 1717, 3 vols. 22. " Gu- 
lielmi Neubrigensis historia sive chronica rerum Anglica- 
rum," 1719. 23. "Thomas Sprotti Chronica, &c." 1719. 
24. " A Collection of curious Discourses written by emi- 
nent antiquaries upon several heads in our English anti- 
quities," 1720. 25. "Textus RorTensis,' &c." 1720. 26. 
" Roberti de Avesbury historia de mirabiliKus gestis Ed- 
wardi III. &c. Appendicem etiam subnexuit, in qua inter 
alia continentur Letters of king Henry VIII. to Anne Bo- 
leyne," 1720. 27. " Johannis de Fordun Scotichronicon 
genumum, una cum ejusdem supplemento ac continua- 
tione," 1722. 28. " The History and Antiquities of Glas- 
tonbury, &c." 1722. 29. " Hemingi Chartularium eccle- 

H E A R N E. 283 

sis; Wigorniensis, &c." 1723. 30. "Robert of Glouces- 
ter's Chronicle," 1724, &c. in 2 vols. 31. " Peter Lang- 
toft's Chronicle, as illustrated and improved by Robert of 
Brune, from the death of Cadwaladon to the end of king 
Edward the Ist's reign, c." 1720, 2 vols. 32. ' Johan- 
nis, confratris et monachi Glustoniensis, chronica : sive 
historia de rebus Glastoniensibus, &c." 1726. 33. " Adami 
de Domerham. historic de rebus gestis Glastoniensibus, 
&c." 1727, 2 vols. 34. " Thomas de Elmham vita et gesta 
Henrici V. Anglorum regis," &c. 1727. 35. " Liber niger 
Scaccarii, &c." 1728, 2 vols. 36. " Historia vitae et reg- 
ni Richardi II. Anglioe regis, a monacho quodam de Eve- 
sham consignata," 1729. 37. " Thomae Caii vindiciae anti- 
quitatisacademiseOxoniensis, &c." 1730, 2 vols. 38." Wal- 
teri Hemingforde, canonici de Gisseburne, historia de re- 
bus gestis Edvardi I. II. III. &c." 1731, 2 vols. 39. " Duo 
rerurn Anglicarum scriptores veteres, videlicet, Thomas 
Otterbourne et Johannes Wethamstade, ab oriine gentis 
Britannicae usque ad -Edvardum IV. &c." 1733, 2 vols. 
40. " Chronicon sive annaies prioratus du Dunstable, &c." 
1733. 41. " Benedictus, abbas Petroburgensis, de vita 
et gestis Henrici II. Richardi I. &c." 1735, 2 vols. 

Such are the general titles of Hearne's works, but it 
must be understood that almost every one of these volumes 
contains various articles relating to antiquities and biogra- 
phy, perfectly distinct, and indeed generally nowise con- 
nected with the principal subject ; many of which have 
been acknowledged the most useful of his productions. It 
cannot be denied, however, th:it he would have been more 
generally useful had he now and then questioned the im- 
portance of what he was about to publish ; but with Hearne 
an old MS. seemed to possess an infallible claim to public 
attention merely because it was old and unknown. No- 
body, says Mr. Gough, will condemn him for the pains he 
took to preserve Leland's pieces ; but Ross's compendium 
.contains very little that is interesting, and Alfred of Be- 
vcrley, if genuine, is legendary. Hearne himself seems 
almost ashamed of Sprott's Chronicle, to which, however, he 
has tacked a valuable anonymous fragment relating to the 
first eight years of Edward IVth's teign. Avesbury and 
Elmham's relations of Edward III. and Henry V. are accu- 
rately and methodically put too ether. Livius Koro-julien- 
sis's life of this last prince is an elegant abridgment of 
Elmham's too pompous work. Healing's Chartulary and 

284 H E A H N E. 

the " Textus Roffensis" are valuable collections of the 
most ancient monuments of their respective churches. 
Rohert of Gloucester's Chronicle takes precedence of all 
English poets. The two monks of Glastonbury are histo- 
rians of their own house, of which its English history by 
an anonymous later hand gives a tolerable account. Death, 
adds Mr. Gough, prevented Hearne from encumbering 
our libraries with a meagre history of England, or additions, 
to Martin Polanus's Annals, ascribed to one John Mure- 
lynch, a monk of Glassenbury, and another from Brute or 
Ina to Edward I. by John Bever, a monk of Westminster, 
borrowed from the " Flores Historiarum." His friend 
Thomas Baker, the Cambridge antiquary, " often cau- 
tioned him against fatiguing himself too much, and over- 
loading his constitution ; but he was not to be advised, and 
so died a martyr to antiquities." It appears from some of 
his correspondence, that even in his own time his works 
rose very much in price, and it is well known that of late 
years they have been among the most expensive articles 
brought to market, the best of them being now beyond 
the reach of common purchasers. A few years ago, Mr. 
Bagster, of the Strand, with a spirit of liberality and en- 
terprize, published one or two of them in an elegant and 
accurate manner, as the prelude to a reprint of the whole 
series; but it is to be regretted that this scheme was soon 
obliged to be abandoned for want of encouragement. l 

HEATH (BENJAMIN), a lawyer of eminence of the last 
century, and recorder of Exeter, was a celebrated scholar 
and an author. He wrote, 1. " An Essay towards a demon- 
strative proof of the Divine Existence, Unity, and Attri- 
butes ; to which is premised, a short defence of the argu- 
ment commonly called a priori," 17iO. This pamphlet 
was dedicated to Dr. Oliver of Bath, and is to be ranked 
amongst the ablest defences of Dr. Clarke's, or rather Mr. 
Howe's, hypothesis; for it appears to be taken from Howe's 
" Living Temple." 2. " The case of the county of De- 
von with respect to the consequences of the new Excise 
Duty on Cyder and Perry. Published by the direction of 
the committee appointed at a general meeting of that 
county to superintend the application for the repeal of 

1 Life of Hearne from his own MS. published by Huddesford with the Lives 
of Lelafcd and Wood, 2 vols. 8vo, m2. Gent. Mag. vols. LVII. LVI1I. 
LXIX. Letters by eminent persons. Cough's Topography. Dibdin's Biblio- 
grapher, vol. I. and II. Nichols's Bowyer. 

HEATH. 285 

that duty," 1763, 4to. To this representation of the cir- 
cumstances peculiar to Devonshire, the repeal of the act is 
greatly to be ascribed ; and very honourable notice was 
taken of it at a general meeting or the county. 3. " Notre 
sive Lectiones ad Tragicorum Graecorum veterum, JEs- 
chyli, &c." 1752, 4to ; a work which places the author's 
learning and critical skill in a very conspicuous light : a 
principal object of which was to restore the metre of the 
Greek tragic poets. It is highly valued by all sound cri- 
tics of our own and foreign countries. He also furnished 
the notes on the Eton Greek tragedies. The same solidity 
of judgment distinguished the author's last production, 4. 
" A Revisal of Shakspeare's Text, wherein the alterations 
introduced into it by the more modern editors and critics 
are particularly considered," 1765, 8vo. It appears from 
the list of Oxford graduates, that he was created D. C. L. 
by diploma, March 31, 1762. He died Sept. 13, 1766. 
The brother of this author, Mr. Thomas Heath, an alder- 
man of Exeter, published " An Essay towards a new Ver- 
sion of Job," &c. in 1755. This gentleman was father to 
John Heath, esq. one of the judges of the common pleas. * 
HEATH (JAMES), an English historian, was born 1629, 
in London, where his father, who was the king's cutler, 
lived. He was educated at Westminster-school, and was 
elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1646. In 1648 he 
was ejected thence by the parliament-visitors, for his ad- 
herence to the royal cause ; lived upon his patrimony till 
it was almost spent ; and then married, which prevented 
his return to Christ Church at the restoration, where he 
might have qualified himself for one of the learned profes- 
sions. To maintain his family he now commenced author, 
and corrector of the press. He died of a consumption and 
dropsy, at London, in August 1664, and left several chil- 
dren to the parish. He published, 1. "A brief Chronicle 
of the late intestine War in the three kingdoms of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, &c." 1661, 8vo, afterwards 
enlarged by the author, and completed from 1637 to 1663, 
in four parts, 1663, in a thick 8vo; a work which, on ac- 
count of the numerous portraits, rather than its intrinsic 
value, bears a very high price. To this edition was again 
added a continuation from 1663 to 1675 by John Philips, 
nephew by the mother to Milton, 1676, folio. 2. " Elegy 

1 Nichols's Bovrye'r. 

286 HEATH. 

upon Dr. Thomas Fuller," 1661. 3. "The glories and 
magnificent triumphs of the blessed Restoration of king 
Charles II. &c. 1662," 8vo. 4. " Flagellum ; or, the Life 
and Death, Birth and Burial, of Oliver Cromwell, the late 
usurper," 1663, of which a third edition came out with 
additions in 1665, 8vo. 5. "Elegy on Dr. Sanderson, 
bishop of Lincoln," 1662. 6. " A new book of loyal Eng- 
lish Martyrs and Confessors, who have endured the pains 
and terrors of death, arraignment, &c. for the maintenance 
of the just and legal government of these kingdoms both in 
church and state," 1663, 12mo. 7. "Brief but exact Survey 
of the Affairs of the United Netherlands, &.c." 12mo. 
Heath, as a historian, is entitled to little praise on account 
of style or argument, but his works contain many lesser 
particulars illustrative of the characters and manners of 
the times, which are interesting to a curious inquirer. In 
the meanest historian there will always be found some 
facts, of* which there will be no cause to doubt the truth, 
and which yet will not be found in the best; and Heath, 
who perhaps had nothing but pamphlets and newspapers 
to compile from, frequently relates facts that throw light 
upon the history of those times, which Clarendon, though 
he drew every thing from the most authentic records, has 
omitted. * 

HEATHCOTE (RALPH), an ingenious English divine, 
and miscellaneous writer, descended of an ancient Derby- 
shire family, whose property was injured during the civil wars, 
was born Dec. 1 6, 1721, at Barrow upon Soar, in Leicester- 
shire. His father was then curate of that place, but afterwards 
had the vicarage of Sileby in that county, and the rectory 
of Morton in Derbyshire. He died in 1765. His mother 
was a daughter of Simon Ockley, Arabic professor at Cam- 
bridge. He passed the first fourteen years at home with 
his father, who taught him Greek and Latin, but in April 
1736, sent him to the public school of Chesterfield, where 
he continued five years under the rev. William Burrow, a 
learned man, and a very skilful teacher. In April 1741 r 
he was admitted sizar of Jesus college, Cambridge, and in 
Jan. 1745, took his degree of A. B. and soon after entered 
intered into holy orders. In March 1748 he undertook the 
cure of St. Margaret's, Leicester, and the year after was- 
presented to the small vicarage of Barkby, in the neigh- 

1 Ath. Ox, Tol. II. Letters by eminent persons, 3 vols. 8vo, 1313. 

H E A T H C O T E. 287 

bourhood, which, with his curacy (worth 50/. yearly) he 
says made him " well to live." In July 1748, he took his 
master's degree, and at the same time withdrew his name 
from college, having in view a marriage with miss Mar- 
garet Mompesson, a Nottinghamshire la;iy of good family, 
which tie accomplished in August 1750, and whose fortune, 
in his estimation, made him independent. This lady died 
April 12, 1790. 

In 1746 he published, at Cambridge, a small Latin 
work entitled " Historia Astronomic, sive de ortu et pro- 
grt ssu astronomic," Svo, a juvenile, but ingenious per- 
formance, and which seems to have made up tor some little 
want of mathematical fame when he took his master's de- 
gree. On this last occasion he distinguished himself most 
in the classics, and appears to have little disposition to 
mathematical and physical attainments. In 1752, while 
the Middietonian controversy on the Miraculous power, 
&c. was still raging, although Dr. Middleton himself was 
dead, he published two pieces, one entitled " Cursory 
animadversions upon the Controversy in general;" the 
other, " Remarks upon a Charge by Dr. Chapman." Iii 
1753 he published " A Letter to the rev. Thomas Fother- 
gill, A. M. fellow of Queen's college, Oxford, relating to 
his Sermon preached before that university, Jan. 30, 1753, 
upon the reasonableness and uses of commemorating king 
Charles's Martyrdom," which Mr. Heathcote endeavoured 
to show was neither reasonable nor useful. 

These were published without his name, but his pamph- 
lets on the Middietonian controversy attracted the notice 
of Dr. War-burton, who discovered the author, and send- 
ing him his compliments, offered him the place of assist- 
ant preacher at Lincoln's Inn, with the stipend of half a 
guinea for each sermon. This was little, but he accepted 
it, as affording him an opportunity of living in London, 
and cultivating learned society. He accordingly removed 
to town in June 1753, and became one of a club of literati 
who met once a week, as he says, " to talk learnedly for 
three or four hours." The members were Drs. Jortin, 
Birch, and Maty, Mr. Welstein, Mr. De Missy, and one 
or two more. 

On the appearance of lord Bolingbroke's works, he pub- 
lished in 1755, "A Sketch of lord Boiingbroke's philoso- 
phy," the object of which was to vindicate the moral attri- 
butes of the Deity. In the latter end of the same year, 


came out, " The use of Reason asserted in matters of Re* 
ligion, in answer to a Sermon preached by Dr Patten at 
Oxford, July 13, 1755," whom he act used of being a 
Hutchinsonian ; and, the year after, a Defence of this 
against Dr. Patten, who had replied. Dr. Home also, a 
friend to Dr. Patten, animadverted on Mr. Ht athcote's 
pamphlet: but it seems not to have been long before ail 
their sentiments concurred ; at least, the Hutchinsonians 
could not blame Mr. Heathcote more than he blamed him- 
self. " When," says he, " the heat of controversy was 
over, I could not look into them (the pamphlets) myself, 
without disgust and pain. The spleen of Middleton, and 
the petulancy of Warburton, had too much infected me." 
This candid acknowledgment, however, seems to justify 
Mr. Jones's language in his life of bishop Home. " A Mr. 
Heathcote, a very intemperate and unmanly writer, pub- 
lished a pamphlet against Dr. Patten, laying himself open, 
both in the matter and the manner of it, to the criticisms 
of Dr. Patten, who will appear to have been greatly his 
superior as a scholar and a divine, to any candid reader 
who shall review that controversy. Dr. Patten could not 
with any propriety be said to have written on the Hutchin- 
sonian plan ; but Mr. Heathcote found it convenient to 
charge him with it, &c." Warburton, too, who had com- 
plimented Mr. Heathcote to his face, speaks of him in a 
letter to Dr. Kurd (in 1757) as one whose " matter is ra- 
tional, but superficial and thin spread." He adds, " he 
will prove as great a scribbler as Comber. They are both 
sensible, and both have reading. The difference is, that 
the one has so much vivacity as to make him ridiculous ; 
the other so little as to be unentertaining. Comber's ex- 
cessive vanity may be matched by H.'s pride ; which I 
think is a much worse quality." In this censure the reader 
may perceive somewhat that will recoil upon the writer, 
but Heathcote, we see, lived to acknowledge what was 
amiss, which Warburton did not. 

In 1763-4-5, Mr. Heathcote preached the Boy lean lec- 
tures, twenty-four in number, at St. James's, Westminster, 
by the appointment of the trustees, archbishop Seeker 
and the duke of Devonshire. He published, however, only 
two of them, in 1763 ; on the " Being of a God," which 
soon passed into a second edition. In 1765, on the death 
of his father, he succeeded to the vicarage of Sileby, and 
in 1766 was presented to the rectory of Sawtry- All-Saints, 
in Huntingdonshire 5 and in 1768 to a prebend in the col* 

H E A T H C O T E. 289 

legiate church of Southwell. " These," he says, " in so 
short a compass, may look pompous; but their clear an- 
nual income, when curates were paid, and all expences 
deducted, did uot amount to more than 150/." In 1771 
he published " The Ireuarch, or Justice of the Peace's 
Manna!," a performance which, witii some singularities of 
opinion, was accounted both sensible and seasonable. He 
was now in the commission of the peace. A second edi- 
tion of this work appeared in 1774, with a long dedication, 
to lord Mansfield, with a view to oppose the invectives 
levelled against that illustrious character in a time of po- 
litical turbulence; and in 1781 he published a third edi- 
tion, to which he gave his name. 

In the summer of 1785 he left London, and resided for 
the remainder of his life principally at Southwell, of which., 
church he became, in 1788, vicar-general. He died May 
i28, 1795. He Jeft a son, RALPH Heathcote, esq. his ma- 
jesty's minister plenipotentiary to the elector of Cologne, 
and to the landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, who died in Ger- 
many in 1801. 

To the preceding list of Dr. Heathcote's works, we may 
add that, at the request of Mr. Whiston, he wrote the life 
of Dr. Thomas Burnet, the learned master of the Charter- 
house, prefixed to the edition of his works printed in I75y ; 
and in 1761, on the recommendation of Dr. Jortin, was 
engaged as one of the writers in the ftrst edition of this 
Dictionary, and contributed also some articles for the se- 
cond, printed in 1784. In 1767 he published "A Letter 
to the hon. Horace Walpole, concerning the dispute be- 
tween Mr. Hume and Mr, Rousseau," 12mo, which in some 
of the Reviews wu*> supposed to be by Mr. Walpole him- 
self. He also published an te Assize Sermon,*' and a 
pamphlet called " Memoirs of the late contested election for 
the county of Leicester," 1775. His " Irenarch," and the 
dedication and notes, he scattered up and down, but with- 
out alteration, in a miscellaneous work, published in 1786, 
entitled " Sylva, or the Wood;' 1 an entertaining collection 
of anecdotes, &c. which was reprinted in 1783; and in 
1789, he had begun another .volume of miscellanies, in- 
cluding some of his separate pieces, and memoirs of him- 
self, of which last we have availed ourselves in the pre- 
ceding sketch, from Mr. Nichols's " Literary Anecdotes." 1 

Nichols's Bowyer. Cent. Mag. LXV. LXVI. LXXI. Jones's Life of Bp. 
Home, first edit. p. 45. U'arburUm's Letters to Hurd, 4to, p. 167. 



HEBENSTREIT (JOHN ERNEST), a celebrated physician 
and philologer of Leipsic, was born at Neuenhoff in the 
diocese of Neustadt, in 1702. In 1719, he went to the 
university of Jena, but, not finding a subsistence there, 
removed to Leipsic. He piassed the greater part of his life 
in the latter university, and finally died there in 1756. 
Besides his academical and physiological tracts, he pub- 
lished, in 1739, 1, "Carmen de usu partinm," or Physio- 
logia metrica, in 8vd. 2. " De homine sano et ajgroto 
Carmen, sistens Physiologiam, Pathologiam, Hygienen, 
Therapiam, materiam medicam, cum pnefatione deantiqua 
medicina," Leipsic, 1753, Svo. 3. " Oratio de Antiqui- 
tatibus Romanis per Africam repertis," 1733, 4to. 4. 
" Museum Richterianum," &c. Leips. 1743. And, 5. A 
posthumous work, entitled " Palasologia therapirc," Halae, 
1779, Svo. This author had also an elder brother, JOHN 
CHRISTIAN Hebenstreit, who was a celebrated divine, and 
profoundly versed in the Hebrew language. Ernesti has 
published an eulogium of each, in his "OpuscuhiOratoria." 1 

HEBER (REGINALD), a learned and amiable English 
clergyman, the second son of Thomas Heber, &sq. of Mar- 
ton-hall in the deanery of Craven, one of the oldest families 
in that district of Yorkshire, was born at Marton, Sept. 4, 
1728, O. S. He had his school education under the rev. 
Mr. Wilkinson at Skipton, and the rev. Thomas Hunter at 
Blackburn, Lancashire, afterwards vicar of Weaverham, 
Cheshire, author of " Observations on Tacitus," and other 
works of credit. From Blackburn he 'removed to the free- 
school at Manchester, and on March 4, 1746--7, was en- 
tered a commoner of Brazen-nose college; where his elder' 
brother, Richard Heber, was at that time a gentleman 
commoner. In October 1752, his father died, and his mo- 
ther in the month of March following. He was admitted 
to the degree of M. A. July 5, 1753, and chosen fellow of 
the college November 15 following, having previously in 
that year been ordained deacon by bishop Trevor, Match 
18, and priest by bishop Hoadly, Nov. 1, to qualify him- 
self for the fellowship founded in 1533 by William Clifton, 
subdean of York, for which he was a candidate. He had 
private pupils when he was only B. A. and was afterwards 
in much esteem as a public tutor, particularly of gentle- 
men commoners, having at one time more than twenty of 

1 Diet. Hist. Rees's Cyclopaedia Saxii Onomaat. Haller Bib!, Botsm 

H E B E R. 291 

that rank under his care. In July 1766, his brother died, 
and, as he left no male issue, Mr. Heber succeeded to a 
considerable estate at Hodnet in Shropshire, which was 
bequeathed in 1752 to his mother, Elizabeth Heber, by 
Henrietta, only surviving daughter and heiress of sir Tho- 
mas Vernon of Hodnet, bart. who chose for her heir the 
daughter, in preference to the son, of her niece Elizabeth 
wife of Richard Atherton, esq. ancestor of Henrietta wife 
of Thomas lord Liftbrd. Dec. 5, 1766, he was inducted 
into the rectory of Chelsea, the presentation to which had, 
several years before, been purchased for him by his bro- 
ther and another kind relative. He resigned his fellowship 
July 1, 1767. Finding the rectorial house at Chelsea bad 
and unfinished, he in part rebuilt and greatly improved the 
whole, without asking for dilapidations, as the widow of 
his predecessor, Sloane Elsmere, D. D. was not left in 
affluent circumstances. In 1770, he exchanged Chelsea 
for the Upper Mediety of Malpas, Cheshire, into which 
he was inducted, July 25, on the presentation of William. 
Drake, esq. of Ainersham, Bucks ; whose eldest son, the 
late William Drake, esq. had been one of his pupils in 
Brazen- nose college. In the long incumbency, and lat- 
terly non-residence, of his predecessor, the honourable and 
rev. Henry Moore, D. D. chaplain to queen Anue, and son 
of the earl of Drogheda, who was instituted to Malpas, 
Nov. 26, 1713, the parsonage was become ruinous. Mr. 
Heber therefore built an excellent new house, on a new 
site, which commands an extensive view of Flintshire and 
Denbighshire, and some other counties. 

On the death of lord James Beauclerc, who held the 
rectory of Hodnet in commendam with the bishopric of 
Hereford, Mr. Heber was instituted to that living, of which 
he was patron, holding it with Malpas, from which it is 
distant about fourteen miles. In March 1303, he succeeded 
to the family estate in Yorkshire by the death of his bro- 
thers widow, Mrs. Heber of Weston, Northamptonshire, 
who held it in jointure. In the summer of that year, re- 
taining still the vigour and faculties of younger days, he 
was present at a very interesting sight, when his second 
son, Mr. Reginald Heber, who two years before obtained 
the chancellor's prize at Oxford for Latin verse, by his 
very spirited and classical " Carmen Sceculare," spoke, 
with unbounded applause, a second prize poem, the ad- 
mirable verses on-" Palestine," since published, 

U 2 

292 II E B E R. 

Mr. Heber died Jan. 10, 1804. In April 1773, he mar- 
ried Mary, third daughter and co-heiress of Martin Baylie, 
M. A. rector of Kelsall and Wrentbam in Suffolk. She died 
Jan. 30, 1774, leaving an infant son, RICHARD Heber, esq. 
afterwards M. A. of Brazen-nose college, 1797, a gentleman 
well known in the literary world, as the judicious collector 
of one of the most extensive private libraries in the king- 
dom, and whose liberality in assisting men of literature 
with its valuable contents, has been often publicly acknow- 
ledged, and cannot be too highly commended. In .July 
1782, Mr. Reginald Heber married Mary, eldest daughter 
of Cuthbert Allanson, D. D. of Brazen-nose, rector of 
Wath in Yorkshire, who was for some years before his 
death chaplain to the house of commons. By this lady he 
left a daughter Mary, and two sons, Reginald and Thomas 
Cuthbert, commoners of Brazen-nose college. Mr. Heber, 
the father, although a man of taste and learning, published 
little. He has, however, some elegant English verses ad- 
dressed to the king, on his accession to the throne, among 
the Oxford poems on that occasion, in 1761. The follow- 
ing year he published, but without his name, tf An Elegy 
written among the Tombs in Westminster Abbey," printed 
for Dodsley ; which was afterwards inserted, \vithout his 
knowledge, in Pearch's continuation of Dodsley's Poems. 
The lines are moral, plaintive, and religious. 1 

HEBERDEN (WILLIAM), an eminent physician and 
very accomplished scholar, was born in London in 1710, 
and received the early part of his education in that city. 
At the close of 1724, he was sent to St. John's college, 
Cambridge, where he proceeded A. B. in 1728, and M. A. 
in 1732. In 1730 he obtained a fellowship, and directed 
bis attention to the study of medicine, which he pursued, 
partly at Cambridge, and partly in London. Having taken 
his degree of M. D. in 1739, he practised physic in the 
university for about ten years. During that time he read 
every year a course of lectures on the Materia.Medica, and 
made for that purpose a valuable collection of specimens, 
which he presented to St. John's college in 1750, to which 
society, about ten years after, he presented soirre astrono- 
mical instruments. In 1746 he became a fellow of the 
royal college of physicians, and two years afterwards leav- 
ing Cambridge, he settled in London, and was elected 

1 J.ife by Mr. Archdeacon Clmrtoa in Geat. Ma. vol. LXXIV, 

H E B E R D E N. 293 

into the royal society in 1749. He very soon got into great 
business, which he followed with unremitting attention 
above thirty years, till it seemed prudent to withdraw a 
little from the fatigues of his profession. He therefore 
purchased a house at Windsor, to which he used ever after- 
wards to retire during some of the summer months ; but 
returned to London in the winter, and still continued to 
visit the sick for many years. 

In 1766 he recommended to the college of physicians 
the first design of the " Medical Transactions," in which 
he proposed to collect together such observations as might 
have occurred to any of their body, and were likely to illus- 
trate the history or cure of diseases. The plan was soon 
adopted, and three volumes have successively been laid 
before the public, in 1768, 1772, and 1785. Among the 
useful communications contained in these volumes, the 
papers of Dr. Heberden himself are most prominent in 
number and value. His account of a fatal disorder of the 
chest, which he denominated Angim pectoris, first called 
the attention of physicians to it, as an idiopathic disease : 
and the numerous cases of it, which have since been pro- 
mulgated, evince its frequency and importance. In this 
work, also, Dr. Heberden first gave an accurate descrip*. 
tioii of the chicken-pox, pointing out its diagnostic symp- 
toms with precision, chieHy with a view to prevent the very 
easy mistake of confounding it with a mild small-pox. Dr. 
Heberden communicated some other papers to the royal 
society, which were printed in its Transactions. 

In 1778, the royal society of medicine in Paris chose 
him into the number of their associates. He declined all 
professional business several years before his death, which 
did not take place until May 17, 1801, when he was in his 
ninety-first year. 

" From his early youth he had always entertained a deep 
sense of religion, and a consummate love of virtue, an ar- 
dent thirst after knowledge, and an earnest desire to pro- 
mote the welfare and happiness of all mankind. By these 
qualities, accompanied with great sweetness of manners, 
he acquired the love and. esteem of all good men, in a de- 
gree which perhaps very few have experienced ; and after 
passing an active life with the uniform testimony of a good 
conscience, he became an eminent example of its in*- 
fluence, in the cheerfulness and serenity of his latest age." 

To this character, part of a sketch of his life prefixed to 


his " Commentaries, published in 1802, much might be 
added. No physician, indeed, was ever more highly or 
more deservedly respected. His various and extensive 
learning, his modesty in the use of it, his freedom from 
jealousy or envy, his independent spirit, his simple yet 
dignified manners, and his exemplary discharge of all the 
relative duties, are topics on which all who knew him de- 
light to dwell. Mr. Cole, who bestows very high praise 
on him, an article in which that gentleman was in general 
penurious, gives us the following anecdote of Dr. Heber- 
den, which corresponds with the above account of his 
reverence for religion. " Understanding that Dr. Con. 
Middleton had composed a book on the ' Inefficacy of 
Prayer,' he called upon his widow soon after the Dr.'s 
death, and asked her if she was not in possession of such 
a tract? She answered that she was ; he then asked her, if 
any bookseller had been in treaty with her for it? She said 
that a bookseller had offered her 50l. for it. He then de- 
manded, if there was a duplicate ? ' No :' upon that he 
requested to see it, and she immediately brgught it, and 
put it into his hands. The Dr. holding it in one hand, 
and giving it a slight perusal, threw it into the fire, and 
with the other hand gave her a 50/. note." This anecdote 
Mr. Cole had from Dr. Newton, bishop of Bristol. It is 
certain that Dr. Middleton's widow bequeathed her hus- 
band's remaining MSS. to Dr. Heberden, from which, in, 
1761, he obliged the learned world with a curious tract, 
entitled " Dissertations de servili Medicorum conditione 
Appendix," &c. ; with a short but elegant advertisement 
of his own. In 1763, a most valuable edition of the " Sup- 
plices Mulieres" of Euripides, with the notes of Mr. Mark- 
land, was printed entirely at the expence of Dr. Heber- 
den ; and, in 1763, the same very learned commentator 
presented his notes on the two Jphigenix, " Doctissimo, 
& quod longe prastantius est, humanissimo viro Wilhelmo 
Heberden, M. D. arbitratu ejus vel cremandtE, vel in pub- 
licum emittendae post obiturn scriptoris," &c. He wrote 
the epitaph in Dorking church on Mr. Markland, who had 
"bequeathed to him all his books and papers. One of these, 
a copy of Mill's Greek Testament in folio, the margin 
filled with notes, was kindly lent by Dr. Heberden, " with 
that liberal attention to promote the cause of virtue and 
religion which was one of his many well-known excel- 
lences," to the publisher of the last edition of Mr. Bowyer's 

H E B E R D E N. 295 

" Conjectures on the New Testament, 1782," 4to. To 
Dr. Heberden Mr. Bowyer also bequeathed his " little, 
cabinet of coins, a few books specifically, and any others, 
which the doctor might chuse to accept." To Dr. H.'s 
other publications, we may add his " ANTI0HPIAKA, an 
Essay on Mithridatium and Theriaca," 1745, 3vo. He 
was also a writer in the " Athenian Letters," and in his 
early life contributed some notes to Grey's " Hudibras," as 
acknowledged by that editor in his preface. 

Dr. Heberden married, Jan. 19, 1760, Mary, eldest 
daughter of William Woilastou, esq. by whom he had five 
sons and three daughters, who all died before him, except 
Dr. William Heberden, one of his majesty's puysiciuns, 
and Mary, the eldest daughter, married to the rev. George 
Jenyns, prebendary of Ely. His son published in 1802, a 
Latin and English edition of his father's last work, entitled 
" Gulielmi Heberden Commentarii de Morborum Historia 
et Curatione," in Svo. These faithful records of expe- 
rience are related with perfect candour, and without any 
admixture of hypothesis : the powers of medicine, how- 
ever, are estimated with that moderation which arises from 
the scepticism of long life and practice, and which some 
have thought carried a little too far in this work; yet a 
work, like this, formed on the most accurate observation, 
cannot be too often referred to by medical practitioners 
and medical writers, both, as a source of instruction and 
as a model. 1 

HECHT (CHRISTIAN), a German protestant divine, was 
born at Halle in Saxony in 1696, and hecame minister of 
Essan in East Friezeland, where he died in 1748. He 
wrote several treatises in the German language, and some 
in Latin, the most esteemed of which are his " Com men- 
tatio de secta Scribarum," and " Antiquitas Haraeorum 
inter Judaeos in Poloniue et Turcici Imp. regionibus. floren- 
tis sectrc," &c. 2 

HECHT (GODFREY), by some said to be a brother of 
the preceding, was born in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century at Juterbach, and educated at Wittemberg. 
In 1711 he was appointed rector of the college of Luccau, 
where he died in 1721. His principal works are on matters 
of biography and antiquities; particularly " Germania 

> JLif prefixed to the Commentaries. -Nichols's Bowyer. Cole's MS Atben 
in Brit, Mus. * Diet, Hist, 

296 II E C H T. 

sacra et literaria," 1717, 8vo; " De Hcnrico Guelfo Leone 
- commentarius," 1715, 4to ; "Vita Joannis Tezeli ;" 
" Memoria Joannis Lucani," &.C. 1 

HECQ.UET (Pinup), a French physician of singular 
merit and skill, hut a strong partizan of the use of warm 
water and of Weeding, for which reason he was ridiculed 
by Le Sage in his Gil Bias, under the name of Dr. San- 
grado, was born at Abbeville, in 1661, and practised first 
in that city, then at Port-royal, and lastly at Paris. He 
was not properly san grado, for he took the degree of doc- 
tor in 1697 ; and in 1698 had more business than he could 
attend. Though attached to the most simple mode of life, 
he was obliged to keep his carriage, in which he studied 
with as much attention as in bis closet. In 1712, he was 
appointed dean of the faculty of medicine, and superin- 
tended the publication of a sort of dispensary, called, 
" The New Code of Pharmacy," which was published some 
time afterwards. Hecquet was no less zealous in religious 
matters than studious in his own profession, and is said 
never to have prescribed in doubtful cases, without having 
a previous recourse to prayer. He lived in the most ab- 
stemious manner, and in 1727 retired to a convent of Car- 
melites in Paris, where he continued accessible only to the 
poor, to whom he was a friend, a comforter, and a father. 
He died April 1 1, 1737, at the age of seventy-six. He was 
interred in the church of the CaYmelites, where is a monu- 
ment with a Latin inscription by Rollin. This able phy- 
sician published several works, nene of them devoid of 
merit. They are thus enumerated : 1. " On the indecency 
of men-midwives, and the obligation of women to nurse 
their own children," 1728, 12mo. The reasons he adduces 
on these subjects are both moral and physical. 2. "A 
Treatise on the Dispensations allowed in Lent," 1705, and 
1715, 2 vols. 12mo. His own abstemious system inclined 
him very little to allow the necessity of any indulgence; 
and it is said that when he visited any of his wealthy pa- 
tients, he went into the kitchen, and embraced the cooks 
and officers of that department, acknowledging that they 
were the best friends the faculty had. 3. " On Digestion, 
and the Disorders of the Stomach," in 2 vols. 12mo. 4. 
" Treatise on the Plague," 12mo. 5. " Novus Medicine 
conspectus," 2 vols. 12mo. 6. " Theological Medicine,'* 

\ Moreri. 

H E C Q U E T. 297 

J vols, 12mo. 7. "Natural Medicine," ditto. 8. " De 
purganda Mediciftl a curarum sordibus," 12mo. 9. "Ob- 
servations on Bleeding in the Foot," I2mo. 10. "The 
Virtues of common Water," 2 vols. 12mo. This is the 
work in which he chiefly supports the doctrines ridiculed 
by Lft Sage. 1 I. " The abuse of Purgatives," 12mo. 12. 
" The roguery of Medicine)," in tlm-e parts, 12:no. 13. 
"The Medicine, Surgery, and Pharmacy of the Poor," 3 
vols. I2mo; the best edition is in 1742. 1 *. "The Na- 
tural History of Convulsions," in which he very saga- 
ciously referred the origin of those disorders to roguery in 
some, a depraved imagination in others, or the conse- 
quence of some secret malady. The life of this illustrious 
physician has been written at large by M. le Fevre de St. 
Marc, and is no less edifying to Christians than instructive 
to medical students. 1 

HEDELIN (FRANCIS), at first an advocate, afterwards 
an ecclesiastic, and abbe of Auhignac and Meimac, was 
born at Paris in 1604. Cardinal Richelieu, whose nephew 
he educated, bestowed on him his two abbeys, and the 
protection of that minister gave him consequence both as 
a man of the world and as an author. He figured by turns 
as a grammarian, a classical scholar, a poet, an antiquary, 
# preacher, and a writer of romances; but he was most 
known by his book entitled " Pratique du Theatre," and 
by the quarrels in which his haughty and presumptuous 
temper engaged him, with some of the most eminent 
authors of his time. The great Corneille was one of these, 
whose disgust first arose from the entire omission of his 
name in the celebrated book above mentioned. He was 
also embroiled, on different accounts, with madame Scu- 
deri, Menage, and Richelet. The warmth of his temper 
exceeded rhat of his imagination, which was considerable; 
and yet he lived at court a good deal in the style of a phi- 
losopher, rising early to his studies, soliciting no favours, 
and associating chiefly with a few friends, as unambitious 
as himself, lie describes himself as of a slender constitu- 
tion, not capable of taking much exercise, or even of ap- 
plying very intensely to study, without suffering from it in 
his health ; yet not attached to any kind of play. " It is," 
ays he, " too fatiguing for the feebleness of my body, or 
too indolent for the activity of iy mind." The abbe iT Au- 

1 Moreri. Diet. IJjst. 

29S H E D L I N. 

bignac Irred to the age of seventy-two, and died at 
xnours in 1676. His works are, 1. " Pratique du Theatre," 
Amsterdam, 1717, two vols. 8vo; also in a 4to edition pub- 
lished at Paris ; a book of considerable learning, but little 
calculated to inspire or form a genius. 2. " Zenobie," a 
tragedy, in prose, composed according to the rules laid 
clown in his " Pratique," and a complete proof of the total 
inefhcacy of rules to produce an interesting drama, being 
the most dull and fatiguing performance that was ever re- 
presented. The prince of Conde said, on the subject of 
this tragedy, " We give great credit to the abbe d'Auhig- 
nac for having so exactly followed the rules of Aristotle, 
but owe no thanks to the rules of Aristotle for having made 
the abb produce so vile a tragedy." He wrote a few other 
other tragedies also, which are worse, if possible, than 
Zenobia. 3. u Macaride ; or the Queen of the Fortunate 
Islands," a novel, Paris, 1666, 2 vok 8vo. 4. " ConseiU 
cTAriste a Celimene, I2mo. 5. " Histoire da terns, ou Re- 
lation du Royaume de Coqueterie," 12mo, 6. " Terence 
justifie," inserted in some editions of his " Pratique." 7. 
" Apologie de Spectacles," a work of no value. A curious 
book on satyrs, brutes, and monsters, has been attributed 
to him ; but, though the author's name was Hedelin, hq 
does not appear to have been the same. 1 

or Grossen-hayn, in Misnia, was born in 1675. His first 
publication was an edition of Empedocles " de Sphsera," 
xvith his own notes, and the Latin version of Septimius 
Florens, in 1711, Dresden, 4to. He then published a 
"Notitia Auctorum," 1714, 8va. His celebrated " Greek 
Lexicon'* was published, first at Leipsic, in 1722,, 8vo, and 
has been republished here with many additions, by Young, 
Patrick, and Morell. It was also much improved by Er- 
nesti, and repubiished at Leipsic in 1767. Hedench 
published other lexicons on different subjects, and died in 
1748. Erncsti says of him, that he was a good man, and 
very laborious, but not a profound scholar in Greek, nor 
well qualified for compiling a lexicon for the illustration 
of Creek authors. 2 

HEDGES (Sir CHAHLES), a civilian and statesman of 
some note, was educated both at Magdalen- hall and cok* 

1 Chnnfepie. Moreri. Diet. Hist. Nieeron, vol. IV. and X. 
8 Diet. Hist. Saxii Otfqnaast. 

H E D G E & 299 

lege, Oxford, where he commenced M. A. May 31, 1673, 
and LL. D. June 26, 1675. Engaging in the profession of 
the civil law, he acquired considerable eminence, and in 
March 1686 was appointed chancellor and vicar-general 
of Rochester, by a patent, for life, probably upon the re- 
signation of sir William Trumball, who was going as am- 
bassador to the Ottoman court. This promotion was soon 
after followed by his acquisition of the mastership of the 
faculties, and the dignity of judge of the high court of 
admiralty, of which sir Richard Raines was dispossessed, 
and on whose demise some years afterwards, he became 
judge of the prerogative court of Canterbury. His pro- 
gress in political life was equally successful, for he re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, and served in parliament 
for Orford in Suffolk in 1698, for Malmsbury in Wilts in 
1701 and 1702; for Calne, in 1702; and for two Cornish 
boroughs from 1705 to 1713. He was advanced to be one 
of the principal secretaries of state, Nov. 5, 1700, under 
king William, and again, May 2, I 1 ) 02, under queen Anne. 
It was he that drew up the much-debated act of abjura- 
tion in 1701. In parliament, it is said, he voted with the 
vvhigs or tories, as his interest prompted, but his attach- 
ment was to the tories, who procured his promotion to the 
office of secretary of state. The whigs, however, prevailed 
on queen Anne to dismiss him from tliat trust in 1706, with 
a proviso that he should be judge of the prerogative court 
on the death of sir Richard Raines, which, we have already 
said, he lived to enjoy, although for a short time. He died 
at Richmond, June 10, 1714. * 

HEDIO (CASPAR), one of the early reformers, was born 
in 14l>5, at Etlinggen, in the marquisate of Baden; and 
educated at Friburg, where he took his master of arts de- 
gree. Thence he went to Basil, studied divinity, and com- 
menced doctor of philosophy and divinity about 1520. 
Having imbibed the principles of the reformed religion, he 
inculcated it with great success, as preacher in the church 
at Mentz, until the violence of persecution obliged him to 
go to Strasburgh in 1523, where, under the sanction of 
the senate, he co-operated with Capito and Bucer in the 
reformation. Here he married in 1533 In 1543 Her- 
man, bishop of Cologn, wishing to promote the cause in 
his diocese, invited Bucer and Hedio, who were very sue- 

1 MS account by Dr, Ducarel. -Coote's Catalogue of Civilians, 


cessful, until driven away by the emperor and the Spa- 
niards. Hedio made his escape with much difficulty, and 
returned to Strasburgh, where he composed most of his 
works, and where he died Oct. 17, 1552. His original 
\vorks, enumerated by Melchior Adam, are theological, 
historical, and philological; besides which, he was editor 
of some parts of the Fathers. 1 

HEDWIG (JoiiN), a celebrated botanist, was born 
Oct. 8, 17 SO, at Cronstadt, in Transylvania, where his fa- 
tbi-r was one of the magistrates. After the first rudiments 
of domestic education at home, he studied for four years 
at the public school of his native town. On the death of 
his father in 1747, he went for further improvement to the 
university of Presburg in Hungary, where he remained 
two years, and then proceeded toZittau in Upper Lusatia. 
In 1752 he removed to Leipsic, where his diligence and 
talents, as well as his personal character, procured him 
the favour and friendship of the celebrated Ludwig in par- 
ticular, by whose lectures of various kinds, as well as those 
of Hebenstreit, Boehmer, and others, he rapidly and 
abundantly profited. In 1756, he was taken into the house 
of professor Bose, to assist him in the demonstration of 
plants- in his botanical lectures, as well as in the care of 
patients at the infirmary; and it is supposed that this en- 
gagement was full as advantageous to the master as to the 
pupil. Having at length finished his studies, he was de- 
fcirons of settling as a physician in Ills native place, but 
was- prevented by an exclusive la\v in favour of such as are 
educated in some Austrian school. In 1759 he took bis 
degree of doctor of physic at Leipsic, and was induced to 
establish himself at Chemnitz. He was now so far master 
of his own time, that he found himself able to alleviate the 
labours of his profession by almost daily attention to bis 
favourite studies. His morning hours in summer, from 
five till breakfast-time, were spent in the fields and woods, 
and his evenings in the investigation of what he had col- 
lected, or else in the care of a little garden of his own. To 
pursue with success his inquiries, he found it necessary, at 
forty years of age, to learn drawing, which enabled him 
to publish some of the most curious and authentic botanical 

1 Melchior Adaui in viiis ThcQlogovum. Fuller's Abel Redivivus. - Jcrtin's 

H E I> W I G. 30* 

The first and greatest fruit of Heclvvig's labours, was the 
determination of the mule and female Mowers of mosses, the 
theory of which was h'rst clearly detailed by him. He 
also first beheld the bladder-like anther, of the Liuneeaii 
Biyum pulvinaliun, discharging its pollen, on the 17th of 
January, 177O. He was already satisfied that what Lin- 
nteus, misled by Dillenius against his own previous opi- 
nion, had taken for anthers, were in fact the capsules of 
mosses, and produced real (seed. A history of his disco- 
veries was published in a German periodical work at Leip- 
sic in 1779. In 1782 appeared his valuable " Fuiuiamen- 
tum Historise Nuturalis Muscorum Frondosorum," a baud- 
some Latin quarto, in two parts, with 20 coloured micro- 
scopical plates. The earliest account given of Hedwig's 
opinions in England, was from the communications of the 
late professor J. Sibthorp, who had just then visited him, 
to Dr. Smith, in 1786, and is annexed to a translation of 
Limiaeus's " Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants," pub- 
lished that year. 

Hedwig lost his first wife in 1776, and again married a 
very accomplished lady the following year, who was, like 
the former, a native of Leipsic. By her persuasion he re- 
moved to Leipsic in 1781, and the following year die work 
above mentioned was there published. The same subject 
is happily followed up in his " Theoria generationis et 
fructificationis plant arum cryptogamicarum Linnaet," pub- 
lished at Petersburgh in 1784. This work gained its author 
the prize from that academy in 1783, of 100 gold ducats. 
In it the fructification and germination of mosses is further 
illustrated, and a view is also taken of the fructification of 
the other cryptogam ic families, the author being very na- 
turally desirous of extending his discoveries throughout 
that obscure tribe of plants. A new and encreased edition 
of this work appeared in 1798. 

The literary fame of Hedwig, und his medical practice, 
were now every day increasing. He was made physician 
to the town guards, and professor of physic and of botany at 
Leipsic. The latter appointment, in which he succeeded 
Dr. Pohl removed to Dresden in 1789, was accompanied 
with a house, and the superintendance of the public gar- 
den. In 1791 the senate appointed him physician to the 
school of St. Thomas. The duties of all these various sta- 
tions might be supposed to have fully occupied his time, 
yet he still found leisure ta attend to new communications 

302 H E D W I G. 

from his friends. Many nondescript mosses were sent him 
from Pennsylvania by the rev. Dr. Muhienberg, and many 
West- Indian ones by Dr. Swartz. A fine collection of 
new or rare ferns, in full fructification, was forwarded to 
him by sir Joseph Banks, at the suggestion of Dr. Smith, 
in hopes that he might be induced to take up their exami- 
nation ; it not being then known in this country, that lie 
was already intent on the subject, and preparing his essay 
for the Petersburgh academy. The fruits of these com- 
munications were not given to the world in his life-time. 
But the former ones contributed, with other matter, to a 
posthumous work, pablished by his able pupil Dr. Schwae- 
grichen, entitled " Species Muscorum," in 4to, with 77 
coloured plates ; and the latter to some subsequent works 
of his son; 'but his great work is his " Cryptogam ia" 
1787 1797, 4 Vols. fol. the figures in which are given 
with a fidelity rarely to be seen. Hedvvig died Feb. 17, 
1799. As an observer and faithful describer, he cannot 
be ranked too high ; as a vegetable physiologist, if not 
always infallible, he stands in the first order; and his know* 
ledge was enhanced by modesty, candour, affability, the 
strictest probity, and the most elevated piety. His scien- 
tific character in other respects is well delineated in our 
authority. 1 


HEERBRAND (JAMES), a German divine, and one of 
the propagators of the reformation, was born at Nurem- 
berg in 1521. He was educated in the principles of the 
reformed religion by his father, and happened to be at 
school at Ulm, when Erasmus's Colloquies were prohibited, 
as containing too many reflections on the papists ; but 
Heerbrand continued to read them privately, and imbibed 
their spirit. After a classical education at Ulm, his father 
sent him to Witteniberg in 1538, to hear Luther and Me- 
lanctbon, Bugenhagius, and other divines ; and in 1540 he 
commenced M. A. After five years* study here, he was 
ordained deacon at Tubingen, where he prosecuted his 
studies, and where in 1547 he married. The year fol- 
lowing, as he objected to the Interim, he was banished 
from Tubingen, but was soon recalled, and made pastor of 
Herenberg. In 1550 he took his degree of D. D. and this-/ 
being about the time of the council of Trent, he endea- 

J Rees's Cyclopaedia, by DivS 

H E E R B R A N D. 303 

toured to make himself master of the controversy between 
the Roman catholic and reformed church, by a careful 
study of the Fathers. In 1559 he was invited by Charles, 
marquis of Baden, to assist in the reformation in his domi- 
nions; and while here he prescribed a form for the ordina- 
tion of ministers. Very soon after, he was chosen divinitv- 
professor at Tubingen, and expounded the Pentateuch in 
his lectures, and preached statedly. In this city, likewise, 
he wrote his answer to Peter Soto, " De Ecclesia, pa'.ribus, 
et conciliis," which was afterwards printed. In 1 557 he 
was chosen successively rector and chancellor of the uni- 
versity, and pastor and superintendant of the church. 
Having rejected some valuable offers to remove to other 
universities, lie fixed his final residence at Tubingen, 
where prince Christopher giving him some land, he built 
a house ; and when old age obliged him to remit his labours, 
a stipend was allowed him. He died at Tubingen, of a 
.lethargic complaint in 1600. He was a man of great learn- 
ing, and happil > adapted to the times in which he lived ; 
and appears to have been consulted in difficult emergen- 
cies by many of the German princes and noblemen. Of 
his works, which are numerous, both in German and Latin, 
the principal are, " Compendium Theologian," and Hiany 
theological dissertations and lives. 1 

HEEHE ( LUCAS DE), a painter of considerable fame, 
when there were few who deserved it, was born at Ghent, 
in 1534, the son of John de Heere, the best statuary of 
his time ; and Anne Smyters, who had the reputation of 
being a most surprising pain tress of landscapes in minia- 
ture. Van Mander gives almost an incredible account of 
one performance of that female artist. From such parents 
De Heere had a fair prospect of gaining every necessary 
part of instruction ; and having under their direction 
learned to design and handle the pencil with ease and free- 
dom, he was placed as a disciple with Francis Fioris. With 
that master he improved very expeditiously, and on quit- 
ting his school travelled to France, where he was employed 
for some years by the queen-mother, in drawing designs 
for tapestry. At his return to his native city, he painted 
a great number of portraits with applause; and was re- 
markable for having so retentive a memory, that if he save 
any person but once, he could paint his likeness as strong 

' >Ie1W<jr Adam. Fflehrri Thcatfura, 

304 H E E R E. 

4s if he had his model before his eyes. On the shutters of 
the altar-piece in the church of St. Peter at Ghent, he 
painted the Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles, in 
which the draperies are extremely admired ; and in the 
church of St. John he painted an altar-piece representing 
the Resurrection. 

His manner was stiff, resembling that of his master; but 
m the colouring of the heads of his portraits there appears 
a great deal of nature and clearness ; and he is very com- 
mendable for his high finishing, as welt as for giving a full- 
ness to his draperies. This artist resided for several years 
in England, where many of his portraits of the nobility are 
still preserved, and much esteemed, such as lady Jane 
Grey, lord Darnley husband of Mary queen of Scotland, 
Frances duchess of Suffolk, &c. and at Longleate there is 
a large picture of a gentleman, his wife and family, con- 
sisting of eight persons. Soon after he came to England, 
he painted a naked man with different-coloured clothes 
lying besides him, and a pair of sheers in his- hand, as a 
satire on our fickleness in fashion ; it is illustrative of a 
verse by Andrew de Borde, who in his " Introduction to 
Knowledge," has prefixed to the first chapter a naked 
maa with these lines: 

f< I am an Englishman, and naked I stand here, 
Musing in mind what raiment I shall wear." 

De Heere, before he died, which happened in 1584, in 
the fiftieth year of his age, returned to Ghent j but his last 
works are unknown. 1 

ningen, was one of the most elegant Latin poets that part 
of Europe has produced for a century past. Of his early 
life we have no memorials. In 176o"he went to Italy, and 
became acquainted with the most eminent scholars of that 
period, and seems to have joined the cultivation of the modern 
Italian, with that of the ancient classical taste, which he had 
before imbibed, and of which be gave an excellent specimen 
in his work " De Valetudine Literatorum," Leyden, 1749, 
8vo, and again more decidedly in his " Satyra de moribus Par- 
hisiorumet FrUiae," 1750, 4to; " De Oflicio mectici poema, 
dedicated to cardinal Quirini," Groningen, 1752, 8vo ; 
1 Iter Veiietum," which he published at Venice, when on 

1 PilkingtoiKWalpole's Anecdo es-. 

H E E R K E N S. 305 

his tour in 1760, and which displays the feeling, tajte, and 
sentiment of a refined scholar. At Rome he was elected a 
member of the Arcadi, and under the name which he as- 
sumed in compliance with the usual practice of that society, 
he published in the above-mentioned year " Marii Cu- 
rulii Groningensia satyrse," 8vo. In this his satire is free 
and poignant, yet without merciless severity, and his Latin 
uncommonly pure. In 1764, after his return home, he 
published his " Notabilia," 2 books, and two more under 
the same title in 1770, containing many anecdotes of the 
Italian literati, and notices of his own history and opinions. 
His other publications are, " Anni rustici Januarius," Gro- 
ningen, 1767 ; and " Aves Frisicse," Rotterdam, 1787, 
in which he describes in Ovidian style, and with a happy 
imitation of that poet, ten different birds; the lark, the cross- 
bill, the inagpy, &c. The notes to this poem evince a great 
knowledge of natural history, and many facts respecting 
these birds which are not generally known. Heerkens was 
a physician, but of his character or practice in that pro- 
fession we have no information. The Diet. Hist, mention* 
Jiis death as having taken place in 1780, whicli must be 
wrong, as in the last- mentioned publication he promises a 
continuation. It does not appear that he was dead ia 
1803, when Saxius published his last volume. 1 


HEGES1PPUS, an ecclesiastical historian of the second 
century, lived before or near the time of Justin Martyr. 
He came to Home about the year 157, while Anicetus was 
bishop there, and continued in that capital till the year 
185, in friendship and communion with Anicetus, and 
with Soter and Eleutherus, his two successors in office, 
and is accounted to have been sound in the orthodox faith 
respecting the divinity of Christ. He is thought to have 
died about the year 180. He wrote an ecclesiastical his- 
tory from the commencement of the Christian aera to his 
own time, of which a few fragments only have been pre- 
served by Eusebius. As to five books of the Jewish war 
which have been ascribed to him, and which are in the 
" Bibl. Patrum," as well as separately printed at Cologn, 
in 1559, 8vo, they are generally allowed to have been the 
production of some later author. 2 

, Diet. Hist. Saxii Onovnast. Mouth. Rev. vol. LXXVII. 
8 Cave. Oupia. Lariqer's Works. 


306 H E I D A N U S. 

HEIDANUS (ABRAHAM), a learned protestant divine, 
professor of theology at Leyden, was born August 10, 
1597, at Frakenthal, in the palatinate. He acquired 
great reputation by his sermons and writings ; was the in- 
timate friend of Descartes, and died at Leyden, October 
15, 1678, leaving several children. Heidanus was author 
of a " System of Divinity," 1686, 2 vols. 4to, and other 
valuable works ; among them, " An Examination of the 
Remonstrant's Catechism," 4to, " De origine Erroris," &c.' 

HEIDEGGEfl (JOHN HENRY), a protestant divine of 
Switzerland, was born at Ursevellon, a village near Zu- 
rich, July 1, 1633. He was first a teacher of Hebrew and 
philosophy at Heidelberg, then of divinity and ecclesias- 
tical history at Steinfurt ; and lastly, of morality and di- 
vinity at Zurich, where he died Jan. 18, 1698. He pub- 
lished, 1. " Exercitationes selectee de Historia sacra Pa- 
triarcharum," in 2 vols. 4to, the first of which appeared 
at Amsterdam in 1667, the latter in 1671. 2. " De ra- 
tione studiorum opuscula aurea," &c. Zurich, 1670, 12mo. 

3. " Tumulus Tridentini Concilii," Zurich, 1690, 4to. 

4. "Historia Papatfts," Amst. 1698, 4to. There is also 
ascribed to him, 5. A tract " De peregrinationibus reli- 
giosis," in 1670, 8vo. And, 6. " A System of Divinity," 
1700, folio. 2 

HEIDEGGER (JOHN JAMES), a very singular adven- 
turer, was th son of a clergyman, and a native of Zurich, 
in Switzerland, where he married, but left his country in 
consequence of an intrigue. Having had an opportunity 
of visiting the principal cities of Europe, he acquired a 
taste for elegant and refined pleasures, which by degrees 
qualified him for the management of public amusements. 
In 1708, when he was near fifty years old, he came to Eng- 
land on a negotiation from the Swiss at Zurich ; but failing 
in his embassy, he entered as a private soldier in the 
guards for protection. By his sprightly engaging conver- 
sation, and insinuating address, he soon became a favou- 
rite with our young people of fashion, from whom he ob- 
tained the appellation of " the Swiss count," by which 
name he is noticed in the " Tatler." He had the address 
to procure a subscription, with which in 1709 he was en- 
abled to furnish out the opera of " Thomyris," which was 

1 Gen. Diet. Moreri. 

9 Niceron, vol. XVU. Mrori. Saicii Onomast. 


written in English, and performed at the queen's theatre 
in the Haymarket, with such success, that he g ined by 
this performance alone 500 guineas. The judicious re- 
marks he made on several detects in the conduct of our 
operas in general, and the hints he threw out for improving 
those entertainments, soon established his character as a 
theatrical critic. Appeals were made to his judgment; 
and some very magnificent and elegant decorations, intro- 
duced upon the stage in consequence of his advice, gave 
such satisfaction to George II. who was fond of operas, 
that his majesty was pleased from that time to countenance 
him, and he soon obtained the chief management of the 
opera-house in the Haymarket. He then undertook to 
improve another species'of diversion, not less agreeable to 
the king, the masquerades, and over these he always pre- 
sided at the king's theatre. He was likewise appointed 
master of the revels. The nobility now caressed htm so 
much, and had such an opinion of his taste, that all splen- 
did and elegant entertainments given by them upon par- 
ticular occasions, and all private assemblies by subscription, 
were submitted to his direction, for which he was liberally 

From the emoluments of these several employments, he 
gained a regular and considerable income; amounting, it 
is said, in some years to 5000/. which he spent with much 
liberality, particularly in the maintenance of perhaps 
somewhat too luxurious a table ; so that it may be said he 
raised an income, but never a fortune. His charity was 
so great, that after a successful masquerade he has been 
known to give away several hundred pounds at a time. 
u You know poor objects of distress better than I do," he 
would frequently say to the father of the gentleman who 
furnished this anecdote, " Be so kind as to give away this 
money for me." This well-known liberality, perhaps, 
contributed much to his carrying on that diversion with so 
little opposition as he met with. 

That he was a good judge of music, appears from his 
opera; but this is all that is known pf his mental abilities*; 

* Pope (Dunciad, I. 289), calls the strange bird from Switzerland, and not 

bird which attended on the goddess, (as some have supposed) the nme of 

" a monster of a fowl, an eminent person, who wss a man of 

Something betwixt a Heidegger and parts, and, as was said of Petrouiu*, 

owl." Arbiter Elegaotiarum." 
And explains Heidegger to mean " a 

X 2 


unless it may be added in honour to his memory, that hfc 
walked from Charirrg-cross to Temple-bar and back again, 
and, when he Came home, wrote down every sign on each 
side the Strand. 

As to his person, though he was tall and well-made, it 
was not very pleasing, from an unusual hardness of fea- 
tures*. But he was the first to joke upon his own ugli- 
ness ; and he once laid a. wager with the earl of Chester- 
field, .that within a certain given time his lordship woukl 
not be able to produce so hideous a face in all Londort. 
After strict search, a woman was found, whose features were 
at first sight thought stronger than Heidegger's ; but, upon 
clapping her head-dress upon himself, he was universally 
allowed to have won the wager. Jolly, a well-known tay- 
lor, carrying his bill to a noble duke; his grace, for eva- 
sion, said, " 1 never will pay you till you bring me an 
uglier fellow than yourself!" Jolly bowed and retired, 
wrote a letter, and sent it by a servant to Heidegger, say- 
ing, " his grace wished to see him the next morning on 
particular business." Heidegger attended, and Jolly was 
tjiere to meet him ; and in consequence, as soon as Hei- 
degger's visit was over, Jolly received the cash. 

The late facetious duke of Montagu (the memorable 
contriver of the bottle-conjuror at the theatre in the Hay- 
market) gave an entertainment at the Devfl tavern, Temple- 
bar, to several of the nobility and gentry, to whom he im- 
parted his plot. Heidegger was invited, and a few hours 
after dinner was made drunk, and laid insensible upon a bed. 
A profound sleep ensued ; when the late Mrs. Salmon's 
daughter was introduced, who took a mould from his face 
in plaster of Paris. From this a. mask was made, and a few 
days before the next masquerade (at which the king pro- 
mised to be present, with the countess of Yarmouth) the 
duke made application to Heidegger's valet de chambre, 
to know what suit of clothes he was likely to wear ; and then 
procuring a similar dress, and a person of the same stature-, 
lie gave him his instructions. On the evening of the mas- 
querade, as soon as his majesty was seated .(who was always 
known by the conductor of the entertainment and the of- 
ficers of the court, though concealed by his dress from the 
company), Heidegger, as usual, ordered the music to play 

* There is a metzotinto of Heideg- loo, a slrikiog likeness. His facj is 
nr by J. Fabcr, 1742, (other copies also introduced in more than oire\>f 
1749) from a painting by Van- Hogarth's print* 


f -' f v\ save th.e King;" but his back was no sooner turned,, 
thiwi the false Heidegger ordered them to strike up " Charly 
over the Water." The whole company were instantly 
thunderstruck, an;! all the courtiers not in the plot were 
throw. i into a stupid consternation. Heidegger flew to the 
rriu.sic-gf'.!lery, stamped and raved, and accused the mu- 
si..iiins of drunkenness, or of Wing set on by some secret 
enemy to ruin him. The king and the countess laughed 
so immoderately, that they hazarded a discovery. While 
Heidegger stayed in the gallery, " God save the King" 
was the tune ; but when, after setting matters to rights, 
lie retired to one of the dancing-rooms, to observe if de- 
corum was kept by the company, the counterfeit stepping 
forward, and placing himself upon the floor of the theatre, 
just in front of the music gallery, called out in a most au- 
dible voice, imitating Heidegger, and asked them if he 
had not just told them to play " Charly over the Water?' 1 
A pause ensued ; the musicians, who knew his character, 
in their turn thought him either drunk or mad ; but, as he 
continued his vociferation, " Charly" was played again. 
At this repetition of the supposed affront, some of the of- 
ficers of the guards, who always attended upon these oc- 
casions, were for ascending the gallery, and kicking the 
musicians out; but the late duke of Cumberland, who 
could hardly contain himself, interposed. The company 
were thrown into great confusion. " Shame! Shame!" 
resounded from all parts, and Heidegger once more flew 
in a violent rage to that part of the theatre facing the gal- 
lery. Here the duke of Montagu, artfully addressing him- 
self to him, told him "the king was in a violent passion ; 
that his best way was to go instantly and make an apology, 
for certainly the musicians were mad, and afterwards to 
discharge them." Almost at the same instant hq ordered 
the false Heidegger to do the same. The scene now be- 
came truly comic in the circle before the king. Heideg- 
ger had no sooner made a genteel apology for the insolence 
of his musicians, but the false Heidegger advanced, and 
in a plaintive tone cried out, li Indeed, Sire, it was not 
my fault, but that devil's in my likeness." Poor Heideg- 
ger turned round, stared, staggered, grew pale, and could 
not utter a word. The duke then himianely whispered in 
his ear the sum of his plot, and the counterfeit was ordered 
to take off his mask. Here ended the frolic ; but Heideg- 
ger swore he would never attend any public amusement, if 


that witch the wax-work woman did not break the mould, 
and melt down the mask before his face. 

Being once at supper with a large company, when a 
question was debated, which nation of Europe had the 
greatest ingenuity; to the surprise of all present, he claimed 
that character for the Swiss, and appealed to himself for 
the truth of it. " I was born a Swiss," said he, " arid 
came to England without a farthing, where I have found 
means to gain 5000/. a year, and to spend it. Now I defy 
the most able Englishman to go to Switzerland, and, either 
to gain that income, or to spend it there." He died Sept. 
4, 1749, at the advanced age of ninety years, at his house 
a: Richmond, in Surrey, where he was buried. He left 
behind him one natural daughter, miss Pappet, who was 
married Sept. 2, 1750, to captain (afterwards admiral sir 
Peter) Denis. Part of this lady's fortune was a house at 
the north-west corner of Queen -square, Ormond -street, 
which sir Peter afterwards sold to the late Dr. Campbell, 
and purchased a seat in Kent, pleasantly situated near 
Westram, then called Valence, but now (by its present 
proprietor, the earl of Hillsborough) Hill Park. 1 

HEINECCIUS (JOHN GOTLIEB), a German lawyer, was 
born at Eisemberg in 1681, and trained in the study of 
philosophy and law. He became professor of philosophy 
at Hall, in 1710, and of law in. 1721, with the title of 
counsellor. In 1724 he was invited to Franeker ; and 
three years after, the king of Prussia influenced him to 
accept the law-professorship at Franc fort upon the Oder. 
Here he continued till 1733, when the same prince almost 
forced him to resume the chair at Hall, where he remained 
till his death, in 1741, although he had strong invitations 
from Denmark, Holland, &c. His principal works (for 
they are numerous) are, 1. " Antiquitatum Romanorum 
Jurisprudentiam illustrantium syntagma ;" the best edi- 
tion of which is the fifth, published at Lewarden, in 1777. 
2. " Elementa Juris Civilis secundum ordinem Institutio- 
num & Pandectarum," 2 vols. 8vo. 3. " Elementa Phi- 
losophic Rationalis & Moralis, quibus pnemissa historia 
Philosophical' This is reckoned a good abridgment of 
logic and morality. 4. " Historia Juris Civilis, Romani ac 
Germanici." 5. " Elementa Juris Naturae & Gentium," 
which was translated into English by Dr. Turnbull. 6, 

> Nichols's inecdotes of Hogarth. Hawkins's Hist, of Miwic. 

H E I N E C C I U-3. 311 

" Fundamenta styli cultioris;" a work of his youth, but 
much approved, and often reprinted, with notes by Ges- 
ner and others, Also several academic dissertations upon 
various subjects. His works were published collectively 
at Geneva in 1744, and form 8 vols. in 4to. His brother, 
JOHN MICHAEL, deacon of the church of St. Peter and St. 
Paul at Goslar, who died in 1722, wrote many works of 
reputation in his country, among which is his " Account 
of the Antiquities of Goslar and the neighbouring places;" 
and his view of the ancient and modern Greek church. 1 

HEINECKEN (CHRISTIAN HENRY), a child greatly ce- 
lebrated for the wonderfully premature developemerit of 
his talents, but whose history will require strong faith, was 
born at Lubeck, Feb. 6, 1721, and died mere June 27, 
1725, after having displayed the most amazing proofs of 
intellectual powers. He could talk at ten months old, and 
scarcely had completed the first year of his life, when he 
already knew and recited the principal facts contained in 
the five books of Moses, with a number of verses on the 
creanon ; at thirteen months he knew the history of the Old 
Testament, and the New at fourteen ; in his thirtieth month, 
the history of the nations of antiquity, geography, anato- 
my, the use of maps, and nearly 8000 Latin words. Be- 
fore the end of his third year, he was well acquainted with 
the history of Denmark, and the genealogy of the crowned 
heads of Europe ; in his fourth year he had learned the 
doctrines of divinity, with their proofs from the Bible; ec- 
clesiastical history ; the institutes ; 200 hymns, with their 
tunes; 80 psalms; entire chapters of the Old and New 
Testament; 1500 verses and sentences from ancient Latin 
classics ; almost the* whole Orbis Pictus of Comenius, 
whence he had derived all his knowledge of the Latin lan- 
guage ; arithmetic; the history of the European empires 
and kingdoms; could point out in the maps whatever place 
he was asked for, or passed by in his journeys, and recite 
all the ancient and modern historical anecdotes relating to 
it. His stupendous memory caught and retained every 
word he was told ; his ever active imagination used what- 
ever he saw or heard, instantly to apply some examples or 
sentences from the Bible, geography, profane or eccle- 
siastical history, the " Orbis Pictus," or from ancient clas- 
sics. At the court of Denmark he delivered twelve speeches 

1 Chaufepic. Saxii Onomast. 

312 H E I N E C K E N. 

\\ithout once faltering; and underwent public examina- 
tions on a variety of subjects, especially the bistory of 
Denmark. He spoke German, Latin, French, and Low 
Dutch, and was exceedingly good-natured and weil-be- 
havecl, but of a most tender and delicate bodily constitu- 
tion ; never ate any solid food, but chiefly subsisted on 
nurses milk, not being weaned till within a very few months 
of his death, at which time he was not quite four years old. 
There is a dissertation on this child, published by M. Mar- 
tini at Lubeck, in 1730, where the author attempts to 
assign the natural causes for the astonishing capacity of 
this great man in embryo, who was just shewn to the world, 
and snatched away. This was addressed to M. Christ, de 
Schoeneich, the child's tutor, who had published an ac- 
count of him, and is given entire in vol. V. of " The Re- 
public of Letters." Schoeneich's account was republished 
so lately as 1778 or 1779 in German. 1 

HEINSIUS (DANIEL), a celebrated scholar and critic, 
professor of politics and history at Leyden, and librarian of 
the university there, was born at Ghent, in Flanders, May 
1SO, of an illustrious family, who had possessed the first 
places in the magistracy of that town. He was frequently 
removed in the younger part of his life. He began his 
studies at the Hague, and afterwards went with his parents 
into Zealand, where he was instructed in polite literature 
and philosophy. He soon learned the outlines of morality 
and politics, but did not relish logic, and had an unconquer- 
able aversion to the niceties of grammar. He discovered 
early a strong propensity to poetry, and began to make verses 
before he knew any thing of prosody or the rules of art. He 
composed a regular elegy at ten years of age, upon the 
death of a play-fellow ; and there are several epigrams and 
little poems of his, written when he was not above twelve, 
which shew a great deal of genius and facility. He is re- 
presented, however, as having been somewhat indolent, 
and not likely to make any progress in Greek Und Latin 
learning ; on which account his father sent him, at fourteen 
years of age, to study the law in the university of Fra- 
neker. But from that time, as if he had been influenced 
by a spirit of contradK*:on, nothing would please him but 
classics; and he applies inmself there to Greek and Latin 
authors, as obstinately as he had rejected them in Zealand. 

1 Schoeneich's account. Moreri. Diet. Hist. 

H E I N 8 I U S. 3U 

tie afterwards removed to Leyden, where he became a 
pupil of Joseph Scaliger ; and was obliged to the encou- 
ragement and care of that great man for the perfection to 
which he afterwards arrived in literature, and which at the 
beginning of his life there was so little reason to expect. 
He published an edition of " Silius Italicus," in 1600, pro- 
fessedly taken from an ancient MS. and added notes of his 
own, which he called " Crepundia Siliana," to shew that 
they were written when he was extremely young. This 
edition was reprinted at Cambridge, 1646, 12mo. Hein- 
sius was made Greek professor at eighteen, and afterwards 
succeeded Scaliger in the professorship of politics and his- 
tory. When he was chosen librarian to the university, he 
pronounced a Latin oration, afterwards published, in which 
he described the duties of a librarian, and the good order 
and condition in which a library should be kept. Being a 
great admirer of the moral doctrine of the stoics, he wrote 
an elegant oration in praise of the stoic philosophy. He 
died Feb. 25, 1655, after having distinguished himself as a 
critic by his labours upon Silius Italicus, Theocritus, He- 
siod, Seneca, Homer, Hesychius, Theophrastus, Clemens 
Alexandrinus, Ovid, Livy, Terence, Horace, Prudentius, 
Maximus Tyrius, &c. He published two treatises " De 
Satira Horatiana," which Balzac affirms to be master- 
pieces. He also wrote poems in various languages, which, 
have been often printed, and always admired. He was 
the author of several prose works, some of which were of 
the humourous and satirical cast; as u Laus Asini," " Laus 
Pediculi," c. 

The learned have all joined in their praises of Heinsius. 
Gerard Vossius says that he was a very great man ; and 
calls him the ornament of the muses and the graces. Ca- 
saubon admires him equally for his parts and learning. 
Pareus calls him the Varro of his age. Barthius ranks 
him with the first writers. Bochart pronounces him a truly 
great and learned man ; and Selden speaks of him as " tarn 
severiorum quam amceniorum literarum sol ;" a light to 
guide us in our gay as well as severe pursuits in letters. 
Some, however, have thought that, he was not so well 
formed for criticism ; and Le Clerc, in his account of the 
Amsterdam edition of Bentley's " Horace," says that 
though doubtless a learned man, who had spent his life in 
the study of criticism, yet if we may judge by his Horace, 
he was by no means happy in his conjectures ; but he 

314 H E I N S I U S. 

speaks much more advantageously of his son Nicolas Hein- 
sius ; and agreed, with the rest of the world, that though 
not so learned a man as his father, he had a better taste 
for criticism. Daniel Heinsius was, however, highly ho- 
noured abroad as well as at home ; and received uncom- 
mon marks of respect from foreign potentates. Gustavus 
Adolphus, king of Sweden, gave him a place among his 
counsellors of state: the republic of Venice made him a 
knight of their order of St. Mark: and pope Urban VIII. 
was such an admirer of his fine talents and consummate 
learning, that he made him great offers if he would come 
to Rome; "to rescue that city from barbarism," as the 
pontiff is said to have expressed himself. 1 

HEINSIUS (NICHOLAS), son of the preceding, and 
more eminent both in the literary and the political world, 
was born at Leyden, July 1620, and at first educated under 
his father's inspection. In early life he formed an inti- 
macy with his learned contemporaries John Frederick Gro- 
novius, Vincent Fabricius, and Isaac Vossius. The latter 
accommodated him with the MSS. of Ovid, which were in 
the library of his grandfather, John Gerard Vossius, and 
his attention to this author terminated at last in an excel- 
lent edition of his works, highly praised by Ernesti and 
Harles, which he published in 1661, 3 vols. 8vo. In 1641, 
when he was about twenty-one years of age, he came over 
to England, and spent three months at Oxford, examining 
some MSS. of Ovid and Claudian in the Bodleian library. 
He returned the following year to Leyden, and thence to 
Spa, on account of his health, but in this tour visited the 
libraries and the learned of Brabant. About 164-7 he went 
to Paris, where he remained a year and a half, and pub- 
lished his Latin poems. He also employed himself in col- 
lating some manuscripts in the library of Messrs. Dupin. 
From Paris he went to Italy, and both at Florence and 
Rome examined with great care the literary treasures in 
the grand duke's library, and in the Vatican. Happening 
unfortunately to be at Naples during a civic revolt, he lost 
part of his papers, and among others his collation of Mar- 
tial. In 1648 he published at Padua his elegies, in which 
he celebrates Italy and Rome, but speaks somewhat dis- 
respectfully of his own country, for which he was after- 

1 Moreri. Foppen, Bib!. Belg, Baillet Jugemens, Blotmt's Censtra. 
Saxu Ononvast. 

II E I N S I U S. 315 

wards blamed. He meant to have visited Svvisserland on 
his return, but his father's age and infirmities making him. 
desirous of his company, he returned home. He had 
refused a professor's chair at Bologna, because the terms 
were that he should embrace the Roman catholic religion. 
In 1649, hearing that Christina, queen of Sweden, had de- 
sired to see his poems, he published a new edition dedi- 
cated to her, which procured him an invitation to Stock- 
holm, where he was very graciously received by her ma- 
jesty. In 1651 he made another tour to Italy, and the 
following year being in Florence, was received a member 
of the academies of Delia Crusca and the Apathisti. A 
considerable part of his object in this tour was to purchase 
manuscripts and medals for queen Christina; but, being 
now greatly in advance for these purchases, without hav- 
ing received any money from Stockholm, he found it ne- 
cessary to return and make a personal application. In the 
mean time Christina had abdicated the throne, and Hein- 
sius, who had spent 3000 florins in her purchases, pre- 
sented petition after petition to no effect. Promises indeed 
he had in abundance ; he was to have a grant of lands in 
Pomerania, a canonry at Hamburgh, a vicariate at Bremen ; 
the title of secretary, and four thousand crowns to defray 
the expences he had been at ; but none of these was 

While in this situation, he received the glad tidings that 
the States of Holland had appointed him their resident at 
the Swedish court, with a salary of 4000 florins. This ap- 
pointment took place Oct. 7, 1654. The following year 
his father died, which obliged him to return to Holland. 
In 1656 he was made secretary to the city of Amsterdam, 
which he was obliged to resign two years after in conse- 
quence of being prosecuted by a young woman for a 
breach of promise of marriage, under the faith of which 
she had lived with him and borne him two children. This 
affair seems very little to Heinsius's credit, for he was not 
only cast in the suit, but the sentence was afterwards con- 
firmed in 1662 by the supreme court of Holland, to which 
he had appealed. 

In the mean time, in 1660, he was again appointed re- 
sident at the court of Stockholm, Where he rerhained until 
1667. In 1669 he was appointed deputy extraordinary at 
the court of Moscovy. After holding this post about two 
years, and executing some other political commissions for 

316 H E I N S I U S. 

the States, he retired to a country residence in 1675, first 
near Utrecht, and afterwards at Vianen. It was when in 
this latter place that Peter Francius addressed to him a 
Latin poem, " Ad Nic. Heinsinm, de secessu suo Via- 
nensi." In 1681, while at the Hague, whither he went on 
account of the marriage of 'his niece, he difcd Oct. 7. His 
body was carried to Leyden, and interred in the same 
grave with that of his father, in the church of St. Peter. 

His poems, which are much admired, have been several 
times printed : but the best edition is that of Amsterdam, 
1666. Some think him worthy to be called " The Swan 
bf Holland." He wrote notes upon, and gave editions of 
Virgil, Ovid, Valerius Flaccus, Claudian, Prudentius, &c. 
Bentley, in a note upon Horace, 2 Sat. vi. 108. calls his 
edition of Virgil, " editio castigatissima." His Claurlian 
is dedicated, in a Latin poem, to Christina queen of Swe- 
den ; and his Ovid to Thuanus, At his death, it is said, 
that he capriciously disowned all his works ; and expressed 
the utmost regret at having left behind him so many "mo- 
numents of his vanity," as he called them. l 

HEISTER (LAURENCE), a celebrated physician, surgeon, 
anatomist, and botanist, was born at Frankfort on the 
Maine, in 1683. He was educated in several German 
universities, and in 1706 spent some time in the study of 
anatomy and surgery at Amsterdam under Ruysch, then 
$o famous for his dissections and anatomical preparations. 
In the following year he went to serve as a surgeon in the 
Dutch camp in Brabant; devoting the subsequent winter 
to further improvement, under Boerhaave and his eminent 
colleagues, who at that time attracted students from ail 
parts to the university of Leyden, where Heister took his 
degree. Returning afterwards to the camp, he was, in 
1709, appointed physician -general to the Dutch military 
hospital. The experience he thus acquired, raised him to 
a distinguished rank in the theory and practice of surgery, 
especially as he had a genius for mechanics, and was by 
that means enabled to bring about great improvements in 
the instrumental branch of his art. In 17 10 he became 
professor of anatomy and surgery at Altorf, in the little can- 
ton of Uri, and rendered himself celebrated by his lec- 
tures and writings. Ten years afterwards a more advan- 

~ Moreri - Burman ' s Sylloge. Baillet Jugetnens. Saxii 

fc E I S T E R. 317 

tageous situation offered itself to him at Helmstad, where 
he became physician, with tiie tide of Aulic counsellor, as 
usual, to the duke of Brunswick, as well as [professor of 
medicine, and afterwards of surgery and botany, in that 
university. Here he continued till his death, which hap- 
pened in 1758, at the age of seventy-five. The czar Peter 
invited him to Russia, but he was too comfortably situated 
in Germany, where the favour of several sovereigns already 
shone upon him at an early period, to accept the invitation. 

Heister continued from time to time to publish^ number 
of books relating to anatomy and surgery, to several of 
which he supplied figures drawn by his own hand. Among 
these, his most distinguished work is the " Compendium 
Anatomieuai," an octavo volume, first printed in 1717, 
whidi became quite a classical book, superseding ail that 
had been previously in use in the schools. It went through 
numerous editions, with successive additions and improve- 
ments, and was translated into most of the modern lan- 
guages. His " Institutions of Surgery," also published in- 
German in 1718, was soon translated into Latin, and most 
of the modern languages of Europe, and went through* 
numerous editions. He wrote also some works on the 
theory and practice of medicine, in which his opinions are 
formed on the mechanical principles of the Boerhaavian 
school ; and a valuable practical work of Heister's, a col- 
lection of medical, surgical, and anatomical observations, 
in quarto, is well known in this country by an English 

Heister seems early to have had a taste for botany, and 
to have collected plants, as Haller observes, in his various 
journeys. This taste enabled him to (ill the botanical chair 
at Helmstad with credit and satisfaction, and he paid great 
attention to the garden there, which he much enriched. 
His first botanical publication, " De Coilectione Simpli- 
cium," was the inaugural dissertation. of one of his pupils 
named Rabe, printed in 1722 ; and had he written nothing 
else, his botanical labours should have been consigned to 
oblivion; but his subsequent works rank him as an original 
writer, and he might have acquired more fame had he been 
favoured with leisure to look deeper, and not been warped 
by preconceived ideas. In 1732 ha published a disserta- 
tion on the " Use of the Leaves" in founding genera of 
plants, preferring those parts for a natural arrangement, 
on account of the obscurity and difficulty attending those 

318 H E I S T E R. 

of the flower. In August 1741, our author came forth as 
the professed adversary of Linnaeus, in the inaugural dis- 
sertation of one of his pupils named Goeckel, entitled 
tl Meditationes et Animadversiones in novum Systema Bo- 
tanicum sexuale LinniEi;" but the arguments by which the 
learned professor and his pupil attempt to prove the posi- 
tion they assume, that the " method of Linnaeus is ex- 
tremely difficult, very doubtful, and uncertain," are not 
very cogent. Another dissertation of Heister's, published 
in Oct. 1741, " de Nominum Piantarum Mutaiione utili 
ac noxia," is a more diffuse and elaborate attack on the 
nomenclature of the great Swedish teacher, whom, how- 
ever, he terms " a most diligent and most valuable bo- 
tanist." Nor does it appear that he was instigated to these 
attacks by any personal enmity, nor by any more extraor- 
dinary flow of bile than was usual among controversialists, 
of that day at least. Whatever he pursued, he pursued 
with ardour, and perhaps as he advanced in age, seated in 
professional state, he grew more pertinacious in his opinions. 
Hence his subsequent attacks on Linnaeus are marked with 
more vehemence, but proportionably, as usual, with less 
reason. In 1748, notwithstanding his dislike to the Lin- 
nsean principles, he published a " Systema Piantarum Ge- 
nerale ex fructificatione, cui annectuntur regulaj ejusdem, 
de Nominibus Piantarum, a celeb. Linnaei longe diversae." 
This system is allied to that of Boerhaave, and though it 
takes into consideration many particulars of general habit 
or structure, is not more natural than the professedly arti- 
ficial system of Linnaeus. 

We shall conclude with mentioning a very splendid pub- 
lication of Heister in folio, in 1753, in which he describes 
the Amaryllis Orientals of Linnaeus, which he names Bruns- 
vigia alter his sovereign. 1 

HELE (THOMAS), by birth an Englishman, arrived at 
the singular distinction of being admired in France as a 
writer in the French language. He was born in Glouces- 
tershire about 1740. He began his career in the army, 
and served in Jamaica till the peace of 1763. A desire of 
seeing the most remarkable parts of Europe, now carried 
him into Italy, where he was so captivated with the beauty 
of the climate, and the innumerable objects of liberal 

1 Rees's Cyclopaedia, by Dr. Smith. Stocver's Life of Linnieus. p. 1 19 193. 
Haller, Bibl. Bot. 

H E L E. 31$ 

curiosity which presented themselves, that he continued 
there several years. About 1770, having satisfied his cu- 
riosity in Italy, he turned his thoughts to France, and went 
to Paris. There also he studied the state of the arts, and 
was particularly attentive to the theatre. At length he 
began to write for the Italian comedy, which had princi- 
pally attracted his notice, and wrote with considerable suc- 
cess. The pieces for that theatre are written chiefly in 
French, with French titles, and only one or two characters 
in Italian. He wrote, l. " Le Jugement de Midas," on 
the contest between French and Italian music, which was 
much applauded. But his 2. " Amant jaloux," had still 
more success. 3. His third piece, " Les Evenemens im- 
prevus," met with some exceptions, on which he modestly 
withdrew it, and after making the corrections suggested, 
brought it forward again, and had the pleasure to find it 
much approved. The comedies of this writer, are full of 
plot, the action lively and interesting : his versification is 
not esteemed by the French to be of consummate perfec- 
tion, nor his prose always pure ; yet his dialogue con- 
stantly pleased, and was allowed to have the merit of na- 
ture and sound composition. Mr, Hele died at Paris, of a 
consumptive disorder, in December 17 SO ; and it may 
possibly be long before another Englishman will be so 
distinguished as a writer in the French language. We take 
this account from French authors, who write his name 
d'Hele, perhaps it was properly Hale or Dale. ' 

HELENA, the empress, mother of Constantine, and 
one of the saints of the Romish communion, who gives 
name to many of our churches, owed her elevation to the 
charms of her person. She was of obscure origin, born at 
the little village of Drepanum in Bithynia, where the first 
situation in which we hear of her was that of hostess of an 
inn. Constantius Chlorus became enamoured of her pro- 
bably there, and married her; but, on being associated 
with Dioclesian in the empire, divorced her to marry 
Theodora, daughter of Maximilian Hercules. The acces- 
sion of her son to the empire drew her again from obscu- 
rity ; she obtained the title of Augusta, and was received 
at court with ali the honours due to the mother of an em- 
peror. Her many virtues riveted the affection of her son 
to her, and, when he became a Christian, she also was 

' Diet. His^. 

320 HELENA. 

converted ; yet she did not scruple to admonish him when 
she disapproved his conduct. When she was aear eighty 
years old she planned and executed a journey to the Holy 
Land, where she is said to have assisted at the discovery of 
the true cross of Christ, reported by the Romanists to have 
been accompanied by many miracles. Jn the year 328, 
soon after this discovery, she died at the age of eighty. 
Helena, wherever she went, left proofs of a truly Christian 
liberality ; she relieved the poor, orphans, and widows ; 
built churches, and in all respests shewed herself worthy 
of the confidence of her son, who supported her in these 
pious efforts by an unlimited permission to draw upon his 
treasures. At her death he paid her the highest honours, 
had her body sent to Rome to be deposited in the tomb of 
the emperors, and raised her native village to the rank of a 
city, with the new name of Helenopolis. She proved her 
prudence and political wisdom by the influence she always 
retained over her son, and by the care she took to prevent 
all interference of the half-brothers of Constantine, sons of 
Cons tan ti us Chlorus and Theodora; who, being brought 
into notice after her death, by the injudicious liberality of 
the emperor, were massacred by their nephews as soon as 
they succeeded their father in the empire. ! 

HELIODORUS, a native of Emesa in Phoenicia, and 
bishop of Tricca in Thessaly, flourished in the reigns of 
Theodosius and Arcaclius towards the end of the fourth 
century. In his youth he wrote a romance, by which he 
is now better known than by his subsequent bishopric of ; 
Tricca. It is entitled " Ethiopics," and relates the amours 
of Theagenes and Chariclea, in ten books. The learned 
Huetius is of opinion that HcUodorus was among the ro- 
mance-writers what Homer was among the poets, the 
source and model of an infinite number of imitations, all 
inferior to their original. The first edition of the Ethiopics 
was printed at Basil, 1533, with a dedication to the senate 
of Nuremberg, prefixed by Vincentius Opsopseus, who in- 
forms us that a soldier preserved the MS. when the library 
of Buda was plundered. Bourdeiot's learned notes upon 
this romance were printed at Paris in 1619, with Heliodo- 
rus's Greek original, and a Latin translation, which had 
been published by Stanislaus Warszewicki, a Polish knight, 
(with th-e Greek) .atBa.sil, iu 1551. An excellent English 

1 Butler's I.ivf of the 

H E L I O D O R U S. 321 

translation of this romance was published by Mr. Payne in 
2 vols. 12mo, in 1792. A notion has prevailed that a pro- 
vincial synod, being sensible how dangerous the reading 
of Heliodorus' s Ethiopics was, to which the author's rank 
was supposed to add great authority, required of the bishop 
that he should either burn the book, or resign his dignity ; 
and that the bishop chose the latter. But this story is 
thought to be entirely fabulous ; as depending only upon 
the single testimony of Nicephorus, an ecclesiastical his- 
torian of great credulity and little judgment; and it is 
somewhat difficult to suppose that Socrates should omit so 
memorable a circumstance when speaking of Heliodorus 
as the author of " a love-tale in his youth, which he en- 
titled Ethiopics." Valesius, in his notes upon this passage, 
starts another difficulty, for while he rejects the account 
of Nicephorus as a mere fable, he seems inclined to think, 
that the romance itself was not written by Heliodorus 
bishop of Tricca; but in this opinion he has not been fol- 
lowed. Opsopaeus and Melancthon have supposed that 
this romance was in reality a true history ; but Fabricius 
thinks this as incredible as that Heliodorus, according to 
others, wrote it originally in the Ethiopic tongue. Some 
again have asserted, that Heliodorus was not a Christian, 
from his saying at the end of his book, that he was a Phoe- 
nician, born in the city of Emesa, and of the race of the 
sun ; since, they say, it would be madness in a Christian, 
and much more in a bishop, to declare that he was 
descended from that luminary; but such language, in a 
young man, can scarcely admit the inference. 

Besides the Ethiopics, Cedrenus tells us of another book 
of Heliodorus, concerning the philosopher's stone, or the 
art of transmuting metals into gold, which he presented to 
Theodosius the Great; and Fabricius has inserted in his 
" Bibliotheca Gra3ca," a chemical Greek poem written in 
iambic verse, which he had from a MS. in the king of 
France's library, and which carries the name of Heliodorus 
bishop of Tricca; but leaves it very justly questionable, 
whether it be not a spurious performance. 1 

HELL (MAXIMILIAN), a learned astronomer, and mem- 
ber of most of the learned societies of Europe, was bom 
in 1720, at Chemnitz, in Hungary, and first educated at 
Neusol. Having in 1738 entered the society of the Jesuits, 

1 Gen, Diet. Moreri. Saxii Onomast. 


322 H E L L. 

he was sent by them to the college of Vienna, where, du- 
ring his philosophical studies, he displayed a genius for 
mechanics, and employed his leisure hours in constructing 
water-clocks, terrestrial and celestial globes, and other 
machines. In 1744 and 1745 he studied mathematics, now 
become his favourite pursuit, under the celebrated Froe- 
lich, and not only assisted Franz, the astronomer of the 
Jesuits' observatory, in his labours, but also in arranging 
the museum for experimental philosophy. At the same 
time he published a new edition of Crevellius's " Arith- 
metica numeralis et literalis," as a text-book. In 1746 
and 1747 he taught Greek and Latin in the catholic school 
of Leutschau, in Hungary, and returning to Vienna in the 
latter year, was employed as the instructor in the mathe- 
matics, and the art of assaying, of several young men 
destined for offices in the Hungarian mines. In 1750 he 
published, " Adjumentum memoriae manuale Chronologico- 
genealogico-historicum," which has since been translated 
into various languages, and of which an enlarged edition 
appeared in 1774. In 1751 and 1752 he obtained the 
priesthood, completed his academical degrees, and was 
appointed professor of mathematics at Clausenburg. Here 
he published his " Elementa Arithmetical 1 for the use of 
his pupils, and had prepared other works, when he was, 
in Sept. 175"2, invited to Vienna, and appointed astrono- 
mer and director of the new observatory, in the building 
of which he assisted, and made it one of the first in Europe, 
both as to construction and apparatus. From 1757 to 1767 
he devoted himself entirely to astronomical observations 
and calculations for the " Ephemerides," each volume of 
which, published annually, contained evident proofs of his 
assiduity. About the same time he published a small work, 
entitled " An Introduction towards the useful employment 
of Artificial Magnets." 

A circumstance now occurred which contributed not a 
little to increase his fame. The transit of Venus over the 
sun's disk, announced for June 3, 1769, was considered 
as a phenomenon, which, if observed in different parts of 
the globe, would furnish data for determining the true 
distance of the sun and planets from the earth ; and some 
of the ablest astronomers were selected to proceed for this 
purpose to Cajaneborg in Finland, to Otaheite, to Califor- 
nia, and to Hudson's Bay. Hell had also the honour of 
being chosen to participate in this undertaking ; and, 

ri E L L. 323 

although he had previously refused two offers of the kind, 
accepted that of Christian VII. king of Denmark, to ob- 
serve the transit in an island in the Frozen Ocean, near 
Wardoehuus, at the Northern extremity of Europe. Hav- 
ing set out in April 1768, with J. Sajnovies, a member of 
the same order, as his assistant, he arrived at the place of 
his destination October 11. He now constructed an obser- 
vatory, and began his observations, which extended to a 
great many other phenomena than that which was the 
chief object of his journey ; but in this last he was success- 
ful beyond all expectation, the serenity of the sky being 
so much in his favour. As the results, however, of the 
astronomers sent out to different parts to make their ob- 
servations, did not agree, Hell was involved in a literary 
contest, particularly with Lalande. 

In June 1769 he set out on his return, and arrived safely 
at Copenhagen, where he was honoured with every mark 
of respect by the king, and he and his assistant were ad- 
mitted members of the academies of Copenhagen, Dron- 
theim, and Norway. During his residence at Copenhagen, 
which lasted seven months, he communicated, besides 
other things, to the academy of sciences, the observations 
he had made of the transit, which were published, and 
afterwards reprinted in the Ephemerides for 1771. In May 
1770 he returned to Vienna, and collected and arranged 
the fruits of his journej', which he meant to publish under 
the title of " Expeditio literaria ad Polum Arcticum ;" but 
the suppression of the order of the Jesuits, which gave 
him great concern, and the dispersion of some of his li- 
terary coadjutors, are supposed to have prevented him from 
completing this undertaking. He was also unsuccessful in 
endeavouring to establish an academy of sciences, which, 
according to his plan, was to be under the direction of the 
Jesuits. He superintended, however, the building of a 
new observatory at Erlau, in Hungary, at the expence of 
the bishop, count Charles of Esterhazy, and undertook 
two journeys thither to direct the operations, and to ar- 
range a valuable collection of instruments which had been 
sent to him from England. In the month of March 1792, 
he was attacked by an inflammation of the lungs, which 
producing a suppuration, put an end to his lite in a few 
weeks. He is to be ranked with those who have rendered 
essential service to the science of astronomy. The " Ephe- 
merides Astronomical ad meridianum Vindobonensem," 

Y 2 

324 HELL. 

begun in 1767, aucl continued till his death, forms a valuable 
astronomical calendar, which contains a great many in- 
teresting papers. In other branches of knowledge, and 
particularly theology, he was a firm adherent to the prin- 
ciples he had been taught in his youth, and which he 
strenuously defended. He always entertained hopes of 
the revival of the order of the Jesuits. He possessed a 
benevolent heart, and was always ready to assist the dis- 
tressed ; in particular he endeavoured to relieve the suf- 
ferings of the poor, and with this noble view expended 
almost the whole of his property. 1 

HELLANICUS, of Mitylene, was an ancient Greek his- 
torian, born in the year A. C. 496, twelve years before the 
birth of Herodotus. He wrote a history of " the earliest 
Kings of various Nations, and the Founders of Cities ;" 
which is mentioned by several ancient authors, but is not 
extant. He lived to the age of eighty-five. There was 
another Hellanicus of much later times, who was a Mile- 
sian, but very little is known of either. 2 

HELLOT (JOHN), a French chemist, was born in 1686, 
and destined by his friends for the profession of theology, 
but the accidentally meeting with a book of chemistry, de- 
termined him to make that science the principal pursuit of 
his life. From 1718 to 1732, lie was employed as the 
compiler of the " Gazette de France." He translated 
Schlutter's work on the " Fusions of Ores, and on Foun- 
deries," and published it in 1750 1753, 2 vols. 4to, with 
his own notes and remarks. He published a work, entitled 
" L'Art de la Teinture des Laines et EtofTes de Laines," 
1750, 12 mo, which is reckoned a very valuable treatise, 
and is the first in which chemical principles are applied to 
the practice of the art. He furnished many articles to the 
" Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences," and some to the 
royal society of London, of which he was elected a fellow 
in 1740. He died at Paris in 1766. 3 

HELMICH (WERNER), a Dutch protestant divine, and 
one of the early promoters of the reformed religion in that 
country, was born at Utrecht in 1551. He had attained 
so much reputation with his fellow citizens, that in 1579 
they unanimously chose him their pastor. The same year, 
as all obstacles to the establishment of the reformation were 
not yet overcome, they appointed him one of a deputa- 

* Athenaeum, vol. III.- Diet. Hist. s Moreri. 3 Diet. Hisk. 

H E L M I C H. 323 

tion sent to our queen Elizabeth, to request that in the 
treaty of peace with Spain, she should stipulate for the 
free exercise of the protestant religion in the United Pro- 
vinces. In 1582, he was the first who preached that reli- 
gion openly in the cathedral of Utrecht, notwithstanding 
the opposition given by the chapter. He afterwards re- 
fused the theological chair in the university of Leyden, but 
accepted the pastoral cvffice at Amsterdam in 1602, which 
he held until his death, Aug. 29, 1608. All his contem- 
poraries, the protestant divines, speak highly of his talents, 
character, and services. He did not write much ; except 
an " Analysis of the Psalms," printed after his death, at 
Amst. 1641, 4to, and a controversial work against Coster 
the Jesuit, entitled " Gladius Goliathi," much commended 
by Voetius. 1 

HELMONT (JOHN BAPTIST VAN), commonly called 
Van Helmont, from a borough and castle of that name in 
Brabant, was a person of quality, and a man of great learn- 
ing, especially in physic and natural philosophy ; and 
born at Brussels in 1577. The particulars of his life, as 
given in the two introductory chapters to his works, give a 
just notion of the man. 

" In the year 1580," says he, " a most miserable one to 
the Low Countries, my father died. I, the 'youngest and 
least esteemed of all my brothers and sisters, was bred a 
scholar ; and in the year 1594, which was to me the 17th, 
had finished the course of philosophy. Upon seeing none 
admitted to examinations at Louvain, but in a gown, and 
masked with a hood, as though the garment did promise 
learning, I began to perceive, that the taking degrees in 
arts was a piece of mere mockery ; and wondered at the 
simplicity of young men, in fancying that they had learned 
any thing from their doting professors. I entered, there- 
fore, into a serious and honest examination of myself, that 
I might know by my own judgment, how much I was a 
philosopher, and whether I had really acquired truth and 
knowledge : but found myself altogether destitute, save 
that I had learned to wrangle artificially. Then came I 
first to perceive, that I knew nothing, or at least that 
which was not worth knowing. Natural philosophy seemed 
to promise something of knowledge, to which therefore I 
joined the study of astronomy. I applied myself also to 

* Bunnami's Trajectum Eruditura. Moreri. 

326 H E L M O N T. 

logic and the mathematics, by way of recreation, when I 
was wearied with other studies ; and made myself a master 
of Euclid's Elements, as I did also of Copernicus's theory 
' De revolutionibus orbium ccelestium :' but all these 
things were of no account with me, because they contained 
Jittle truth and certainty, little but a parade of science 
falsely so called. Finding after all, therefore, that nothing 
was sound, nothing true, I refused the title of master of 
arts, though I had finished my course; unwilling, that 
professors should play the fool with me, in declaring me a 
master of the seven arts, when I was conscious to myself 
that I knew nothing. 

" A wealthy canonry was promised me then, so that I 
might, if I pleased, turn myself to divinity ; but saint 
Bernard affrighted me from it, saying, that I should eat 
the sins of the people. 7 I begged therefore of the Lord 
Jesus, that he would vouchsafe to call me to that profession 
in which 1 might please him most. The Jesuits began at 
that time to teach philosophy at Louvain, and one of the 
professors expounded the disquisitions and secrets of ma- 
gic. Both these lectures I greedily received ; but instead 
of grain, I reaped only stubble, and fantastic conceits void 
of sense. In the mean time, lest an hour should pass 
without some benefit, I run through some writings of the 
stoics, those of Seneca, and especially of Epictetus, who 
pleased me exceedingly. I seemed, in moral philosophy, 
to have found the quintessence of truth, and did verily 
believe, that through stoicism I advanced in Christian per- 
fection ; but 1 discovered afterwards in a dream, that 
stoicism was an empty and swollen bubble, and that by 
this study, under the appearance of moderation, I became, 
indeed, most self-sufficient and haughty. Lastly, 1 turned 
over Mathiolus and Dioscorides ; thinking with myself 
nothjng equally necessary for mortal man to know and 
admire, as the wisdom and goodness of God in vegetables ; 
to the end that he might not only crop the fruit for food, 
but also minister of the same to his other necessities. My 
curiosity being now raised upon this branch of study, I 
inquired, whether there were any book, which delivered 
the maxims and rule of medicine ? for I then supposed, 
that medicine was not altogether a mere gift, but might 
]be taught, and delivered by discipline, like other arts and 
sciences : at least I thought, if medicine was a good gift 
coming down from the Father of lights, that it might have, 

H E L M O N T 327 

as an human science, its theorems and authors, into whom, 
as into Bazaleel and Aholiab, the spirit of the Lord had 
infused the knowledge of all diseases and their causes, and 
also the knowledge of the properties of things. I in- 
quired, I say, whether no writer had described the quali- 
ties, properties, applications, and proportions of vegetables, 
from the hyssop even to the cedar of Libanus? A certain 
professor of medicine answered me, that none of these 
things were to be looked for either in Galen or Avicen. I 
was very ready to believe this, from the many fruitless 
searches I hau made in books for truth and knowledge be- 
fore ; however, following my natural bent, which lay to 
the study of nature, I read the institutions of Fuchsius and 
Fernelius; in whom I knew I had surveyed the whole 
science of medicine, as it were in an epitome. Is this, 
said I, smiling to myself, the knowledge of healing ? Is 
the whole history of natural properties thus shut up in 
elementary qualities ? Therefore I read the works of Ga- 
len twice ; of Hippocrates once, whose aphorisms I almost 
got by heart; all Avicen, as well as the Greeks, Arabians, 
and moderns, to the tune of 600 authors. I read them 
seriously and attentively through ; and took down, as I 
went along, whatever seemed curious and worthy of at- 
tention ; when at length, reading over my common-place 
book, I was grieved at the pains I had bestowed, and the 
years I had spent, in throwing together such a mass of 
stufc Therefore I straightway left off all books whatever, 
all formal discourses, and empty promises of the schools ; 
firmly believing every good and perfect gift to come down 
from the Father of lights, more particularly that of me- 

" I have attentively surveyed some foreign nations ; but 
I found the same sluggishness, in implicitly following" the 
steps of their forefathers, and ignorance among them all. 
I then became persuaded, that the art of healing was a 
mere imposture, originally set on foot by the Greeks for 
filthy lucre's sake; till afterwards the Holy Scriptures in- 
formed me better. I considered, that the plague, which 
then raged at Louvain, was a most miserable disease, in 
which every one forsook the sick; and faithless helpers, 
distrustful of their own art, fled more swiftly than the un- 
learned common people, and homely pretenders to cure it. 
I proposed to myself to dedicate one salutation to the mi- 
serable infected ; and although then no medicine was made 

S28 H E L M O N T. 

known to me but trivial ones, yet God preserved my inno- 
cency from so cruel an enemy. I was not indeed sent for, 
but went of my own accord ; and that not so much to help 
them, which I despaired of doing, as for the sake of learn- 
ing. All that saw me, seemed to be refreshed with hope 
and joy; and I myself, being fraught with hope, was per- 
suaded, that, by the mere free gift of God, 1 should some- 
times obtain a mastery in the science. After ten years' 
travel and studies from my degree in the art of medicine 
taken at Louvain, being then married, I withdrew myself, 
in 1609, to Vilvord, that, being the less troubled by appli- 
cations, I might proceed diligently in viewing the king- 
doms of vegetables, animals, and minerals. I employed 
myself some years in chemical operations. I searched into 
the works of Paracelsus ; and at first admired and honoured 
the man, but at last was convinced, that nothing but diffi- 
culty, obscurity, and error, was to be found in him. Thus 
tired out with search after search, and concluding the art 
of medicine to be all deceit and uncertainty, I said with a 
sorrowful heart, ' Good God ! how long wilt thou be angry 
with mortal man, who hitherto has not disclosed one truth, 
in healing, to thy schools ? How long wilt thou deny truth 
to a people confessing thee, needful in these days, more 
than in times past ? Is the sacrifice of Molech pleasing to 
thee ? wilt thou have the lives of the poor, widows, and 
fatherless children, consecrated to thyself; under the most 
miserable torture of incurable diseases ? How is it, there- 
fore, that thou ceasest not to destroy so many families 
through the uncertainty and ignorance of physicians ?' 
Then I fell on my face, and said, ' Oh, Lord, pardon me, if 
favour towards my neighbour hath snatched me away beyond 
my bounds. Pardon, pardon, O Lord, my indiscreet cha- 
rity ; for thou art the radical good of goodness itself. Thou 
hast known my sighs ; and that I confess myself to be, to 
know, to be worth, to be able to do, to have, nothing ; and 
that I am poor, naked, empty, vain. Give, O Lord, give 
knowledge to thy creature, that he may affectionately know 
thy creatures ; himself first, other things besides himself, 
all things, and more than all things, to be ultimately in thee.' 
" After I had thus earnestly prayed, I fell into a dream; 
in which, in the sight or view of truth, I saw the whole 
universe, as it were, some chaos or confused thing without 
form, which was almost a mere nothing. And from thence 
I drew the conceiving of one word, which did signify to 

H E L M O N T. 329 

me this following : ' Behold thou, and what things thou 
seest, are nothing. Whatever thou dost urge, is less than 
nothing itself in the sight of the Most High. He knoweth 
all the bounds of things to be done ; thou at least may 
apply thyself to thy own safety.' In this conception there 
was an inward precept, that I should be made a physician; 
and that, some time or other, Raphael himself should be 
given unto me. Forthwith therefore, and for thirty whole 
years after, and their nights following in order, 1 laboured 
always to my cost, and often in danger of my life, that I 
might obtain the knowledge of vegetables and minerals, 
and of their natures and properties also. Meanwhile, I 
exercised myself in prayer, in reading, in a narrow search 
of things, in sifting my errors, and in writing down what I 
daily experienced. At length I knew with Solomon, that t 
had for the most part hitherto perplexed my spirit in vain ; 
and I said, Vain is the knowledge of all things under the 
sun, vain are the searchings of the curious. Whom the 
Lord Jesus shall call unto wisdom, he, and no other, shall 
come ; yea, he that hath come to the top, shall as yet be 
able to do very little, unless the bountiful favour of the 
Lord shall shine upon him. Lo, thus have I waxed ripe 
of age, being become a man; and now also an old man, 
unprofitable, and unacceptable to God, to whom be all 

From this curious account, given in the preceding edi- 
tions of this Dictionary, and which we are unwilling to 
displace, it will be seen that Van Helmont had a strong 
portion of enthusiasm; but he was not the madman which 
some of his contemporaries imagined. For a period of 
thirty years he pursued his researches into the products of 
nature, with such perseverance, as to leave few of the 
known animal, vegetable, and mineral bodies unexamined. 
In the course of these investigations, he necessarily fell 
upon the discovery of several of the products of decompo- 
sition, and of new combination, which chemistry affords : 
among these he seems to have been the first to notice the 
spirit of hartshorn, the spirit of sulphur per campanam, as 
it was called, and the aerial part of the spa-waters, which 
he first denominated gas (from the German geist, ghost, or 
spirit), and several other substances. Among these were 
many articles possessing considerable influence upon the 
living body, which, being contrasted with the inertness of 
the simples of the Galenical practice, roused and confirmed 

330 H E L M O N T. 

his former opinions against the doctrines of that school ; 
which he now attacked with great ardour and strength of 
argument, and which he contributed to overthrow. But 
partly in imitation of Paracelsus, whom he greatly ad- 
mired, and partly from an attempt to generalize the con- 
fused mass of new facts, which he had acquired, he at- 
tempted to reduce the whole system of medicine to the 
principles of chemistry, and substituted a jargon as unin- 
telligible, and hypotheses as gratuitous, as those which he 
had attempted to refute. He published from time to time 
a variety of works, by which he obtained considerable re- 
putation. The elector of Cologne, who was himself at- 
tached to chemical inquiries, held him in great esteem ; 
and he received from the emperor Rodolph II. and uis two 
successors, invitations to the court of Vienna ; but he pre- 
ferred his laboratory and cabinet to these proffered ho- 
nours. He died on the 30th of December, 1644, in the 
sixty-eighth year of his age. 

His first work was entitled <( De Magnetica Vulnerum 
Naturali et Legitima Curatione, contra Johannem Roberti 
Soc. Jesu Theologum," Paris, 1621, 8vo. His next pub- 
lication was relative to the waters of the Spa, " De Spa- 
danis Fontibus," Liege, 1624, 8vo. Next followed, after 
a long interval, " Febrium Doctrina inaudita," Antwerp, 
1642, 12mo ; and " Opuscula Medica inaudita, l.De 
Lithiasi; 2. De Febribus; a. De Humoribus Galeni ; 4. 
De Peste," Cologne, 1644, 8vo. On his death he re- 
quested his son to collect his papers, as well the incom- 
plete as the finished ones, and to publish them in the way 
which he thought the best. They were sent to the printer, 
without correction, and without any regard to connection 
or arrangement, and published at Amsterdam in 1648, in 
4to, under the title of " Ortus Medicinae, id est, initia 
PhysiciB inaudita, progressus Medicinal Novus in Morbo- 
rum ultionem ad Vitam longam." Under the title of 
" Opera omnia," these works have been reprinted at va- 
rious times and places, and in various languages : the 
most correct edition is that of Amsterdam, in 1652, by 
Elzevir. They are now consulted only as curiosities ; but 
he certainly anticipated, in obscure glimpses, as it were, 
several of the important discoveries, as well as the hypo- 
theses of later times : his Arch&us is now the vis medico,- 
trix nature of Hoffmann and Cullen j his doctrine of fer- 

H E L M O N T. 331 

ments was adopted by Silvius and his followers ; and he 
greatly cleared the way to chemical discoveries. 1 

preceding, was born in 1GL8, and like his father, became 
celebrated for his knowledge, and his paradoxes ; was 
very skilful in physic and chemistry, and was esteemed a 
man of universal learning, and acquainted with most trades 
and arts. He was even suspected of having found the phi- 
losopher's stone, because he lived at an apparently great 
expence with a small income ; but was much esteemed and 
respected at Amsterdam. After living many years with 
the prince of Sultzbach, who was a great patron of the 
learned, he set out for Berlin, by desire of the queen of 
Prussia, and died at Cologn in 1699. His works are, 
" Alphabeti vere naturalis Hebraic! delineatio ;" " Co- 
gitationes super quatuor priora capita Geneseos," Amster- 
dam, 1697, 8vo ; " De attributis divinis ;" " De Inferno," 
&c. He believed the Mettmpsycosis, and maintained many 
other paradoxes. 2 


HELSHAM (RICHARD), doctor of physic, professor of 
that science and of natural philosophy in the university of 
Dublin, was author of a celebrated course of twenty- three 
lectures on natural philosophy, published after his death, in 
an octavo volume, by Dr. Bryan Robinson. These lectures 
were long in high estimation, passed through several edi- 
tions, and are only superseded now from the necessity of 
keeping pace in such works with the progress of discove- 
ries. They are clear and plain, though scientific. The 
author was intimate with Swift, and corresponded with him 
in his humourous way. He died Aug. 1, 1738, of an ob- 
struction in the bowels, for which quicksilver having been 
in vain tried, he ordered that his body should be opened, 
when the cause of his death was ascertained to be three 
large excrescences, resembling the substance of the liver, 
which had accumulated in the bowels. 3 

HELST (BARTHOLOMEW VANDER), a Dutch artist, was 
born at Haerlem in 1613, and became one of the best por- 
trait painters of his time. He sometimes attempted his- 
tory, and displayed taste and nature in the landscapes 
which he introduced, but his chief merit is in his portraits, 

1 JL,ife as above. Rees's Cyclopseilia. 3 Diet. Hist. 

* Gent, Mag. voJ. VIII. Swift's Works. 

332 H E L S T. 

which he designed in an agreeable style, with a light, free 
touch, and a mellow pencil. His most capital performance 
is in the town-hall of Amsterdam ; it represents a company 
of trained bands, about thirty figures in whole length. Of 
its merit our readers may entertain a high idea when they 
are told that sir Joshua Reynolds has given it as his opinion 
that it is perhaps the first picture of portraits in the world, 
comprehending more of those qualities which make a per- 
fect portrait, than any other sir Joshua had ever seen. 
They are correctly drawn, both head and figures, and well 
coloured ; and have great variety of action, characters, and 
countenances, ,and those so truly and lively expressive of 
what they are about, that ttie spectator has nothing to wish 
for. This artist died in lt-70. 1 

HELVETlUb (JOHN FREDERIC), a physician, was born 
of a noble family in the principality of Atihalt, .about 1625. 
He obtained at an early age a considerable reputation for 
his knowledge of medicine and chemistry ; and having set- 
tled in Holland about 1649, he practised at the Hague with 
so much success, that he was appointed first physician to 
the States-general, and to the prince of Orange, he died 
August 20, 1709. His works serve, however, rather to 
prove his devotion to the absurdities of tne alchemists, 
physiognomists, and such visionaries of his time, than his 
advancement in true science; and therefore it may be suf- 
ficient to refer for their titles to our authorities His son 
ADRIAN, who was born in 1656, journeyed to Paris, with- 
out any design of fixing there, and only to see that new 
world, and sell some medicines, but accident detained 
him very unexpectedly. The dysentery then prevailed in 
that city-, and all who applied to him are said to have 
been infallibly cured. His success was celebrated ; and 
Louis XIV. ordered him to publish the remedy which pro- 
duced such certain and surprising effects. He declared it 
to be Ipecacuanha, and received 1000 louis-d'ors for the 
discovery. He settled in Paris, became physician to the 
duke of Orleans, and was also made inspector-general of 
the military hospitals. He died in 1721, leaving some 
works behind him, of little value ; the principal of which 
is, " Trait6 des Maladies de plus frequentes, & des Re- 
medies specifiques pour les guerir," 2 vols. 8vo. 8 

1 ArgenYille. Pilkington. Sir J. Reynolds's Works, vol. II. p. 3546. 
* Moreri. Diet. Hist. 

II E L V E T I U S. 333 

HELVETIUS (JOHN CLAUDE), son of the above, was 
born in 1685, and rose to be a practitioner of eminence. 
He was first physician to the qu, j en, counsellor of state, 
arid greatly esteemed uy the tow , -s \\eli as court. He 
\vas, like his father, inspector-; J of the military hos- 
pitals. He was a member of the academy of sciences at 
Paris, of the royal society in London, and of the academies 
ot Berlin, Florence, and Bologna. He cured Louis XV. 
of a dangerous disorder, which attacked him at the age of 
seven years, and obtained afterwards the entire confidence 
of the queen also. Whenever he attended as a physician, 
he was regarded as a friend, such was the goodness and 
benevolence of his character. He was particularly atten- 
tive to the poor. He died July 17, 1755. He was the author 
of, 1 " Idee Generale de J'economie animale, 1722," 8vo. 
2. " Principia Physico-Medica, in tyronum Medicinae gra- 
tiam conscripta," 2 vols. 8vo. This latter work, though 
drawn up for pupils, may yet be serviceable to masters. 
He also published some papers in the Memoirs of the aca- 
demy of sciences for 1718, 1719, and 1 72 1 .* 

HELVETIUS (CLAUDE ADRIAN), the most remarkable 
of this family, was born at Paris in 1715, and was son of 
the preceding Helvetius. He studied under the famous 
father Pon'e in the college of Louis the Great, and his 
tutor, discovering in his compositions remarkable proofs of 
genius, was particularly attentive to his education. An 
early association with the wits of his time gave him the 
desire to become an author, but his principles unfortu- 
nately became tainted with false philosophy. He did not 
publish any thing till 1758, when he produced his cele- 
brated book "DeTEsprit," which appeared first in one 
volume 4to, and afterwards in three volumes, 12mo. This 
work was very justly condemned by the parliament of Pa- 
ris, as confining the faculties of man to animal sensibility, 
and removing at once the restraints of vice and the encou- 
ragements to virtue. Attacked in various ways at home, on 
account of these principles, he visited England in 1764, 
and the next year went into Prussia, where he was re- 
ceived with honourable attention by the king. When he 
returned into France, he led a retired and domestic life on 
his estate at Vore. Attached to his wife and family, and 
strongly inclined to benevolence, he lived there more hap- 

i Moreri. Die*. IIL-L Haller BibL M.;d. 

334. H E L V t I U S. 

pily than at Paris, where, as he said, he " was obliged tc* 
encounter the mortifying spectacle of misery that he could 
not relieve." To Marivaux, and M. Saurin, of the French 
academy, he allowed pensions, that, for a private bene- 
factor, were considerable, merely on the score of merit ; 
which he was anxious to search out and to assist. Yet, 
with all this benevolence of disposition, he was strict in 
the care of his game, and in the exaction of his feudal 
rights. He was maltre-d'hotel to the queen, and, for a 
time, a farmer-general, but quitted that lucrative post to 
enjoy his studies. When he found that he had bestowed 
his bounty upon unworthy persons, or was reproached with 
it, he said, " If I was king, I would correct them; but I 
am only rich, and they are poor, my business therefore is 
to aid them.'* Nature had been kind to Helvetius ; she 
had given him a fine person, genius, and a constitution 
which promised long life. This last, however, he did not 
attain, for he was attacked by the gout in his head and sto- 
mach, under which complaint he languished some little 
time, and died in December 1771. His works were, 1. 
the treatise " De 1' Esprit," "on the Mind," already men- 
tioned : of* which various opinions have been entertained, 
It certainly is one of those which endeavour to degrade the 
nature of man too nearly to that of mere animals ; and 
even Voltaire, who called the author at one time a true 
philosopher, has said that it is filled with common-place 
truths, delivered with great parade, but without method, 
and disgraced by stories very unworthy of a philosophical 
production. The ideas of virtue and vice, according to 
this book, depend chiefly upon climate. 2. " Le Bon- 
heur," or " Happiness," a poem in six cantos ; published 
after his death, in 1772, with some fragments of epistles. 
His poetical style is still more affected than his prose, and 
though lie produces some fine verses, he is more frequently 
stiff and forced. His poem on happiness is a declamation, 
in which he makes that great object depend, not on virtue, 
but on the cultivation of letters and the arts. 3. " De 
1'Homme," 2 vols. 8vo, another philosophical work, not 
less bold than the first. A favourite paradox, produced in 
this book, under a variety of different forms, is, " that all 
men are born with equal talents, and owe their genius 
solely to education." This book is even more dangerous 
than that on the mind, because the style is clearer, and the 
author writes with less reserve. He* speaks sometimes of 

HE L V E T I U S. 335 

the enemies of what he called philosophy, with an asperity 
that ill accords with the general mildness of his character. 

The origin of the philosophical career of Helvetius is, 
by La Harpe, traced to a cause of a very singular nature, 
and not perhaps very credible. While yet young, and 
coveting every species of enjoyment within the reach of 
his age, his accomplishments, and his wealth, he beheld 
in a public garden a man who had none of these advan- 
tages, and to whom a circle of women were doing honour. 
This wasMaupertuis, just returned from his voyage to- 
wards the pole, and who had acquired a temporary repu- 
tation in the sciences. Helvetius was struck with the 
consideration which the reputation of a man of letters was 
able to ensure. He had hitherto succeeded easily in all 
that he had attempted. He had danced to admiration at 
the opera, under the mask of Juvilliers, one of the first 
dancers of the time. He had already made attempts in 
poetry ; he had submitted his verses to Voltaire, and the 
lettered veteran had politely intimated that this was his 
proper line. He then directed his attention to philosophy, 
and connected himself with its chiefs, particularly with 

Diderot is supposed to have furnished some leading ideas 
to Helv<-t.ius for his work on the Mind. As his hypothesis, 
says l.a Harpe, every \\here terminates in materialism, it is 
probable that the basis of it was furnished to a man of the 
world, of course little conversant with these matters, by a 
man of letters by profession, an apostle of atheism, who 
loved nothing better than to make disciples. 

La Harpe has justly said that the paradoxes of Helvetius 
were the more readily adopted by numbers, because they 
were discovered to flatter the passions, to lower the stan- 
dard of virtue, and to furnish excuses for vice. An exa- 
mination of the lucubrations of the French philosophers, 
down from the date of the works of Helvetius, proves that 
the principal and most successful cause of their gaining 
readers and followers arose from their enlisting the passions 
on their side. Such is the basis of their systems, the ge- 
neral spirit of their sect, and tire principle of their success. 
The method is not very honourable ; but with a little ad- 
dress it is almost sure to succeed, at least for a time, for 
nothing is more easy than to pass off as a theory a corrup- 
tion which already exists as a fashion. 1 

Diet. Hist. La Harpe's Lyceum. 

336 H E L V I C 8. 

HELVICUS (CHRISTOPHER), professor of the Greek 
and eastern languages, and of divinity, in the university 
of Giessen, was born Dec. 26, 1581, at Sprendlingen, a 
little town near Francfort, where his father was minister. 
He went throb gh his studies in Marpurg, where he took 
his degree of M. A. in 1599, having taken his bachelor's 
in 1595. He was an early genius ; composed a prodigious- 
number of Greek verses at fifteen years old ; and was ca- 
pable of teaching Greek, Hebrew, and even philosophy, 
before he was twenty. The Hebrew he spoke as fluently 
as if it had been his native language. He thoroughly read 
the Greek authors ; and even studied physic for some time, 
though he had devoted himself to the ministry. In 16O5, 
he was chosen to teach Greek and Hebrew, in the college 
which the landgrave had recently established at Giessen ;, 
and which the year after was converted into an university 
by the emperor, who endowed it with privileges. Having 
discharged for five years the several duties of his employ- 
ment with great reputation, he was appointed divinity pro- 
fessor in 1610. In 1611, a church was offered him in 
Moravia, and a professorship at Hamburgh with a consider- 
able stipend: but he refused both. In 1613, he took the 
degree of D. D. at the command of the landgrave ; who 
sent him to Francfort, that he might view the library of the 
Jews, who had been lately driven away by popular tumults. 
Helvicus, fond of reading the rabbins, bought several of 
their books on that occasion. He died in the flower of 
his age, Sept. 10, 1616 ; and his loss was bewailed by the 
German poets of the Augsburg confession. A collection 
was made of his poems, which were printed with his fune- 
ral sermon and some other pieces, under the title of 
" Cippus Memorialis," by the care of Winckleman, who* 
had been his colleague. 

He was reputed to have had a most skilful and metho- 
dical way of teaching languages. He was a good gram- 
marian ; and published several grammars, as Latin, Greek, 
Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac ; but they were only abridge- 
ments. His Hebrew and Latin Lexicons were also, by 
way of essay, calculated for youth. He was likewise an able 
chronologer. His chronological tables have gone through 
several editions, and been greatly esteemed, though they 
are not, as it is difficult to conceive they should be, quite 
free from errors. He published them in 1609, under the 
title of " Theatrum Historicum, sive Chronologise Systema 

H E L V I C U 3. 337 

Novum, Sec." and brought them down from the beginning 
of the world to 1612; but they were afterwards revised 
and continued by John Baithasar Schuppius, son-in-law to 
the author, and professor of eloquence and history in the 
university of Marpurg; and this is the only one of his works 
whose use has not been entirely superseded. 1 

HELYOT (PETER, or father HYPPOLITA), perhaps El- 
liot, properly, as he was of British extraction, was born in 
Jan. 1660, and became in 1633 a religious of the order of 
Picpus near Paris, which is a branch of that of St. Francis, 
and was raised to several offices in his order. His fame is 
founded on a large work, the toil of twenty -three years, in 
eight volumes 4to, " A History of Monastic Orders, reli- 
gious and military, and of secular congregations of both 
sexes," &c. &c. which he began to print in 1714. The 
four last volumes were edited by father Louis, the provin- 
cial of his order, with the assistance of Maximilian Bullot. 
Helyot died at Picpus, near Paris, Jan. 5, 1716. His work 
is full of learned research, and more correct than any thing 
On that subject which had then appeared. He was a man 
of exemplary piety, and a neat, though not elegant, or 
natural writer. 2 

HEMELAR (JOHN), a very learned man, born at the 
Hague, was a fine poet and orator ; and to be compared, 
says Gronovius, in his " Orat. funeb. J. Golii," with the 
Roman Atticus for his probity, tranquillity of life, and ab- 
solute disregard of honours and public employments. He 
went to Rome, and spent six years in the palace of cardinal 
Cesi. He wrote there' a panegyric on pope Clement VIII. 
which was so graciously received, that he was offered the 
post of librarian to the Vatican, or a very good benefice ; 
and preferring the latter, was made a canon in the cathe- 
dral at Antwerp. Lipsius had a great esteem for him, as 
appears from his letters. He was Grotius's friend also, 
and published verses to congratulate him on his deliverance 
from confinement. He was uncle by the mother's side to 
James Golius, the learned professor at Leyden, who gained 
so vast a reputation by his profound knowledge in the Ori- 
ental languages : but Golius, who was a zealous protestant, 
could never forgive his having converted his brother Peter 
to popery. Hemelar applied himself much more to the 
study of polite literature and to the science of medals, than 

Gen. Diet. Moreri. Freheri Theatrnm. Moveri, and Supplement. 


338 H E M E L A R. 

to theology. " He published," says Gronovius, " ex- 
tremely useful commentaries upon the medals of the Ro- 
man emperors, from the time of Julius Caesar down to 
Justinian, taken from the cabinets of Charles Arschot and 
Nicholas Rocoxius ; wherein he concisely and accurately 
explains by marks, figures, &c. whatever is exquisite, ele- 
gant, and suitable or agreeable to the history of those times, 
and the genius of the monarchs, whether the medals in 
question be of gold, silver, or brass, whether cast or struck 
in that immortal city. It is a kind of storehouse of medals ; 
and nevertheless in this work, from which any other per- 
son would have expected prodigious reputation, our author 
has been so modest as to conceal his name.' 7 This work 
of Hemelar's, which is in Latin, is not easily to be met 
with, yet it has been twice printed . iirst at Antwerp, in 
1615, at the en.I of a work of James De Bie ; and secondly, 
in 1627, 4to ; which Clement has described as a very rare 
edition : Bayle mentions a third edition of 1654, folio, but 
the work which he mistakes for a third edition, was only a 
collection of engravings of Roman coins described by Ge- 
vartius, in which are some from Hemelar's work. The 
other works of this canon are some Latin poems and ora- 
tions. He died in 1'640. He is sometimes called Hamelar. 1 

HEMMINGFORD (WALTER DE), a regular canon of 
Gisborough-abbey, near Cleveland in Yorkshire, flourished 
in the fourteenth century, in the reign of Edward III. He 
had much learning, and much industry. History was his 
particular study ; and he compiled a history which begins 
from the Norman conquest, and continues to the reign of 
king Edward the lid. from 1066 to 1308. The work is 
written with great care and exactness, and in a style good 
enough considering the time. Gale, who has published it 
in his " Veteres Scriptores," with an account of the author, 
enumerates five copies of his history, two at Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, one at the Heralds' office, one in the 
Cotton lilrary, and one which he had himself. This au- 
thor died at Gisborough in 1347. Hearne published an 
edition in 2 vols. Svo, Oxford, 1731, now one of the most 
rare and valuable of his works. 2 

painter, was a peasant's son, and born at a village of that 

Gen. Diet. Moieri. Foppen Bibl. Belg. Clement BibU'Curieuse. Saxii" 
* Gale ubi supra. Nkolson's Hist. Library. 

H E M S K I R K. 339 

Dame in Holland, in 1498. In his youth he was extremely 
dull, and nothing was expected from him ; but afterwards 
he became a correct painter, easy and fruitful in his in- 
ventions. He was the disciple and imitator of Schoreal. 
He went to Home, and intended to stay there a long time ; 
but at the end of three years, returned to his own country, 
settled at Haerlem, and lived there the remainder of his 
days. Most of his works were engraved. Vasari, who gives 
a particular account of them, and commends them, says, 
Michael Angelo was so pleased with one of the prints, that 
he had a mind to colour it. Mr. Fuseli thinks that he in- 
vented with more fertility than taste or propriety ; " his 
design is ostentatious without style, and his forms long 
without elegance. He rather grouped than composed, 
and seems to have been unacquainted with chiaroscuro. 
His costume is always arbitrary, and often barbarous, and 
in the admission of ornaments and the disposition of his 
scenery, he oftener consulted the materials which he had 
compiled at Home, than fitness of place, or the demands 
of his subject." He died in 1574. 1 

HEMSKIHK (EGBERT), another painter, perhaps c-f 
the family with the former, exhibited much fancy in the 
subjects he chose for his pencil, but with vigour of execu- 
tion. He was born at Haerlem in 1645, and was a disci- 
ple of Peter Grebber, whose manner he left for that of 
Brouwer. In his own time his compositions were much 
esteemed, because of their gross humour, and the whim- 
sical imagination that reigned in them ; but they are not 
now so much prized. His delight was in painting fanciful, 
wild, and uncommon scenes of his own composing ; such 
as the nocturnal intercourse of witches, devils, and spectres; 
enchantments, temptations of St. Anthony, interiors of ale- 
houses with drunken men, monldes in the actions of men 
and women, &c. &c. all which he wrought with great free- 
dom of touch and intelligence of drawing. His colour 
likewise, though not always pure, was in general rich and 
agreeable. He quitted his own country to settle in Lon- 
don, where he died in 1704. It was customary with him 
to paint his own portrait in his drolls, and which was not 
of the most engaging kind ; and he wrought by means of 
a looking-glass his characters from his own face. There 
was another EGBERT Hemskirk, called by distinction the 

> T'ilk : ngton.~ Strait. 

340 H E M M E R L I N. 

Old, who painted subjects of the like kind with more suc- 
cess. 1 

HEMMERLIN (FELIX), or MALLEOLUS, which has the 
same meaning as Hemmerlin in German, was born at Zu- 
rich in 1389, of a considerable family ; and having entered 
the church, was made canon of Zurich in 1412. He after- 
wards took his doctor's degree at Bologna, and in 1428 
was appointed chanter of the church of Zurich. In 1454 
the bishop of Constance put him in prison, on a suspicion 
of corresponding with the enemies of itts country ; what 
became of him afterwards, or when he died, we have not 
been able to discover; but two works of his in folio, and 
in black letter, are much sought by collectors of curiosi- 
ties: 1. " Opuscula varia ; scilicet de nobilitate et rustici- 
tate dialogus," &c. without date. 2, " Variae oblecta- 
tionis oriuscula; nempe contra valido^ mend.icantes Beg- 
hardos et Beghinos," &c. Basil, 1497, folio. They arc 
written with a coarse kind of humour. 2 

HEMSTERHUIS (TIBERIUS), or Hemsterhusius, one of 
the most famous critics of his country, the son of Francis 
Hemsterhuis, a physician, was born at Groningen, Feb. 1, 
1635. After obtaining the rudiments of literature from 
proper masters, and from his father, he became a member 
of his native university in his fourteenth year, 1698. He 
there studied for some years, and then removed to Leyden, 
for the sake of attending the lectures of the famous James 
Perizonius on ancient history. He was here so much no- 
ticed by the governors of the university, that it was ex- 
pected he would succeed James Gronovius as professor of 
Greek. Havercamp, however, on the vacancy, was ap- 
pointed, through the intrigues, as Ruhnkenius asserts, of 
some who feared they might be eclipsed by young Hem- 
sterhuis ; who in 1705, at the age of nineteen, was called 
to Amsterdam, and appointed professor of mathematics and 
philosophy. In the former of these branches he had been 
a favourite scholar of the famous John Bernouilli. In 1717, 
he removed to Franeker, on being chosen to succeed 
Lambert Bos as professor of Greek ; to which place, in 
1738, was added the professorship of history. In 1740 he 
removed to Leyden to accept the same two professorships 
in that university. It appears that he was married, be- 
cause his father-in-law, J. Wild, is mentioned, lie died 

i Pilkington.- Walpole's Anecdotes. 2 Niccron, vol. XXV II L 

H E M S T E R H U I S. 341 

April 7, 1766, havii>g enjoyed to the last the use of all his 
faculties. He published, 1. "The three last books of Ju- 
lius Pollux's Onomasticon," to complete the edition of 
which, seven books had been finished by Lederlin. This 
was published at Amsterdam in 1706. On the appearance 
of this work, he received a letter from Bentley, highly 
praising him for the service he had there rendered to his 
author. But this very letter was nearly the cause of driving 
him entirely from the study of Greek criticism : for in it 
Bentley transmitted his own conjectures on the true read- 
ings of the passages cited by Pollux from comic writers, 
with particular view to the restoration of the metre. Hem- 
sterhuis had himself attempted the same, but, when he 
read the criticisms of Bentley, and saw their astonishing 
justness and acuteness, he was so hurt at the inferiority 
of his own, that he resolved, for the time, never again to 
open a Greek book. In a month or two this timidity went 
off, and he returned to these studies with redoubled vi- 
gour, determined to take Bentley for his model, and to' 
qualify himself, if possible, to rival one whom he so greatly 
admired. 2. " Select Colloquies of Lucian, and his Ti- 
mon," Amst. 1708. 3. " The Plutus of Aristophanes, 
with the Scholia," various readings and notes, Harlingen, 
1744, 8vo. 4. " Part of an edition of Lucian," as far as 
the 521st page of the first volume; it appeared in 1743 in 
four volumes quarto, the remaining parts being edited by 
J. M. Gesner and Reitzius. The extreme slowness of his 
proceeding is much complained of by Gesner and others, 
and was the reason why he made no further progress. 5. % 
" Notes and emendations on Xenophon Ephesius," inserted 
in the 36 volumes of the te Miscellanea Critica" of Am- 
sterdam, with the signature T. S. H. S. 6. " Some ob- 
servations upon Chrysostoin's Homily on the Epistle to 
Philemon," subjoined to Raphelius's Annotations on the 
New Testament. 7. " Inaugural Speeches on various oc- 
casions." 8. There are also letters from him to J. Matth. 
Gesner and others ; and he gave considerable aid to J. 
St. Bernard, in publishing the ' Eclogae Thomae Magistri," 
at Leyden, in 1757. His "Philosophical Works" were 
published at Paris in 1792, 2 vols. 8vo, but he was a better 
critic -than philosopher. Ruhnkenius holds up Hemster- 
husius as a model of a perfect critic, and indeed, according 
to his account, the extent and variety of his knowledge, 

342 H E N A O. 

and the acuteness of his judgment, were very extraordi- 
nary. 1 

HENAO (GARIEL DE), a voluminous Spanish author, 
and accounted one of the most learned men of his country 
iu the seventeenth century, was born in 1611. He en- 
tered, when he was ahout fifteen years of age, into the 
order of the Jesuits at Salamanca, and spent the greatest 
part of his life in that university, where afterwards he was 
admitted to the degree of doctor of divinity, and appointed 
rector. He obtained a very high reputation by the solu- 
tions which he gave to persons who came from all parts to 
consult him in cases of conscience. He died in 1704, at 
the great age of ninety-three, and continued to perform 
the duties of professor till within three years of that time. 
His works consist of eleven folio volumes, in Latin. Nine 
of them are composed of treatises on philosophical, theo- 
logical, and controversial subjects ; the others are devoted 
to an account of the antiquities of Biscay, and furnish the 
reader with much curious and interesting matter ; they are 
entitled "Biscaya Illustrata." The part " de Cantabrias 
antiquitatibus" is a work of merit. He was author of many 
smaller pieces not inserted in. this collection. 2 

writer, and president in parliament, was born at Paris, 
Feb. 8, 1685. His great grandfather, Remi Henault, used to 
be of Lewis XIII.' s party at tennis, and that prince called 
him " The Baron," because of a fief which he possessed 
near Triel. He had three sons, officers of horse, who were 
all killed at the siege of Casal. John Remi, his father, an 
esquire, and lord of Moussy, counsellor to the king, and 
secretary to the council, kept up the honour of the family, 
and becoming farmer-general, made his fortune. He was 
honoured with the confidence of the count de Pontchar- 
train; and, being of a poetical turn, had some share in 
the criticisms which appeared against Racine's tragedies. 
He married the daughter of a rich merchant at Calais, and 
one of her brothers being president of that town, enter- 
tained the queen of England on her landing there in 1689. 
Another brother, counsellor in the parliament of Metz, 
and secretary to the duke of Berry, was associated with 
Mr. Crozat in the armaments, and, dying unmarried, left 
a great fortune to his sister. 

1 Riihnkenii elcgium Tib. Hfmsterliusii, new edit. ISOOr Saxil Ononaastkon. 
* Moreri. 


Young Renault early discovered a sprightly, benevolent 
disposition, and his penetration and aptness soon distin- 
guished itself by the success of his studies. Claude de 
Lisle, father of the celebrated geographer, gave him the 
same lessons in geography and history which he had before 
given to the duke of Orleans, afterwards regent. These 
instructions have been printed in seven volumes, under the 
title of " Abridgment of Universal History." 

On quitting college, Henault entered the congregation 
of the oratory, where he soon attached himself to the study 
of eloquence : and, on the death of the abb6 Rene, re- 
former of LaTrappe, he undertook to pronounce his pane- 
gyric, which not meeting the approbation of father Massi- 
lon, he quitted the oratory after two years, and his father 
bought for him, of marshal Villeroi, the lieutenance des 
chasses, and the government of Corbeil. At the marshal's 
he formed connections and even intimate friendships with 
many of the nobility, and passed the early part of his life 
in agreeable amusements, and in the liveliest company, 
without having his religious sentiments tainted. He as- 
sociated with the wits till the dispute between Rousseau 
and De la Motte soon gave him a disgust for these trifling 
societies. In 1707 he gained the prize of eloquence at 
the French academy; and another, next year, at the aca- 
demy des jeux Floraux. About this time, M. Reaumur, 
who was his relation, came to Paris, and took lessons in 
geometry under the same master, Guinee. Henault intro- 
duced him to the abbe Bignon, and this was the first step 
of his illustrious course. In 1713 he brought a tragedy on 
the stage, under the disguised name of Fuselier. As he 
was known to the public only by some slighter pieces, 
" Cornelia the Vestal" met with no better success. He 
therefore locked it up, without printing. In his old age 
his passion for these subjects revived, and Mr. Horace 
Walpole being at Paris* in 1768, and having formed a 
friendship with him as one of the amiable men of his na- 
tion, obtained this piece, and had it printed at his press 
at Stravvberry-hill. In 1751 Mr. Henault, under a bor- 
rowed name, brought out a second tragedy, entitled " Ma- 
rius," which was well received and printed. The French 
biographers, however, doubt whether this was not really 
by M. Catix, whose name it bore. 

He had been admitted counsellor in parliament in 1706, 
with a dispensation on account of age ; and in 1710, presi- 

54* H E N A U L T. 

dent of the first chamber of inquests. These important 
places, which he determined to fill in a becoming manner, 
engaged him in the most solid studies. The excellent 
work of Mr. Dqmat charmed him, and made him eager to 
go back to the fountain head. He spent several years in 
making himself master of the Roman law, the ordonnances 
of the French king, their customs, and public law. M. 
de Morville, procureur-general of the great council, being 
appointed ambassador to the Hague in 1718, engaged He- 
nault to accompany him ; and his personal merit soon in- 
troduced him to the acquaintance of the most eminent 
personages at that time there. The grand pensionary, 
Heinsius, who, under the exterior of Lacedemonian sim- 
plicity, kept up all the haughtiness of that people, lost 
with him all that hauteur which France itself had expe- 
rienced from him in the negociations for the treaty of 

The agitation which all France felt by Law's system, and 
the consequent sending of the parliament into exile, was 
a trial to the wise policy of the president Henault. His 
friendship for the first president, De Mesmes, led him to 
second the views of that great magistrate : he took part in- 
all the negociations, and was animated purely by the pub- 
lic good, without any private advantage. On the death of 
the cardinal du Bois, in 1723, he succeeded in his place at 
the French academy. Cardinal Fleury recommended him 
to succeed himself as director, and he pronounced the 
eloge of M. de Malezieux. 

History was his favourite study ; not a bare collection of 
dates, but a knowledge of the laws and manners of nations ; 
to obtain which he drew instruction from private conversa- 
tions, a method he so strongly recommends in his preface. 
After having thus discussed the most important points of 
public law, he undertook to collect and publish the result 
of his inquiries, and he is deservedly accounted the first 
framer of chronological abridgements ; in which, without 
stopping at detached facts, he attends only to those which 
form a chain of events that perfect or alter the government 
and character of a nation, and traces only the springs which 
exalt or humble a nation, extending or contracting the 
space it occupies in the world. His work has had the for- 
tune of those literary phenomena, where novelty and me- 
rit united excite minds eager after glory, and fire the ar- 
dour of young writers to press after a guide whom few can 


overtake. The first edition of the work, the result of forty 
years' reading, appeared in 1744, under the auspices of 
the chancellor Daguesseau, with the modest title. of " An 
Essay." The success it met with surprised the author. 
He made continual improvements in it, and it has gone 
through nine editions, and been translated into Italian, 
English, and German, and even into Chinese. As the 
best writers are not secure from criticism, and are indeed 
the only ones that deserve it, the author read to the aca- 
demy of belles lettres a defence of his abridgement. 

All the ages and events of the French monarchy being 
present to his mind, and his imagination and memory being 
a vast theatre on which he beheld the different movements 
and parts of the actors in the several revolutions, he de- 
termined to give a specimen of what passed in his own mind, 
and to reduce into the form of a regular drama, one of the 
periods of French history, the reign of Francis II. which, 
though happy only by being short, appeared to him one 
of the most important by its consequences, and most easy 
to be confined within a dramatic compass. His friend the 
chancellor highly approved the plan, and wished it to be 
printed. It accordingly went through five editions ; the 
harmony of dates and facts is exactly observed in it, and 
the passions interested without offence to historic truth. 

In 1755 Henault was chosen an honorary member of the 
academy of belles lettres, having been before elected into 
the academies of Nanci, Berlin, and Stockholm. The 
queen also appointed him superintendant of her house. 
His natural spnghtliness relieved her from the serious at- 
tendance on his private morning lectures. The company 
of persons most distinguished by their wit and birth, a table 
more celebrated for the choice .of the guests than its de- 
licacies, the little comedies suggested by wit, and exe- 
cuted by reflection, united at his house all the pleasures 
of an agreeable literary life. All the members of this in- 
genious society contributed to render it pleasing, and the 
president was not inferior to any. He composed three 
comedies, " La Petite Maison ;" " Le Jaloux de Soi- 
meme," and " Le Ileveil d'Epimenide." The subject of 
the last was the Cretan philosopher, who is pretended to 
have slept twenty-seven years. The queen was particu- 
larly pleased with this piece. 

He was now in such favour witji her majesty, that, on 
the place of superintendant becoming vacant by the death 


of M. Bernard de Conbert, master of requests, and the 
sum he had paid for it being lost to his family, Henault 
solicited it in favour of several persons, till at last the 
queen bestowed it on himself, and consented that he should 
divide the profits with his predecessor's widow. On the 
queen's death he held the same place under the dauphiness. 
A delicate constitution made him liable to much illness, 
which, however, did not interrupt the serenity of his mind. 
He made several journeys to the waters of Plombieres : in 
one of these he visited the deposed king Stanislaus at 
Luneville ; and in another accompanied his friend the mar- 
quis de Pauliny, ambassador to Switzerland. 

In 1763 Henault drew near his end. One morning, 
after a quiet night, he felt an oppression, which the faculty 
pronounced a suffocating cough. His confessor being 
sent to him, he formed his resolution without alarm. He 
mentioned afterwards, that he recollected having then said 
to himself, " What do I regret ?" and called to mind that 
saying of madame de Sevigne, " I leave here only dying 
creatures." He received the sacraments. It was believed 
the next night would be his last ; but by noon the next 
day he was out of danger. " Now," said he, " I know 
what death is. It will not be new to me any more." He 
never forgot it during the following seven years of his life, 
which, like all the rest, were gentle and calm. Full of 
gratitude for the favours of Providence, resigned to its de- 
crees, offering to the Author of his being a pure and sin- 
cere devotion ; he felt his infirmities without complaining, 
and perceived a gradual decay with unabated firmness. 
He died Dec. 24, 1771, in his 86th year. He married, in 
1714, a daughter of M. le Bas de Montargis, keeper of 
the royal treasure, &c. who died in 1728, without leaving 
any issue. He treated as his own children, those of his 
sister, who had married, in 1713, the count de Jonsac, 
and by him had three sons and two daughters. The two 
younger sons were killed, one at Brussels, the other at 
Lafelt, both at the head of the regiments of which they 
were colonels; the eldest long survived, and was lieute- 
nant-general and governor of Collioure and Port Vendre 
in Roussillon. The elder daughter married M. le Veneur, 
count de Tillieres, and died in 1757 ; the second married 
the marquis d'Aubeterre, ambassador to Vienna, Madrid, 
and Rome. In 1800 a very able posthumous work of the 
president's was published at Paris, entitled " Histoire Cri- 


tique de 1'Etablissement des Francois dans les Gaules," 
2 vols. 8vo. l 

HENAULT (JOHN D'), a French poet, was the son of a 
baker at Paris, and at first a receiver of the taxes at Fores. 
Then he travelled into Holland and England, and was 
employed by the superintendant Fouquet, who was his 
patron. After bis return to France, he soon became dis- 
tinguished as one of the finest geniuses of his age ; and 
gained a prodigious reputation by his poetry. His sonnet 
on the miscarriage of mad. de Guerchi is looked upon as a 
master-piece, though it has little intrinsic merit. He also 
wrote a satirical poem against the minister Colbert, which 
is reckoned by Boileau among his best pieces. This was 
written by way of revenging the disgrace and ruin of his 
patron Fouquet, which Henault ascribed to Colbert. The 
minister being told of this sonnet, which made a great 
noise, asked, " Whether there were any satirical strokes 
in it against the king ?" and being informed there were not, 
" Then," said he, " I shall not mind it, nor shew the 
least resentment against the author." Henault was a man 
who loved to refine on pleasures, and gloried in infidelity. 
He went to Holland on purpose to visit Spinoza, who did 
not much esteem him. When, however, sickness and 
d^ath came to stare him in the face, he became a super- 
stitious convert, and was for receiving the Viaticum or 
Sacrament, with a halter about his neck, in the middle of 
his bed-chamber. He died in 1682. 

He had printed at Paris, 1670, in 12mo, a small collec- 
tion of his works, under the title of " Oeuvres Diverses," 
or "Miscellanies:' containing sonnets, and letters in 
verse and prose to Sappho, who was probably the cele- 
brated madam lies Houlieres, to whom he had the honour 
to be preceptor. Henault had translated three books of 
Lucretius: but his confessor having raised in him scruples 
and fears, he burnt this work, so that there remains no- 
thing of it but the first 100 lines, which had been copied 
by his friends. Voltaire says, that "he would have gained 
great reputation, had these books that were lost been pre- 
served, and been equal to what we have of this work."* 

HENCKEL (JOHN FREDERIC), an eminent mineralogist, 
whose name has unaccountably been omitted in all our 
English as well as in the French, biographical collections, 

1 Diet. Hist.Gent. May. 1733. 2 Gen. Pict. MorerL 

lift . H E N C K E L, 

was born at Fryberg, or Friburg, in Misnia, in 1679. He 
appli himself, in the former part of his life, to physic; 
but quitted practice to devote his time entirely to the study 
of mineralogy and the various branches connected with it. 
The place of his birth afforded many facilities in his re- 
searc les, being situated among those mountains which have 
been rendered famous by their mines, and which have been 
wrought with success through a long course of ages. Dr. 
He? ^kel, therefore, had the most favourable opportunity 
of studying nature, which he did with assiduity and suc- 
cess ; and his superior skill gained him so high and so ex- a reputation, that his lectures were not only at- 
tended by persons who came from all parts of Germany, 
but he had also disciples who resorted to him from Sweden 
and Russia. Augustus II. king of Poland, and elector of 
Saxony, made him counsellor in the mines at Fryberg, 
and it was under his direction, that the porcelain manufac- 
ture was brought to perfection, which has rendered the 
town of Meissen so famous. He died in 1744- at Fryberg. 
His fine cabinet of natural rarities was purchased by Mr. 
Demidoff, a man of fortune, whose son presented it to the 
university of Moscow. Dr. HenckePs " Pyritologia" is 
known in this country by a translation, " History of the 
Pyrites," published in 1757, 8vo ; and there is a French 
translation of a posthumous work, entitled " Henckelius in 
Mineralogia redivivus," Paris, 1756, 2 vols. 8vo, said to be 
very accurate. 1 

HENICHIUS (JOHN), a learned professor of divinity in 
the university of llinteln, in the country of Hesse, was 
born in January 1616. He was educated at Zell, Lunen- 
burg, and Helmstad; and after having studied at this last 
four years, was received doctor in philosophy. Having 
afterwards read some lectures, and presided in public dis- 
putations, he gained the friendship in an especial manner of 
doctor Calixtus and doctor Horneius, two famous divines. 
He was appointed professor of metaphysics and of Hebrew, 
in the university of Rinteln, in 1643; and a year and a 
half after this, being invited to Bardewik, to be superin- 
tendant, he discharged the duties of that employment 
during five years, with so much care and diligence, that 
duke Augustus of Brunswick would have appointed him 

1 Monthly Review, vol. XVII. ami XVIII. Some other works ef Henckel's 
are ia the new Catalogue of the British Museum. 

H E N I C H I U S. 34* 

&ole inspector of the diocese of Wolfenbuttel, but he re- 
turned to Rinteln in 1651, and was made professor of divi- 
nity, had a seat in the ecclesiastical consistory, and was 
also made inspector of the churches in the earldom of 
Schauemburg. He was a man of great candor and mode- 
ration, and ardently wished that there might be an union 
between the Lutherans and Calvinists, which occasioned 
his bein^ suspected bv both parties. He was himself a 
Lutheran, and a man of great erudition. He died at Rin- 
teln June 27, 1671, leaving the following works : 1. " Dis- 
serUitio de Majestate civili," Rintel. 1653, 4to. 2. " De 
cultu creaturarum &, imaginufn dissert." ibid. 1663, 4to. 
3. " De libertate Arbitrii, imprimis Je concursu causne se- 
cundce cum primis," ibid. 1645, 4to. 4. " De Officio boni 
Principis piique Subditi," ibid. 1 661, 12mo. 5. " Disser- 
tatio de Pceniteutia lapsorum," ibid. 1659, 4to. 6. " DC 
Gratia & Prxdestinatione Dissertatio," ibid. 1663, 4to. 

7. "Compendium S. Theologian, n ibid. 1657, 1671, 8vo. 

8. " De Veritate Religionis Chn;tiana?," ibid. 1667, 12mo. 

9. " Institutiones Theologica 1 ,' 1 Brunsvigce, 1665, 4to. 

10. " Historiae Ecclesiasticoe & Civilis Pars I." Rinte). 
1669, Pars II. 1670, Pars III. 1674, 4to. 11. " Disputa- 
tiones de Mysterio S. S. Trinitatis : de Confessione Au- 
gustini, de fide & operibus," &c. * 

HENLEY (ANTHONY), an English gentleman of parts 
and learning, was the son of sir R ->bert Henley, of the 
Grange in Hampshire, descended from the Henleys of 
Henley in Somersetshire ; of whom sir Andrew Henley was 
created a baronet in 1660. This sir Andrew had a son of 
ihe same name, famous for his frolics and profusion. His 
seat, called Bramesley, near Hartley-row, in the county 
of Southampton, was very large and magnifirent. He had 
a great estate in that and the other western counties, which 
was reduced by him to a very small one, or to nothing. 
Sir Robert Henley of the Grange, his uncle, was a man of 
.good sense and osconomy. He held the master's place of 
.the King's-bench court, on the pleas side, many years; 
and by the profits of it, and good management, left hi* 
son, Anthony Henley, of the Grange, of whom we now 
treat, possessed of a very fine fortune, above 3000/. a-year, 
part of which arose from the ground-rents of LincolnVinn- 

> Gen. r>ict. Moreri. 

350 H E N L E Y.- 

Anthony Henley was bred at Oxford, where he distin- 
guished himself by an early relish for polite learning. He 
made a great proficiency in the study of the classics, and 
particularly the ancient poets, by which he formed a good 
taste for poetry, and wrote verses with success. Upon his 
coming to London, he was presently received into the 
friendship and familiarity of persons of the first rank for 
quality and wit, particularly the earls of Dorset and Sun- 
clerland. The latter had especially a great esteem and 
affection for him ; and as every one knew what a secret in- 
fluence he had on affairs in king William's court, it was 
thought strange that Mr. Henley, who had a genius for 
any thing great, as well as any thing gay, did not rise in 
the state, where he would have shone as a politician, no 
Jess than he did at Will's and Tom's as a wit. But the 
Muses and pleasure had engaged him. He had something 
of the character of Tibullus, and, except his extravagance, 
was possessed of all his other qualities ; his indolence, his 
gallantry, his wit, his humanity, his. generosity, his learn- 
ing, his taste for letters. There was hardly a contempo- 
rary author, who did not experience his bounty. They 
soon found him out, and attacked him with their dedica- 
tions ; which, though he knew how to value as they de- 
served, were always received as well as the addressers 
could wish ; and his returns were made so handsomely, 
that the manner was as grateful as the present. 

There was, for a long time, a strict friendship between 
/Mr. Henley and Richard Norton of Sonthwick in Hamp- 
shire, es-q. who was often chosen to represent that county. 
This gentleman had the same passion for the Muses ; and 
the similarity there was in their pleasures and studies, 
made that friendship the more firm and affectionate. They 
both lived to a good age before they married, and perhaps 
the breach that happened between them was one reason of 
their entering both into the state of matrimony much about 
the same time. Mr. Henley married Mary youngest daugh- 
ter and co-heiress of the lion. Peregrine Bertie, sister to 
the countess Pawlet, with whom he had 30,000/. fortune, 
and by her he left several children. Of these Anthony, 
the eldest, died in 1745 ; and Robert, the second son, was 
created baron Henley and lord keeper of the great seal in 
1760; became lord chancellor in 1761 ; and earl of North- 
ington in 1764. 

On becoming a husband and a father, Mr. Henley re- 

H K N L E Y. 331 

linquished his gay mode of life, and was chosen a member 
of parliament for Andover in 1698; after which he was 
constantly the representative for either Weymouth, or 
Melcombe Regis, in the county of Dorset. He was al- 
ways a zealous assertor of liberty in the house of commons, 
or at least of what went by that name ; and on one occasion 
moved in the house for an address to her majesty, that she 
would be graciously pleased to give Mr. Benjamin Hoadly 
some dignity iu the church, for strenuously asserting and 
vindicating the principles of that revolution which is the 
foundation of our present establishment in church anci 
state. This made him odious to the Tory party, and some 
impotent endeavours were used to have him laid aside in 
the queen's last parliament ; but he carried his election 
both at his corporation, and afterwards in the house of 

Mr. Henley wrote several compositions, though he did 
not put his name to them ; and very frequently assisted the 
writers of the " Tatler" and " Medley." No man wrote 
with more wit and more gaiety. He affected a simplicity 
in his writings, and in particular was extremely happy in 
touching the manners and passions of parents and children, 
masters and servants, peasants and tradesmen, using their 
expressions so naturally and aptly, that he has very fre 
quently disguised by it both his merit and character. 

His most darling diversion was music, of which he was 
entirely master ; his opinion was the standard of taste ; and 
after the Italian music was introduced, no opera could be 
sure of applause, till it had received his approbation. He 
was such an admirer of Purcell's music, and the English 
manner, that he did not immediately relish the Italian ; 
but, practice reconciling his ear, he was at last much at- 
tached to it. Whether he composed himself, we know 
not ; but he sang with art, and played on several instru- 
ments with judgment. He wrote several poems for music, 
and almost finished the opera of " Alexander" set by Pur- 
cell. Garth, in his preface to the Dispensary, has highly 
praised Henley, who was his friend ; and his death, which 
happened in 1711, was very generally lamented. 1 

HENLEY (JOHN), better known by the appellation of 
" Orator Henley," has furnished the world with memorials 

Memoirs of persons who died in 1711, 8vo, 1712. Swift's Works. Tatler 
ud Spectator, with notes. 

352 H E N L E Y. 

of himself, in a work entitled " Oratory Transactions, 1 ' 
which are in some respects worth preserving. He was born 
Tit. Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, Aug. 3, 1692. His 
father, the rev. Simon Henley, and his grandfather by 
his mother's side (John Dowel, M. A.) were both vicars of 
that parish. His grandfather by his father's side, John 
Henley, M. A. was likewise a clergyman, rector of Sal- 
monby and Thetford in Lincolnshire. % He was educated 
among the dissenters, and conformed at the restoration. 
Henley was bred up first in the free-school of Melton, 
under Mr. Daffy, a diligent and expert grammarian. From 
this school he was removed to that of Okeham in Rutland, 
under Mr. Wright, eminent for his knowledge of the Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew languages. About 1709 he entered 
of St. John's-college, Cambridge; where, on his examina- 
tion by Dr. Govver then master, Dr. Lambert, Dr. Ed- 
mundson, and others, he was, he tells us, particularly ap- 
proved. While an undergraduate at St. John's, he wrote 
a letter to the " Spectator," dated from that college, Feb. 
3, 1712, signed Peter de Quir, abounding with quaintness 
and local wit. He began here to be very soon uneasy ; he 
was more inclined to dispute than to assent to any points 
of doctrine, and already fancied himself able to reform the 
whole system of academical education. 

After he had commenced bachelor of arts, he was first 
desired by the trustees of the school in Melton to assist in, 
and then to take the direction of, that school ; which he 
increased and raised from a declining to a flourishing con- 
dition. He established here, he tells us, a practice of im- 
proving elocution, by the public speaking of passages in 
the classics, morning and afternoon, as well as orations, 
&c. Here he was invited by a letter from the rev. Mr. 
Newcome, to be a candidate for a fellowship in St. John's ; 
but as he had long been absent, and therefore lessened his 
personal interest, he declined appearing for it. Here 
likewise he began his " Universal Grammar,'* and finished 
ten languages, with dissertations prefixed, as the most 
ready introduction to any tongue whatever. In the begin- 
ning of this interval he wrote a poem on " Esther," which, 
was approved by the town, and well received, as in-deed it 
amply deserved. It is preceded by a learned preface, in 
which he discovers an intimate knowledge of Oriental 
studies, and some learned etymologies from the Persic, 
Hebrew, and Greek, concerning the name and person of 

H E N L E V. 353 

Abasuerus, whom he makes to be Xerxes. On the occa- 
sion of his " Grammars," Dr. Hutchinson wrote him a com- 
plimentary letter. He was ordained a deacon by Dr. 
Wake, then bishop of Lincoln ; and after having taken his 
degree of M. A. was admitted to priest's orders by Dr. 
Gibson, his successor in that see. He did not long con- 
sent to rest in the country, but, impatient to obtain wealth 
and fame in London, resigned his offices of master and 
curate, and entered upon his new career. 

In town, he produced several publications ; as, a trans- 
lation of Pliny's " Epistles," of several works of abbe Ver- 
tot, of Montfaucon's " Italian Travels" in folio, and many 
other books. His principal patron was the earl of Mac- 
clesfield, who gave him a benefice in the country, the value 
of which to a resident would have been above 80/ a year; 
he had likewise a lecture in the city; and, according to 
his own account, preached more chanty-sermons about 
town, was more numerously followed, and raised more for 
the poor children, than any other preacher, however dig- 
nified or distinguished. This popularity, with his enter- 
prising spirit, and introducing regular action into the pulpit, 
were " the true causes," he says, " why some obstructed 
his rising in town, from envy, jealousy, and a disrelish of 
those who are not qualified to be complete spaniels. For 
there was no objection to his being tossed into a 'country 
benefice by the way of the sea, as far as Galilee of the 
Gentiles (like a pendulum swinging one way as far as the 
other.)" Not being able to obtain preferment in London, 
and not choosing to return into the country, he struck out 
the plan of his Lectures, or Orations, which he puffed 
with an astonishing vulgarity of arrogance, as may be seen 
in the following specimen : 

" That he should have the assurance to frame a plan, 
which no mortal ever thought of; that he should singly 
execute what would sprain a dozen of modern doctors of 
the tribe of Issachar ; that he should have success against 
all opposition ; challenge his adversaries to fair disputa- 
tions, without any offering to dispute with him ; write, 
read, and study 12 hours a day, and yet appear as un- 
touched by the yoke, as if he never wore it; compose 
three dissertations each week, on all subjects, however un- 
common, treated in all lights and manners by himself, 
without assistance, as some would detract from him ; teach 
in one year, what schools and universities teach in five ; 


354 KT E N L t. 

offer to learn to speak and to read ; not be terrified by 
cabals, or menaces, or insults, or the grave nonsense of 
one, or the frothy satire of another ; that he should still 
proceed and mature this bold scheme, and put the church, 
and all that, in danger; This man must be a a a 

Henley lectured, in this style, on Sundays upon theolo- 
gical matters, and on Wednesdays upon all other sciences. 
He declaimed some years against the greatest persons, and 
occasionally, says Warburton, did Pope that honour. The 
poet retorts upon him in the well-known lines : 

" But where each science lifts its modern type, 
History her pot, Divinity his pipe, 
While proud Philosophy repines to show. 
Dishonest sight ! his breeches rent below j 
Imbrown'd with native bronze, lo Henley stands," &c. &c. 

This strange man struck medals, which he dispersed as 
tickets to his subscribers: a star rising to the meridian, 
with this motto, " ad summa ;" and below, *' Inveniam 
viam, aut faciam." Each audkor paid Is. His audience 
was generally composed of the lowest ranks ; and it is well 
known, that he once collected a vast number of shoe- 
makers, by announcing that he could teach them a speedy 
mode of operation in their business, which proved only to 
be, the making of shoes bv cutting off the tops of ready- 
made boots. His motto on this occasion was, " Onine 
majus continet in se minus." He was author of a weekly 
paper of unintelligible nonsense, called " The Hyp Doc- 
tor," for which secret service he had 100/. a y ear given 
him^ and which was intended to counteract the effect of 
the " Craftsman," a proof how little his patron sir Robert 
Walpole knew of literary assistance. Henley used, every 
Saturday, to print an advertisement in " The Daily Ad- 
vertiser," containing an account of the subjects on which 
he intended to discourse in the ensuing evening, at his 
Oratory near Lincoln's-inn-fields. The advertisement had 
a sort of motto before it, which was generally a sneer at 
some public transaction of the preceding week *. Henley 

* Dr. Cobden, one of George ll.'s and the next Saturday, the following 

chaplains, having, in 1748, preached parody of his text appeared as a motto 

a sermon at St. James's, from these to Henley's advertisement : 

words : " Take away the wicked from " Away with the wicked before the king, 

before the king, and his throne ? hall be And away with the wicked behind him j 
established in righteousness;" it gave His throne it will bless 

so much displeasure, that the doctor With righteousness, 

was struck out of the list of chaplains ; And we shall know where to find him.' 3 

HENLEY. 355 

died Oct. 14, 1756. In his account of himself he assumes 
the credit of considerable learning, and a strong zeal for 
knowledge, which at one time certainly was the case, but 
his talents became miserably perverted, if we may judge 
from the specimens we have seen of his compositions. Both 
his style and his thoughts are low ; vanity and censorious- 
ness are the most conspicuous qualities, and his manners, 
become gross and ferocious, corresponded with his writ- 

Orator Henley is a principal figure in two very humo- 
rous plates of Hogarth; in one of which he is "christen- 
ing a child ;" in the other, called " The Oratory," he is 
represented on a scaffold, a monkey (over whom is written 
Amen) by his side ; a box of pills, and " The Hyp Doc- 
tor," lying beside him. Over his head " The Oratory : 
Inveniam viam, aut faciam." Over the door, " Ingredere 
ut proficias." A parson receiving the money for admission. 
Under him, "The Treasury." A butcher stands as porter. 
On the left hand, Modesty in a cloud; Folly in a coach; 
and a gibbet prepared for Merit ; people laughing. One 
marked " The Scout," introducing a puritan divine*. 

Henley, says a late judicious reviewer of his life, " was 
a scholar of great acquirements, and of no mean genius ; 
hardy and inventive ; eloquent and witty ; he might have 
been an ornament to literature, which he made ridiculous; 
and the pride of the pulpit, which he so egregiously dis- 
graced ; but having blunted and worn out that interior 
feeling, which is the instinct of the good man, and the 
wisdom of the wise, there was no balance in his passions, 
and the decorum of life was sacrificed to its selfishness. 
He condescended to live on the follies of the people, and 
his sordid nature had changed him till he crept ' licking 
the dust with the serpent'." l 

HENNINGES (JEROME), a learned and laborious histo- 
rian of the sixteenth century, was a native of Germany, a 
disciple of Melancthon, and became distinguished by his 
genealogical researches. His principal works are, 1. " Ge- 
nealogiae Familiarum Saxonicarum," Hamburgh, 1596, fol. 
2. " Theatrum Genealogicum omnium JEtatum et Monar- 

* This description is taken from Mr. Nichols's " Biographical Aoecdotes of 
Hogarth ; and was written by Mr. Steevens ; who duubt?, howevtr, whether 
*' The Oratory" be a genuine production of Hogarth. 

i D'Israeli's Calamities. Nichols's Hist of Leiwifc:>iir. art. Melton Mow- 
bray, &C. &C. 

A A 2 

356 H E N N I N G E S. 

chiarum Familias complectens," Magdeburgh, 1598, foL 
7 vols. in four, which Clement considers as of great rarity, 
and indeed it is very difficult to be found complete. It 
contains the Jewish families from Adam to the destruction 
of Jerusalem . the origin of all other nations, and the fa- 
milies of the second and third monarchies : the families of 
ancient Greece and Italy, and those of all the principal 
modern kingdoms. 1 

HENNUYER (JOHN), the bishop of Lisieux, so justly 
celebrated for his humanity at the time of the dreadful 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, was born at St. Quintin in 
Picardy, in 1497. He was confessor to Henry II. of 
France, and bishop of Lodeve. In the reign of Charles IX. 
when the royal lieutenant of his province communicated to 
him the order to massacre all the protestants in the diocese 
of Lisieux, he signed a formal and official opposition to 
the order ; for which striking act of clemency, it is won- 
derful to say, he was not censured or persecuted by the 
bigotry of the court. The beauty of virtue exacted re- 
spect. He died in 1577, universally respected, having 
gained over more by his mildness than any bigot by his 
fury. 2 

names given to a Scotch poet who lived in the fifteenth 
century, but of whom there are few memorials that can be 
relied on. It is conjectured that he wrote his celebrated 
" Actis & Deidis of Shyr Willam Wallace," about I446 r 
and that he was then an old man. No surname is known; 
which belonged to Henry, nor is any thing known of his 
parentage or education. He discovers some knowledge 
in astronomy, in classical history, in the Latin and French 
languages, and in divinity ; and some think he belonged 
to one or other of the religious orders, but this in a man 
blind from his infancy seems very improbable. He was a 
kind of travelling bard, visited the middle and south parts- 
of Scotland, and probably the court of Scotland, and the 
great families. Wallace, his hero, was put to death in 
1305, and Henry is supposed to have been born half a 
century later, but not too late for acquiring many particu- 
lars proper for his narrative, and it appears that he con- 
sulted with the descendants of some of Wallace's conteca- 

> Diot. Hist. Morerir Clement, BibL Curieus*.: Saxii Gaornasticoc. 
* Mrri. Diet. Hist, 

HENRY. 357 

poraries. Besides this, he informs us that he followed 
very strictly a hook of great authority, a complete history 
of Wallace, written in Latin, partly hy John Blair and 
partly by Thomas Gray, both whom he mentions particu- 
larly, but no such work exists, nor can we tell whether he 
borrowed his many anachronisms and mistakes of persons 
and places from this work, or whether they were owing to 
defects in his own memory. Henry was blind from his 
birth; and that he should have acquired the knowjedge 
imputed to him, is much more wonderful than that he 
should be misled by traditionary reports. As he was blind, 
he fails in the descriptive parts of his poems, but for the 
same reason his invention is perpetually at work, and for 
matters of fact, he gives us all the wonders of romance. 
Many of his events never happened, and those which did 
are misplaced in point of time, or greatly exaggerated. 
His admirers are ready to allow that it is now impossible 
to distinguish between what is true and what is false in 
many of Henry's relations ; but this can only be the case 
where the relation is all his own ; where we can appeal to 
other authorities, we frequently find him more erroneous 
than can easily be accounted for. A comparison has been 
formed between Henry's " Wallace," and Harbour's 
'* Bruce," whick terminates decidedly in Barbour's favour. 
The " Bruce," says an elegant critic, " is evidently the 
work of a politician as well as poet. The characters of the 
king, of his brother, of Douglas, and of the earl of Moray, 
are discriminated, and their separate talents always em- 
ployed with judgment; so that every event is prepared 
and rendered probable by the means to which it is attri- 
buted ; whereas the life of Wallace is a mere romance, in 
which the hero hews down whole squadrons with his single 
arm, and is indebted for every victory to his own muscular 
strength. Both poems are filled with descriptions of bat- 
tles ; but in those of Barbour our attention is successively 
directed to the cool intrepidity of king Robert, to the 
brilliant rashness of Edward Bruce, or to the enterprizing 
stratagems of Douglas ; while in Henry we find little more 
than a disgusting picture of revenge, hatred, and blood.'* 
As a poet, however, he has considerable merit, and the 
numerous editions through which his " Wallace" has 
passed, affords a sufficient proof of his popularity during 
all that period, when his language would be understood 
and the nature of his narrative be acceptable. The only 

358 HENRY. 

manuscript known of this poem, and from which all th 
printed copies have been taken, is now in the Advocates' 
library at Edinburgh, and bears date 1488. The first 
printed edition was that of Edinburgh, 1570 ; but the best 
and more correct is that of the Morisons of Perth, 1790, 
3 vols. 12mo. ! 

HENRY (NICHOLAS), a good Hebrew scholar, was born 
1692 at Verdun. He was tutor to the son of M. Joly de 
Fleury, procurator-general to the parliament of Paris, ap- 
pointed professor of Hebrew at the royal college in 1723, 
and discharged that office with credit till 1752, when he 
was killed in the street, February 4, by the fall of an en- 
tablature. He left a small abridgement of the Hebrew 
grammar, folio, which is useful but rather obscure ; and a 
good edition of Vatable's Bible, 2 vols. fol. 8 

HENRY DE ST. IGNACE, an able divine, a Carmelite, 
born at Ath in Flanders, taught theology with reputation, 
and passed through the most important offices of his order. 
He made a long stay at Rome in the beginning of the pon- 
tificate of Clement XI. by whom he was much esteemed, 
and died in a very advanced age at Cavee, a Carmelite con- 
vent, about 1720. His chief work is a complete system of 
moral theology, entitled " Ethica amoris," Liege, 1709, 
3 vols. fol. in which he strongly opposes the relaxed casuists, 
but supports the principles of the Ultramontanes. He has 
also left another theological work, where he explains the 
first part of the Sum of St. Thomas, fol. This last is very 
scarce. " Molinismus profligatus," 2 vols. Svo; " Artes 
Jesuiticse in sustinendis novitatibus laxitatibusque Socio- 
rum;" the best edition is 1710. "Tuba magna mirum 
clangens sonum . . . . de necessitate reformandi Societatem 
Jesu, per Liberium Candidum." This is a collection of 
pieces; the best edition is 1717, in two thick vols. 12mo. 
These two works are dedicated to pope Clement XI. 
Henry de St. Ignace openly declared himself, in his writ- 
ings, a friend to the cause and sentiments of M. Arnauld 
and P. Quesnel. 3 

HENRY (DAVID), an ingenious printer, was born in the 
neighbourhood of Aberdeen, in 1710, which place he left 
at the age of fourteen, and coming to London became 
Connected with the celebrated projector of the Gentleman's 

1 Life prefixed to the above edition. Mackenzie's Scots Writers, vol. I.* 
fcllis's Specimens, vol. I. 354. Irvine's Lives of the Scotish Poets, 
Hist, 3 Ibid. 

HENRY. 359 

Magazine, Edward Cave, whose sister Mary he married in 
1736. Soon after his marriage, he began business at 
Reading, where he established a provincial paper for the 
use of that town, and of Winchester, where he had likewise 
a printing-office. In 1754 we find his name used in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, as a partner with Cave at St. John's 
Gate, where he continued to reside for many years with 
great reputation : and he possessed the freehold property 
of the Gate and its appurtenances at the time of his death, 
which happened at Lewisham, June 5, 1792. 

Besides taking an active part in- the management of the 
Gentleman's Magazine for more than half a century, his 
separate literary labours were such as do credit to his 
judgment and industry. The only printed volume that we 
recollect, which bears his name, was a compilation, while 
he lived at Reading, under the patronage of Dr. Bolton, 
dean of Carlisle, entitled, "Twenty Discourses abridged 
from archbishop Tillotson, c." of which a second edition 
was published in 1763, and a fourth in 1779. Those use- 
ful and popular publications which describe the curiosities 
of Westminster abbey, St. Paul's, and the Tower, c. 
were originally compiled by Mr. Henry, and were improved 
by him through many successive impressions. He wrote 
also " The Complete English Farmer, or a Practical Sys- 
tem of Husbandry," a science which he cultivated on his 
farm at Beckingham in Kent; and " An historical Account 
of all the Voyages round the world, performed by English 
navigators," 1774, 4 vols. Svo, to which he afterwards 
added two more, including capt. Cook's voyages ; all re- 
markable for being comprehensive, perspicuous, and accu- 
rate. To the Gentleman's Magazine he was a frequent 
correspondent on a variety of subjects. He was a man of 
sound understanding, well acquainted with the literary his- 
tory of his time, and agreeably communicative of what he 
knew. 1 

HENRY (PHILIP), an eminent nonconformist, was born 
at Whitehall in 1631 : his father, John Henry, was page 
of the back-stairs to the king's second son, James duke of 
York. About twelve years old he was admitted into West- 
minster-school, under Mr. Thomas Vincent, then usher; 
a man very diligent in his business, but who grieved so 
anuch at the dulness of many of his scholars, that he fell 

J .Nichols's Bowyer. 

360 HENRY. 

into a consumption, and was said to be " killed with false 
Latin." In the regular time, he was taken into the upper 
school under Dr. Busby, with whom he was a great favou- 
rite ; and was employed by him, xvith some others, in col- 
lecting materials for that excellent Greek grammar which 
he afterwards published. Soon after the civil wars broke 
out, there was a daily morning lecture set up at the abbey 
church by the assembly of divines. His pious mother re- 
quested Dr. Busby to give her son leave to attend this, 
and likewise took him with her every Thursday to Mr. 
Case^s lecture, at St. Martin's : she took him also to the 
jnonthly fasts at St. Margaret's, where the House of com- 
mons attended ; and where the service was carried on with 
great strictness and solemnity, from eight in the morning 
till four in the evening : in these, as he himself has ex- 
pressed it, he had often " sweet meltings of soul." 

He was elected from Westminster to Christ-church, Ox- 
ford, where he was admitted a student in 1648, and vigo- 
rously applied himself to the proper studies of the place. 
When he had completed his master's degree, he was en- 
tertained in the family of judge Puleston, at Emeral in 
Flintshire, to take the care of his sons, and to preach at 
Worthenbury. He was ordained to the work of the minis- 
try in this place in 1657, according to the known directory 
of the assembly of divines, and the common usage of the 
presbyterians. He soon after married the only daughter 
and heiress of Mr. Daniel Matthews, of Broad-oak, near 
Whitchurch, by whom he became possessed of a competent 
estate. When the king and episcopacy were restored, he 
refused to conform, was ejected, and retired with his fa- 
mily to Broad-oak. Here, and in this neighbourhood, he 
spent the remainder of his life, about twenty-eight years, 
relieving the poor, employing the iiuiustrious, instructing 
the ignorant, and exercising every opportunity of doing 
good. His moderation in his nonconformity was eminent 
and exemplary ; and upon all' occasions he bore testimony 
against uncharitable and schismatical separation. In church- 
government, he desired and wished for abp. Usher's re- 
duction of episcopacy. He thought it lawful to join in the 
common-prayer in the public assemblies ; which, during 
the time of his silence and restraint, he constantly attended 
with his family, with reverence and devotion. 

Upon the whole, his character seems to have been highly 
exemplary and praiseworthy ; and it may be asked, as Dr. 

HENRY, 361 

Busby asked him, " What made him a nonconformist ?" 
The reason which he principally insisted on was, that he 
could *not submit to be re-ordained, which was required of 
those who had been ordained only according to the pres- 
byterian form. When named in the commission of the 
peace, it was as Philip Henry, esq. He was, however, so 
well satisfied with his call to the ministry, and solemn or- 
dination to it, by the laying on the hands of the presby- 
tery, that he durst not do that which looked like a renun- 
ciation of it as null and sinful, and would at least be a tacit 
invalidating and condemning of all his administrations. 
Despairing to see an accommodation, he kept a meeting at 
Broad-oak, and preached to a congregation in a barn. He 
died June 24, 1696. His " Life" was written by his son, 
the subject of our next article, and published in 1699. 
The piety, Christian moderation, and good sense, which 
pervade the whole, render it one of the most interesting 
pieces of biography of the seventeenth century, and in- 
duced Dr. Wordsworth to reprint the whole in his " Eccle- 
siastical Biography," with some useful notes 1 . 

HENRY (MATTHEW), an eminent dissenting teacher, 
and a voluminous writer, was the son of the foregoing, and 
born in 1662. He continued under his father's eye and 
care till about eighteen ; and had the greatest advantages 
of his education from him, both in divine and human lite- 
rature. He was very expert in the learned languages, es- 
pecially in the Hebrew, which had been made familiar to 
him from his childhood ; and from first to last, the study 
of the scriptures was his most delightful employment. For 
further improvement, he was placed in 16SOat an academy 
at Islington. He was afterwards entered in Gray's- inn, 
for the study of the law ; where he went on with his usual 
diligence, and became acquainted with the civil law, and 
the municipal law of his own country. His proficiency was 
soon observed ; and it was the opinion of those who knew 
him, that his great industry, quick apprehension, tenacious 
memory, and ready utterance, would render him very emi- 
nent in that profession. But he adhered to his first reso- 
lution of making divinity his study and business, and at- 
tended the most celebrated preachers in town ; and, as an 
instance of his judgment, was best pleased with Dr. Stil- 
lingfleet for his serious practical preaching ; and with Dr. 

* Life as ^bove. Calamy. 

$62 HENRY, 

Tillotson for his admirable sermons against popery, at his 
lectures at St. Lawrence Jewry. In 1686, he returned into 
the country, and preached several times as a candidate for 
the ministry with such success and approbation, that the 
congregation at Chester invited him to be their pastor. To 
this place he was ordained in 1687, where he lived about 
twenty- five years. He had several calls from London, 
which he constantly declined ; but was at last prevailed ou 
to accept a very important and unanimous one from Hack- 
ney. He died in 1714, at Nantwich, of an apoplectic fit, 
upon a journey, and was interred in Trinity-church, in 

He was universally lamented ; every pulpit of the Dis- 
senters gave notice of the great breach that was made in 
their church; every sermon was a funeral sermon for Mr. 
Henry. The writings he published, besides several single 
sermons, are, 1. u A Discourse concerning the Nature of 
Schism," 1689. 2. "The Life of Mr. Philip Henry," 
1696. 3. " A Scripture Catechism," 1702. 4. " Family 
Hymns," 1702. 5. " The Communicant's Companion,'* 

1704. 6. " Four Discourses against Vice and Immorality," 

1705. 7. "A Method for Prayer," 1710. 8. " Direc- 
sions for daily Communion with God," 1712. 9. " Expo- 
tition of the Bible," 5 vols. folio, of which editions con- 
tinue still to be multiplied. Mr. Henry however had not 
completed the work at the time of his death ; and the last 
volume, from " Romans" to " Revelations," was written, 
with some assistance from his MSS. by Messrs. Evans, 
Browne, Mayo, Bays, Rosewell, Harris, Atkinson, Smith, 
Tong (his biographer), Wright, Merrell, Hill, Reynolds, 
and Billingsley, all Dissenting divines. His other works 
still retain their popularity. * 

HENRY (ROBERT), author of a History of England on 
a new plan, which has been generally and highly approved, 
was the son of James Henry, a farmer, at Muirtown in the 
parish of St. Ninian's, Scotland, and of Jean Galloway his 
wife, of Stirlingshire. He was born on Feb. 18, 1718; and, 
having early resolved to devote himself to a literary pro- 
fession, was educated first under a Mr. John Nicholson, at 
the parish school of St. Ninian's, and for some time at the 
grammar-school at Stirling. He completed his academical 
studies at the university of Edinburgh, arid afterwards 

1 I,ife by Tong, 

HENRY. 363 

became master of the grammar-school of Annan. He was 
licensed to preach on the 27th of March, 1746, and was 
the first licentiate of the presbytery of Annan, after its 
erection into a separate presbytery. Soon after he re- 
ceived a call from a congregation oi presbyterian dissenters 
at Carlisle, where he was ordained in November 1748. In 
this station he remained twelve years, and, on the 13th of 
August, 1760, became pastor of a congregation in Berwick 
upon Tweed. Here, in 1763, he married the daughter of 
Mr. Balderston, a surgeon, and though lie had no chil- 
dren, enjoyed to the end of his life a large share of domes- 
tic happiness. In 17685, he was removed from Berwick, to 
be one of the ministers of Edinburgh, and was minister of 
the church of the New Grey Friars, from that time till 
November 1776. He then became colleague-minister in 
the old church, and in that station remained till his death, 
\vhichhappened in November, 1790. The degree of doc- 
tor in divinity was conferred on him by the university of 
Edinburgh, in 1770; and in 1774, he was unanimously 
chosen moderator of the general assembly of the church 
of Scotland, and is the only person on record who obtained 
that distinction the first time he was a member of the as- 

It is thought to have been about 1763 that Dr. Henry 
first conceived the idea of his History of Great Britain ; the 
plan of which is indisputably his o\vn. In every period it 
arranges, under seven distinct heads, or chapters, 1. The 
civil and military history of Great Britain ; 2. The history 
of religion ; 3. The history of our constitution, govern- 
ment, laws, and courts of justice ; 4. The history of learn- 
ing, of learned men, and of the chief seminaries of learn- 
ing ; 5. The history of arts; 6. The history of commerce, 
shipping, money, &c. ; and 7. The history of manners, 
customs, &c. Under these heads, which extend the pro- 
vince of an historian greatly beyond its usual limits, and 
compel him to attend to all these points uniformly and re- 
gularly, every thing curious or interesting in the history 
of any country may be comprehended. The first volume 
of his History, in qiprto, was published in 1771, the se- 
cond in 1774, the third in 1777, the fourth in 1781, and 
the fifth (which brings down the history to the accession of 
Henry VII.) in 1785. The sixth volume, a posthumous 
>vork, the greater part of which he had prepared for pub- 
lication before his death, appeared in 17S'3. Dr. Henry 

364 HENRY. 

published his volumes originally at his own risk, and suf- 
fered for some time from the malignity of uniair attacks 
from his own country*. The English critics were more 
liberal, and very early allowed to h;s work that merit which 
has since been universally acknowledged. In 1786, when 
an octavo edition was intended, Dr. Henry conveyed the 
property to Messrs. Cadell and Strahan, for the sum of 
JOUO/. reserving to himself what remained unsold of the 
quarto edition. His profits on the whole, including this 
sum, he found to amount to 3, 300/. a strong proof of the 
intrinsic merit of the work. The prosecution of this history 
had been his favourite object for almost thirty years of his 
life. He had naturally a sound constitution, with a more 
eimal arid a larger portion of animal spirits than is com- 
monly possessed by literary men. From 1789 his bodily 
strength was sensibly impaired, yet he persisted steadily in 
preparing his sixth volume. 

Henry was naturally fond of society, and few men en- 
joyed it more perfectly, or were capable of contributing 
so much to its pleasures. Though his literary pursuits 
might have been supposed to have given him sufficient 
employment, he always found time for social conversation, 
for the offices of friendship, and for objects of public 
utility. Of the public societies in Edinburgh he was 
always one of the most useful and indefatigable members ; 
and he conversed with the ardour, and even the gaiety of 
youth, long after his bodily strength had yielded to the 
infirmities of age. His library he left to the magistrates 
of Linlithgow, &c. under such regulations as he conceived 
would tend to form a library calculated to diffuse know- 
ledge and literature in the country. Both as a man, and 
as an author, he has left a character which will, and ought to 
be esteemed. A history of England, " from the death of 
Henry VIII. to the accession of James VI." was published by 
James Pettit Andrews, as a "continuation 1 ' of Dr. Henry's, 
and professedly on the same plan. But although this work, 
proceeding from a well-known lover of anecdotes, is not 
unamusing, a continuation upon Henry's more serious plan 
is yet wanting to complete what would be a truly valuable 
series of English history. l 

* These attacks were carried on with man, Dr. Gilbert Stuart. See a full 
a degree of malignity then unknown in display of his malice in D'Israeli's Ca- 
literary history, and chiefly by one lamities of Authors, vol. II. 
1 Life as above. 

H E N R Y S O N. 365 

poet of the reign of Henry VIII. is unknown, except by 
his works. Mr. Henry styles him chief school-master of 
Dunfermline; and lord Hailes conjectures that he officiated 
as preceptor in the Benedictine convent. His " Fabils" 
were printed at Edinburgh by Andrew Hart, in 1621, and 
there is a MS copy in the Harleian library, dated 1571, 
collected, as Mr. Pinkerton thinks, near a century after 
Henryson's death, which of course removes him to a more 
distant period than the reign of Henry VIII. These " Fa- 
bils" are likewise in Bannatyne's MSS. His "Testament 
of Faire Creseide," the subject of which was suggested by 
the perusal of Chaucer's " Troilus and Creseide," occurs 
in the common editions of Chaucer's Works. His oenius 
seems to have been well adapted to didactic poetry ; and 
in point of versification and fancy, he is not inferior to 
any of his contemporaries. Very favourable specimens of 
his talents may be seen in our authorities. 1 

HENTENIUS (JOHN), a learned Dominican, a native 
of France, was born about 1499, and went into Portugal in 
his infancy, and was there educated. He afterwards en- 
tered into the Dominican order at Louvain, where he died 
in 1566. He published some of the works of Euthymius 
Zigubenus, QScumenius, and Arethras, but is best known for 
the aid he contributed in publishing a beautiful edition of 
the Vulgate Bible, printed by Plantin in 1565, 5 vols* 
12mo, and the Louvain Bible of 1547, reprinted 1583. 
The faculty of Louvain, who had engaged his assistance iu 
these editions, employed him also on a less honourable 
commission, to collect from the works of Erasmus all erro- 
neous and scandalous propositions, as they were called, 
that they might be laid before the council of Trent. 
This commission he executed in the true spirit of expur- 
gatorial bigotry. 2 

guist, was born at Hamstocks, in Haddingtonshire, Scot- 
land, July 14, 1573. His father, a disciple of John Knox, 
was rector of that place. The son was educated at St. 
Andrew's, where, for some reason, he embraced the popisfi 
religion, and went to France and Italy. He afterwards 

1 Irvine's Lives of the Scottish Poets. Hailes's Ancient Scottish Poems. 
Ei'is's Spfu'imens. 

9 Moreri. Diet. Flk-t. Freheri Theatrum. Foppea Bibl, Be?-;,- Jortri's 
Erasmus. Saxii Onoraast, 

366 H E P B U R N. 

travelled through Turkey, Persia, Syria, and most other 
countries of the East, devoting his attention principally to 
the study of their languages : on his return he entered into 
a convent of Minims in. the neighhourhood of Avignon, 
which he exchanged after some time for the monastery of 
the Holy Trinity at Rome, belonging to the same order. 
His fame as a linguist having reached the ears of pope 
Paul V. he appointed him librarian of Oriental books and 
MSS. in the Vatican, in which office he remained six years. 
He is said to have been at Venice in 1620, whither he had 
gone with an intention of translating from Hebrew, Syriac, 
and Chaldaic writings, and is supposed to have died there 
in that or the following year. Wonders are told of his 
proficiency in languages ; we may allow that it was great 
for his time, but must hesitate in believing that he knew 
seventy-two languages. Of his works, Dempster mentions 
" A Hebrew and Chaldaic Dictionary, and an Arabic Gram- 
mar," forming one volume, quarto, printed at Rome in 
1591. The rest of his works, enumerated by Mackenzie, 
are translations from the Hebrew manuscripts, most of 
them of legendary authority, and not printed. 1 

HEPBURN (ROBERT), a miscellaneous writer, and an 
imitator of the periodical essays of queen Anne's reign, was 
born in Scotland in 1690, and in 1711 began a periodical pa- 
per called The Tatler, by Donald Macstaff of the North," 
which extended to thirty numbers. They are evidently 
the production of a man of vigorous native powers, and of 
a, mind not meanly stored with ancient learning, and fa- 
miliar with the best writings of the moderns} but they gave 
much offence, by the description of known characters, and 
by the personal satire which the author employed, with no 
gentle or delicate hand, on some men of note, both in the 
ecclesiastical and civil departments, among his countrymen. 
Mr. Hepburn, who had studied the civil law in Holland, 
became a member of the faculty of advocates at Edin- 
burgh in 1712, and died soon after very young. Lord 
Hailes justly termed him " ingenii praecocis etpraefervidi." 
In the concluding paper of his " Tatler" he announced, as 
then in the press, a translation of sir George Mackenzie's 
" Idea eloquentia? Forensis ;" and in the Advocates' library 
is a small volume containing two treatises of his writing; 
the one entitled " Demonstratio quod Deus sit," and the 

* jMacktnzte's Scots Writers, vol. III. Life by Dr. Lattice in Europ. Mag.1795. 


ether, Dissertatio de Scriptis Pitcarnianis." The former of 
these is neatly and methodically written ; the latter is 
somewhat jejune in point of matter, and too lavish of ge- 
neral panegyric. 1 

HERACLITUS, the founder of the sect of Heraciiteans, 
was born at Ephesus. He discovered an early propensity 
to the study of wisdom, and, by a diligent attention to 
the operations of his own mind, soon became sensible of 
his ignorance, and desirous of instruction. He was in- 
itiated into the mysteries of the Pythagorean doctrine by 
Xenophanes and Hippasus, and afterwards incorporated 
them into his own system. His fellow citizens solicited 
him to undertake the supreme magistracy ; but, on account 
of their dissolute manners, he declined it in favour of his 
brother. When he was, soon afterwards, seen playing 
with the boys in the court of the temple of Diana, he said 
to those who expressed their surprize that he was not better 
employed, " Why are you surprised that I pass my time 
with children ? It is surely better than governing the cor- 
rupt Ephesians." He was displeased with them for banish- 
ing from their city so wise and able a man as Hermodorus; 
and plainly told them that he perceived they were deter- 
mined not to keep among them any man who had more 
merit than the rest. His natural temper being splenetic 
and melancholy, he despised the ignorance and follies of 
mankind, shunned all public intercourse with the world, 
and devoted himself to retirement and contemplation. He 
made choice of a mountainous retreat for his place of re- 
sidence, and lived upon the natural produce of the earth, 
Darius, king of Persia, having heard of his fame, invited 
him to his court; but he treated the invitation with con- 
tempt. His diet, and manner of life, at length brought 
him into a dropsy ; upon which this philosopher, who was 
always fond of enigmatical language, returning into the 
city, proposed to the physicians the following question : 
" Is it possible to bring dry ness out of moisture?" Re- 
ceiving no relief from them, he attempted to cure himself 
by shutting himself up in a close stable of oxen; but it is 
doubtful how far he succeeded, for the cause and manner 
of his death are differently related by different writers. He 
flourished, as appears from his preceptors and contempo- 
raries, about the sixty-ninth olympiad, B. C. 50 k Sixty 
years are said to have been the term of his hfe. 

' Ty tier's ki 

36S H E II A C L I T U S. 

It has been a tale commonly received, that Heraclitirs 
was perpetually shedding tears on account of the vices of 
mankind, and particularly of his countrymen. But the 
story, which probably took its rise from the gloomy seve- 
rity of his temper, ought to be ranked, like that of the 
perpetual laughing of Detnocritus, among the Greek fables. 
He wrote a treatise " On Nature," of which only a few 
fragments remain. Througb the natural cast of his mind, 
and perhaps too through a desire of concealing unpopular 
tenets under the disguise of a figurative and intricate dic- 
tion, his discourses procured him the name of the " Ob- 
scure Philosopher." Neither critics norphilosopbers were 
able to explain bis writings; and they remained in the 
temple of Diana, where he himself had deposited them for 
the use of the learned, till they were made public by 
Crates, or, as Tatian relates the matter, till the poet 
Euripides, who frequented the temple of Diana y com- 
mitting the doctrines and precepts of Heraclitus to me- 
mory, accurately repeated them. From the fragments of 
this work, which are preserved by Sextus Empiricus, it 
appears to have been written in prose, which makes Ta- 
tian's account the less credible. Brucker, to whom we 
refer, has given as good an account of Heraclitus's systera 
as his obscure manner will permit. His sect was probably 
very soon extinct, as we find no traces of its existence 
after the death of Socrates, which may be ascribed, in 
part, to the insuperable obscurity of the writings of Hera- 
clitus, but chiefly to the splendour of the Platonic system, 
by which it was superseded. 1 

"HERALDIC (DESIDEKIUS), French, Didier Herault, 
a counsellor of the parliament of Paris, has given good proofs 
of uncommon learning by very different works. His " Ad- 
versaria" appeared in 1599; which little book, if the "Sca- 
ligerana" may be credited, he repented having published. 
His notes on Tertullian's " Apology," on " Minutius Fe&- 
lix," and on " Arnobius," have been esteemed. He also 
wrote notes on Martial's " Epigrams." He disguised him- 
self under the name of David Leidhresserus, to write a po- 
litical dissertation on the independence of kings, some time 
after the death of Henry IV. He had a controversy with 
Salmasius " de jure Attico ac Romano ;" but did not live 
to finish what he had written on that subject. What he 

1 Enfield's translation of Brucker. Fenelon's Lives. Stanley's Philosophy. 

H E R A L D U S. 369 

he had done, however, was printed in 1650. He died in 
June 1649. Guy Patin says, that " he was looked upon 
as a very learned man, both in the civil law and in polite 
literature, and wrote with great facility on any subject he 
pitched on." Daille, speaking of such protestant writers 
as condemned the execution of Charles I. king of England, 
quotes the " Pacifique Royal en deuil," by Heranlt. This 
author, son to our Desiderius Heraldus, was a minister in 
Normandy, when he was called to the service of the Wal- 
loon-church of London under Charles I. but was so zealous 
a royalist, that he was forced to fly to France, to escape 
the fury of the commonwealth's-men. He returned to 
England after the restoration, and resumed his ancient em- 
ployment in the Walloon-church at London : some time 
after which he obtained a canonry in the cathedral of Can- 
terbury, and enjoyed it till his death. * 

HERBELOT (BARTHOLOMEW D'), an eminent Oriental- 
ist of France, was born at Paris Dec. 14, 1625. When he 
had gone through classical literature and philosophy, he 
applied himself to the Oriental languages ; and especially 
to the Hebrew, for the sake of understanding the original 
text of the Old Testament. After a continual application 
for several years, he took a journey to Rome, thinking that 
conversing with Armenians, and other eastern people who 
frequented that city, would make him perfect in the know- 
ledge of their languages. 

Here he was particularly esteemed by the cardinals 
Barberini and Grimaldf, and contracted a firm friendship 
with Lucas Holstenius and Leo Allatius. Upon his return 
from this journey, in which he did not spend above a year 
and a half, Fouquet invited him to his house, and settled 
on him a pension of 1500 livres. The disgrace of this mi- 
nister, which happened soon after, did not hinder Herbe- 
lot from being preferred to the place of interpreter for the 
eastern languages; because, in reality, there was nobody 
else so fit for it : for Voltaire says, " he was the first among 
the French who understood them." Some years after he 
took a second journey into Italy, where he acquired so 
great a reputation, that persons of the highest distinction 
for their rank and learning solicited his acquaintance. The 
grand duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand II. whom he had the 
honour to see first at Leghorn, gave him extraordinary 

* Gen. Diet. Moreri. 



marks of his esteem ; had frequent conversations with him; 
and made him promise to visit him at Florence. Herbelot 
arrived there July 2, 1666, and was received by a secretary 
of state, who conducted him to a house prepared for him, 
where he was entertained with great magnificence, and had 
a chariot kept for his use, at the expence of the grand 
duke. These were very uncommon honours, but one re- 
mained much more grateful to a man of literature; a li- 
brary being at that time exposed to sale at Florence, the 
duke desired Herbelot to see it, to examine the MSS. in 
the Oriental languages, and to select and value the best : 
and when this was done, the generous prince made him a 
present of them. 

The distinction with which he was received by the duke 
of Tuscany, taught France to know his merit, which had 
hitherto been but little regarded ; and he was afterwards 
recalled and encouraged by Colbert, who encouraged every 
thing that might do honour to his country. The grand 
tluke was very unwilling to let him go, and even refused 
to consent, till he had seen the express order of the mi- 
nister for his return. When he came to France, the king 
often did him the honour to converse with him, and gave 
him a pension of 1500 livres. During his stay in Italy, he 
began his " Bibliotheque Orientale, or Universal Dic- 
tionary, containing whatever related to the knowledge of 
the eastern world;" and finished it in France. This work, 
equally curious and profound, comprises the substance of 
a great number of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish books 
which he had read; and informs us of an infinite number 
of particulars unknown before in Europe. He wrote it at 
first in Arabic, and Colbert had a design to print it at the 
Louvre, with a set of types cast on purpose. But after the 
death of that minister, this resolution was waved ; and 
Herbelot translated his work into French, in order to ren- 
tier it more universally useful. He conamitted it to the 
press, but had not the satisfaction to see the impression 
finished; for he died Dec. 8, 1695, and it was not pub- 
lished till 1697, folio. What could not be inserted in this 
work was digested by him under the title of" Anthologie: 1 '* 
but this was never published, nor his Turkish, Persian, 
Arabian, and Latin dictionary, which, as well as other 
works, he had completed. 

He was no less conversant in Greek and Latin than in 
the Oriental languages and history. He was indeed aa 

11 E R B E L-O T. 371 

universal scholar ; and, what was very valuable in him, his 
modesty was equal to his erudition, and his uncommon 
abilities were accompanied with the utmost probity, piety, 
charity, and other Christian virtues, which he practised 
uniformly through the course of a long life. 

An improved edition of his " Bibliotheque" was pub* 
lished at Maastricht in 1776 1780, fol, but a superior one 
has since appeared at the Hague in 4 vols. 4to, 1777 1782. 1 

HERBERT (EDWARD), lord Herbert, of Cherbury in 
Shropshire, an eminent English writer, was descended 
from a very ancient family, and horn 1581, at Montgomery- 
castle in Wales. At the age of fourteen he was entered as 
a gentleman-commoner at University college, in Oxford, 
where he laid, says Wood^ the foundation of that ad- 
mirable learning, of which he was afterwards a complete 
master. In 1600 he came to London, and shortly after the 
accession of James I. was created knight of the hath. He 
served the office of high sheriff for the county of Mont- 
gomery, and divided his time between the country and the 
court. In 1608, feeling wearied with the sameness of do- 
mestic scenes, he visited the continent, carrying with him 
some romantic notions on the point of honour, which, in. 
such an age, were likely to involve him in perpetual quar- 
rels. His advantageous person and manners, and the re- 
putation for courage which he acquired, gained him many 
friends, among whom was the constable Montmorenci. A* 
a seat of this nobleman he passed several months prac- 
tising horsemanship, and other manly exercises, in which 
he became singularly expert. He returned to England in 
1609, and in tiie following, year he quitted it again, in. 
order that he might have the opportunity of serving with 
the English forces sent to assist the prince of Orange at 
the siege of Juliers. Here he signalised himself by his 
valour, which, in some instances, was carried to the ex- 
treme of rashness. After the siege he visited Antwerp and 
Brussels, and returned to London, where he was looked 
now upon as one of the most conspicuous characters of the 
time. An attempt was made to assassinate him, in revenge 
for some liberties which he took, or was supposed to have 
taken, with a married lady. In 1614 he went into the Low. 
Countries to serve under the prince of"Orange; after this 

1 Niccron, vol. IV. Perrault's Hommes Illustres. Gen. Diet, Clement 
Bibl. Curieus?! 

B B 2 


he engaged with the duke of Savoy, to conduct from France 
a body of protestants to Piedmont for his service. In 1616 
he was sent ambassador to Louis XIII. of France, to me- 
diate for the relief of the protestants of that realm, but was 
recalled in July 1621, on account of a dispute between 
him and the constable de Luines. Camden says that he 
had treated the constable irreverently; but Walton tells us 
that " he could not subject himself to a compliance with 
the humours of the duke de Luines, who was then the 
great and powerful favourite at court : so that, upon a 
complaint to our king, he was called back into England in 
some displeasure ; but at his return gave such an honourable 
account of his employment, and so justified his comport- 
ment to the duke and all the court, that he was suddenly 
sent back upon the same embassy." 

Another writer relates this more particularly. Sir Ed- 
ward, while he was in France, had private instructions from 
England to mediate a peace for the protestants in France; 
and, in case of a refusal, to use certain menaces. Accord- 
ingly, being referred to de Luines, he delivered to him 
the message, reserving bis threatenings till he saw how the 
matter was relished. De Luines had concealed a gentle- 
man of the reformed religion behind the curtain ; who, 
heing an ear-witness of what passed, might relate to his 
friends what little expectations they ought to entertain of 
the king of England's intercession. De Luines was very 
haughty, and asked what our king had to do in this affair. 
Sir Edward replied, " It is not to you, to whom the king 
my master owcth an account of his actions ; and for me it 
is enough that I obey him. In the mean time I must 
maintain, that my master hath more reason to do what he 
doth, than you to ask why he doth it. Nevertheless, if 
you desire me in a gentle fashion, I shall acquaint you 
farther." Upon this, de Luines bowing a little, said, 
"Very well." The ambassador then gave him some rea- 
sons; to which de Luines said, " We will have none of 
your advices." The ambassador replied, " that he took 
that for an answer, and was sorry only, that the affection 
and good-will of the king his master was not sufficiently 
understood ; and that, since it was rejected ii> that manner, 
he could do no less than say, that the king his master knew 
well enough what to do." De Luines answered, " We are 
not afraid of you." The ambassador smiling a little, re- 
plied, <( If you had said you had not loved us, I should 


have believed you, and given you another answer. In 
the mean time, all that I will tell you more is, that we 
know very well what we have to do." De Luines upon 
this, rising from his chair with a fashion and countenance 
a little discomposed, said, " By G , if you were not 
monsieur the ambassador, I know very well how I would 
use yon." Sir Edward Herbert rising also from his chair, 
said, that "as he was the king of Great Britain's ambassador, 
so he was also a gentleman ; and that his sword, whereon 
he laid his hand, should give him satisfaction if he had 
taken any offence." After which, de Luines making no 
reply, the ambassador went on towards the door, and de 
Luines seeming to accompany him, sir Edward told him, 
that " there was no occasion to use such ceremony after 
such language," and so departed, expecting to hear far- 
ther from him. But no message being brought from de 
Luines, he had, in pursuance of his instructions, a more 
civil audience from the king at Coignac; where the marshal 
of St. Geran told him that tf he had offended the constable, 
and was not in a place of security there :" to which he 
answered, that " he thought himself to be in a place of se- 
curity wheresoever he had his sword by him." De Luines, 
resenting the affront, procured Cadinet his brother, duke 
of Chaun, with a train of officers, of whom there was not 
one, as he told king James, but had killed his man, to go 
as an ambassador extraordinary ; who misrepresented the 
affair so much to the disadvantage of sir Edward, that the 
earl of Carlisle, who was sent to accommodate the misun- 
derstanding which might arise between the two crowns, got 
him recalled ; until the gentleman who stood behind the 
curtain, out of a regard to truth and honour, related all 
the circumstances so as to make it appear, that though de 
Luines gave the first affront, yet sir Edward had kept him- 
self within the bounds of his instructions and honour. He 
afterwards fell on his knees to king James, before the duke 
of Buckingham, requesting that a trumpeter, if not an 
herald, might be sent to de Luines, to tell him that he had 
made a false relation of the whole affair ; and that sir Ed- 
ward Herbert would demand satisfaction of him sword in 
hand. The king answered, that he would take it into con- 
sideration ; but de Luines died soon after, and sir Edward 
was sent again ambassador to France. 

In 1625 sir Edward was advanced to the dignity of a 
baron of the kingdom of Ireland, by the title of lord Her- 


bert of Castle-Island ; and, in 1631, to that of lord Her- 
bert of Cherbury in Shropshire. After the breaking out of 
the civil wars, he adhered to the parliament ; and, Feb. 
25, 1644, " had an allowance granted him for his liveli- 
hood, having been spoiled by the king's forces," as White- 
locke says; or, as "Wood relates it, " received satisfaction 
from the members of that house, for their causing Mont- 
gomery castle to be demolished." In the parliamentary 
history, it is said that lord Herbert offended the House of 
lords by a speech in favour of the king, and that he at- 
tended his majesty at York. It appears that when he saw 
the drift of the parliamentary party, he quitted them, and 
was a great sufferer in his fortune from their vengeance. 
He died at his house in Queen-street, London, August 
20, 1648 ; and was buried in the chancel of St. Giles's in 
the Fields, with this inscription upon a flat marble stone 
over his grave : " Heic inhumatqr corpus Edvardi Herbert 
equitis Balnei, baronis de Cherbury et Castle-Island, auc- 
toris libri, cui titulus est, De Veritate. Keddor ut herbae ; 
vicesimo die Augusti anno Domini 164-8." 

This noble lord was the author of some very singular 
and memorable works : the first of which was his book 
*' De Veritate," which is mentioned in his epitaph. It 
was printed at Paris in 1624, and reprinted there in 1633 ; 
after which it was printed in London, in 1645, under this 
title ; '* De Veritate, prout distinguitur a revelatione, a 
verisimili, a possibili, a falso. Cui operi additi sunt duo 
alii tractatus primus de causis errornm ; alter de Reli- 
gione Laici." In this he is said to have been the first 
author who formed deism into a system, and endeavoured 
to assert the sufficiency, universality, and absolute perfec- 
tion of natural religion, without the necessity of any ex- 
traordinary revelation. He attempted to prove that the 
light of reason, and the innate principles planted in the 
human mind, are sufficient to discover the great doctrines 
of morality, to regulate our actions, and conduct us to hap- 
piness in a future state. The fallacy of all this has been 
ably displayed by Locke, Leland, and many other writers 
of eminence. But the noble author proved himself the 
greatest enthusiast, while he affected to combat enthusiasm, 
and by his own example evinced the absurdity of his sys- 
tem. Having finished the above treatise " De Veritate,'* 
in which revelation is considered as useless, he was desi- 
to publish it j but, as the frame of his whole book dif- 


fered from all former writings concerning the discovery of 
truth, he hesitated whether he should suspend the publi- 
cation : " Being thus doubtful in my chamber," says lord 
Herbert, " one fair day in the summer, my casement be- 
ing open towards the south, the sun shining clear, and no 
wind stirring, I took my book * De Veritate' in my hands, 
and kneeling on my knees, devoutly said these words : ' O 
thou eternal God, author of this light, which now shines 
upon me, and giver of all inward illuminations, I do be- 
seech thee, of thine infinite goodness, to pardon a greater 
request than a sinner ought to make. 1 am not satisfied 
enough, whether I shall publish this book : if it be for thy 
glory, I beseech thee give me some sign from heaven ; if 
not, I shall suppress it.' I had no sooner spoken these 
words, but a loud, though yet gentle noise, came forth 
from the heavens, for it was like nothing on earth, which 
did so chcar and comfort me, that I took my petition as 
granted, and that I had the sign I demanded ; whereupon 
also I resolved to print my book. This, how strange so- 
ever it may seem, I protest before the eternal God, is true: 
neither am I any way superstitiously deceived herein, since 
J did not only clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest 
sky that ever 1 saw, being without all cloud, did, to my 
thinking, see the place from whence it came. And now I 
sent my book to be printed in Paris, at my own cost and 
charges." It is not possible to reprove the folly and blind- 
ness of his conduct in this instance, in warmer terms than 
those which are employed by his noble editor. " There 
is no stronger characteristic of human nature than its being 
open to the grossest contradictions : one of lord Herbert's 
chief arguments against revealed religion is, the improba- 
bility that Heaven should reveal its will to only a portion 
of the earth, which he terms particular religion. How 
could a man who doubted of partial,, believe individual re* 
velation ? What vanity, to think his book of such import- 
ance to the cause of truth, that it could extort a declara- 
tion of the divine will, when the interest of half mankind 
could not !" 

The celebrated Gassendi wrote a confutation of this 
book " De Veritate," at the desire of Peirescius and Elias 
Diodati and finished it at Aix, without publishing it : and 
when lord Herbert paid him a visit in Sept. 1647, Gas- 
sendi was surprized to find, that this piece had not been 
delivered to him, for he had sent him a copy : upon which 


he ordered another copy to be taken of it, which that no- 
bleman carried with him to England. It was afterwards 
published in Gassendi's works, under the title of " Ad li- 
brum D. Edvardi Herberti Angli de Veritate epistola ;" 
but is imperfect, some sheets of the original being lost. 

His most useful work, the " History of the Life and 
Reign of Henry VIII." was published in 1649, a year after 
his death, and has always been much admired. Nicolson 
says, that lord Herbert " acquitted himself in this history 
with the like reputation, as the lord chancellor Bacon 
gained by that of Henry Vllth. For in the public and 
martial part this honourable author has been admirably 
particular and exact from the best records that were ex- 
tant ; though as to the ecclesiastical, he seems to have 
looked upon it as a thing out of his province, and an under- 
taking more proper for men of another profession." Al- 
though it has been considered as a very valuable piece of 
history, there is not, perhaps, so much candour displayed 
in every part as could be wished. In 1663, appeared his 
book " De Religione Gentilium, errorumque apud eos 
causis." The first part was printed at London, in 1645; 
and that year he sent the MS. of it to Gerard Vossius, as 
appears from a letter of his lordship's, and Vossius's 
answer. An English translation of this work was published 
in 1705, under this title: " The ancient Religion of the 
Gentiles, and causes of their errors considered. The mis- 
takes and failures of the Heathen Priests and wise men, in 
their notions of the Deity and matters of Divine Worship, 
are examined with regard to their being destitute of Di- 
vine Revelation." Lord Herbert wrote also in 1630, 
" Expeditio Buckingham! ducis in Ream insulam," which 
was published in 1656; and " Occasional Verses," pub- 
lished in 1665, by his son Henry Herbert, and dedicated 
to Edward lord Herbert, his grandson ; hut they form no 
claim to the poetical character. Christian Kortholt, on 
account of his book " De Veritate," has ranked him with 
Hobbes and Spinosa, in his dissertation entitled " De 
tribus impostoribus magnis, Edvardo Herbert, Thoma 
Hobbes, & Benedicto Spinosa, Liber," printed at Kilon m 
1680. Granger has very aptly described him as a man 
who was at once wise and capricious : who redressed 
wrongs, and quarrelled for punctilios; hated bigotry in 
religion, and was himself a bigot to philosophy ; exposed 
himself to suoh dangers as other men of courage would 


have carefully declined ; and called in question the fun- 
damentals of religion, which none had the hardiness to 
dispute besides himself. The life of lord Herbert, written 
by himself, was recovered by the family, after having been 
long missing, and printed at Strawberry -hill, by lord Or- 

Itbrd, in 1764, for private distribution ; but was reprinted 
for sale by Dodsley in 1770, 4to. Lord Orford observes, 
that it is, perhaps, the most extraordinary account that 
ever was seriously given by a wise man of himself. 1 

HERBERT (GEORGE), an eminent and exemplary di- 
vine, younger brother to the preceding, was born April 
3, 1593, at Montgomery castle. His father died when he 
was very young ; and until the age of twelve, he was edu- 
cated under private tutors in his mother's house. He was 
then put under the care of Dr. Neale, dean of Westmin- 
ster, and afterwards archbishop of York, who placed him 
at Westminster-school. At the age of fifteen, being then 
a king's scholar, he was elerted to Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge, and went thither about 1608, during the master- 
ship of that great benefactor to the college, Dr. Nevil, who, 
at his mother's request, took particular notice of him. At 
college he was assiduous in his studies, and virtuous in his 
conduct. Here he took his bachelor's degree in 1612, and 
that of master in 1616, before which he had obtained a 
fellowship. During his studies, his principal relaxation 
was music, for which he had a good taste, and in which, 
as Walton says, " he became a great master." At this 
time, however, he betrayed a little of the vanity of youth 
and birth, by affecting great finery of dress, and maintain- 
ing a reserved behaviour towards his inferiors. In 1619, 
he was chosen university orator, which office he held for 
eight years, much to the satisfaction of his hearers, and 
particularly of those great personages whom he had occa- 
sionally to address. The terms of flattery he appears to 
have known how to use with great profusion ; and in more 
than one instance, pleased king James very much with his 
liberal offerings of this kind. He gave no less satisfaction 
to his majesty also, by his apt and ingenious replies to 
Andrew Melville, a Scotch divine, at the Hampton-court 
conference. His talents recommended him to the notice 
of Dr. Andrews, bishop of Winchester, and of the great 

1 Life by himself. Walton's Life of George Herbert Royal and Noble 
Authors by Mr. Park. Lloyd's Memoirs, fol.- aud State Worthies. Ellis'* 
Specimens. Leland's l^eistical Writers. 


lord Bacon, who is said to have entertained such a high 
opinion of Mr. Herbert, as to consult him in his writings, 
before they went to press, and dedicated to him his trans- 
lation of some ef the Psalms into English verse, as the best 
judge of divine poetry. Nor was bishop Andrews less en- 
raptured with his character; for Herbert, having, in conse- 
quence of a dispute between them on predestination and 
sanctity of life, written a letter to the bishop on the sub- 
ject in Greek, Andrews used to show it to many scholars, 
and always carried it about him. Sir Henry Wotton and 
Dr. Donne may also be added to the number of those emi- 
nent men of his time whose friendship he shared. 

All this sufficiently shews that his attainments were of 
no common kind ; but unfortunately the praises he re- 
ceived, and the favour into which he was admitted, inspired 
him with ambition to rise at court. His predecessors in 
the office of public orator, sir Robert Nanton and sir Fran- 
cis Nethersole, had both risen to places of distinction in 
the state; and he being at this time a favourite with the 
king, and " not meanly valued and loved by the most emi- 
nent and most powerful of the court nobility," began to 
cherish hopes of similar success. With this view he fre- 
quently left Cambridge to attend the king, wheresoever 
the court was ; and the king having given him a sinecure 
worth about I20l. a year, he devoted himself yet more to 
court-attendance, and seldom visited Cambridge, unless 
the king was there. But, as Walton says, " God, in whom 
there is an unseen chain of causes," terminated his hopes 
of rising at court, by the deaths of the duke of Richmond 
and the marquis of Hamilton, his chief patrons, and about 
the same time, by that of king James. 

The loss of these friends appears to have given a new 
turn to his mind. He now left London, and went to the 
house of a gentleman in Kent, where he lived for a consi- 
derable time in great privacy, and after having taken a 
careful retrospect of his past views and hopes, he deter- 
mined to dedicate himself to the church, and, to use his 
own words, to " consecrate all his learning and all his 
abilities to advance the glory of that God which gave 
them ; knowing that I can never do too much for him that 
hath done so much for me, as to make me a Christian. 
And I will labour to be like my Saviour, by making humi- 
lity lovely in the eyes of all men, and by following the 
merciful and meek example of my dear Jesus." Such was 


his resolution, and perhaps few men have more literally 
fulfilled it in every respect. His life from this time be- 
came a pattern to all, but especially to his brethren in the 

It appears that when at college, about 1617, he had ap- 
plied himself to the study of divinity, which his subsequent 
views at court probably interrupted. Having now obtained 
deacon's orders, he was made prebendary of Leighton 
Bromswold, in the diocese of Lincoln, a piece of prefer- 
ment given to him by bishop (afterwards archbishop) Wil- 
liams. His first memorable act, when he entered on this, 
was to rebuild the parish church of Leighton, which he 
undertook at great risk of expence to himself, but by the 
aid of his friends, he was enabled to accomplish this, his 
favourite object, 

About 1629, he was seized witk a quotidian ague, which 
obliged him to remove to Woodford in Essex, for change 
of air; and when, after his ague had abated, some consump- 
tive appearances were apprehended, he went to Dauntsey 
in Wiltshire, the seat of lord Danvers, earl of Danby, who 
appropriated an apartment for him, and treated him with 
the greatest care and kindness. Here, by abstaining from 
hard study, and by air and exercise, he apparently reco- 
vered his health, and then declared his resolution to marry, 
and to take priest's orders. Accordingly he married Jane 
Danvers, daughter of Mr. Charles Danvers of Bainton in 
Wilts, related to the earl of Danby ; and about three 
months after his marriage, at the request of Philip earl of 
Pembroke, the king presented him to the living of Bemer- 
ton, into which he was inducted April 26, 16150. Here he 
passed the remainder of his days, discharging the duties of 
a parish priest in a manner so exemplary, that the history 
of his life here, as given by Walton, or perhaps as deli* 
neated by himself in his " Country Parson," may justly be 
recommended as a model. His own behaviour was indeed 
an exact comment on all he wrote, which appears to have 
come from the heart of a man of unfeigned piety and hu- 
mility. Unhappily, however, for his rlock, his life was 
shortened by a return of the consumptive symptoms which 
had formerly appeared, and he died in February 1632, and 
was buried March 3. 

He published, 1. " Oratio qua auspicatissimum sereniss. 
princ. Caroli reditnm